• Title, Summary, Keyword: municipal solid waste

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Effect of Synthetic MSW Leachate on Chemical Compatibility of PVC Geomembrane (PVC 지오멤브레인의 화학적 적합성에 합성 MSW 침출수가 미치는 영향분석)

  • Choi, Hangseok
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2006
  • The resistance of flexible PVC geomembranes to leachate chemicals is an important factor when PVC geomembranes are being considered as a barrier layer in a composite liner system. This paper describes laboratory test results that evaluate the chemical compatibility of a 0.76 mm (30 mil) thick flexible PVC geomembrane exposed to a synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate. Changes in dimensional, physical, and mechanical properties were measured after exposure to the synthetic MSW leachate at $23^{\circ}C$ and $50^{\circ}C$ for 30, 60, 90, and 120 days. Although some variability of the test results is observed due to experimental factors and product variability, the synthetic MSW leachate did not significantly degrade the physical or mechanical properties of the flexible PVC geomembrane. As a result, this paper will conclude the PVC geomembranes are not adversely affected by the synthetic MSW leachate.

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Adsorption Characteristics of Benzene and MEK on Surface Oxidation Treated Adsorbent -Surface Oxidation by HNO3, H2SO4 and (NH4)2S2O8- (표면산화 처리된 흡착제의 Benzene 및 MEK 흡착 특성 - HNO3, H2SO4 및 (NH4)2S2O8에 의한 표면산화-)

  • Shim, Choon-Hee;Lee, Woo-Keun
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.25-33
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this research is to improve the adsorption capacity of adsorbent made from MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator) fly ash by surface oxidation. Used oxidation agents were $HNO_{3}$, $H_{2}SO_{4}$ and $(NH_{4})_{2}S_{2}O_{8}$. These agents can modify the surface property of an adsorbent such as specific surface area, pore volume, and functional group. The surface structure was studied by BET method with $N_{2}$ adsorption. The acid value and base value were determined by Boehm's method. The adsorption properties were investigated with benzene and MEK (Methylethylketone). According to the results, the specific surface area of the adsorbent was increased from 309.2 $m^{2}$/g to 553.2 $m^{2}$/g by $HNO_{3}$ oxidation. But $H_{2}SO_{4}$ and $(NH_{4})_{2}S_{2}O_{8}$ oxidation was decreased slightly. After Oxidation, surface acid value increased, but base value decreased. FAA-N shows the highest acid value. The content of oxygen increased greatly and oxygen group was created on the adsorbent surface. The surface oxidation improved the adsorbing capacity for MEK. The amount of adsorbing MEK was increased from 189 $m^{2}$/g to 639 $m^{2}$/g by $HNO_{3}$ oxidation.

Sequential treatment for landfill leachate by applying coagulation-adsorption process

  • Bashir, Mohammed J.K.;Xian, Tay Ming;Shehzad, Areeb;Sethupahi, Sumathi;Aun, Ng Choon;Amr, Salem Abu
    • Geosystem Engineering
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.9-20
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    • 2017
  • Landfill leachate has always been the most problematic factor in municipal solid waste management. Leachate generated from landfills generally contains high amount of organic and inorganic compounds that might cause pollution to water resources. In the current study, sequential treatment of landfill leachate using coagulation-flocculations a pretreatment process followed by adsorption process was used to treat chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonical nitrogen ($NH_3-N$) and color from raw landfill leachate. Coagulation-flocculation process was examined using alum and ferric chloride. The optimum working pH for the tested coagulants was 5 and $FeCl_3$ showed higher removal efficiency for landfill leachate than alum. The pretreated leachate was further treated via two types of adsorbents i.e., powdered activated carbon (PAC) and zeolite. The optimum experimental conditions for PAC and zeolite adsorptions were found to be 40 g/L at 30 min and 80 g/L at 120 min, respectively. Scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests were conducted to examine the surface morphology and chemical properties of the adsorbents. The results showed that the Freundlich isotherm was best fitted for PAC adsorption while Langmuir isotherm model showed good conformity for zeolite adsorption. Besides, pseudo-second order model was found to be the best fitted kinetic model for both PAC and zeolite adsorption where the $R^2$ was closed to unity for all parameters. On balance, $FeCl_3$ coagulation-PAC adsorption has shown higher removal efficiency for color, COD, and $NH_3-N$ as compared to $FeCl_3$ coagulation-zeolite adsorption.

Recycling of the Bottom Ash, Sourced from the Local MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) Incinerators, as a Fine Sand for Concrete (소각장(燒却場)에서 발생되는 바닥재의 콘크리트용 잔골재(骨材)로서의 재활용(再活用))

  • Lim, Nam-Woong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.40-47
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    • 2007
  • This paper described recycling of the bottom ash, sourced from the local incinerators as a fine sand for concrete. 10% bottom ash was substituted for the ordinary beach sand in the mortar(on a weigh basis), in conjunction with the pozzolznic diatomite. The specimens were tested according to KS L 5105 and analysed by TCLP(Toxic Chemical Leaching Procedure). The results showed that the hazardous heavy metals in the bottom ash are within the maximum permissible limit of TCLP. The compressive strength of the mortar with 10% bottom ash was highly improved, compared to the control mortar when the pozzolanic diatomite was used. It revealed that the hazardous heavy metals of the mortar with 10% bottom ash were leached within the maximum permissible limit of TCLP. It was concluded that the bottom ash can be reused as a fine sand for concrete when the pozzolanic diatomite was used as a stabilizer.

Two-dimensional deformation measurement in the centrifuge model test using particle image velocimetry

  • Li, J.C.;Zhu, B.;Ye, X.W.;Liu, T.W.;Chen, Y.M.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.793-802
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    • 2019
  • The centrifuge model test is usually used for two-dimensional deformation and instability study of the soil slopes. As a typical loose slope, the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is easy to slide with large deformation, under high water levels or large earthquakes. A series of centrifuge model tests of landfill slide induced by rising water level and earthquake were carried out. The particle image velocimetry (PIV), laser displacement transducer (LDT) and marker tracer (MT) methods were used to measure the deformation of the landfill under different centrifugal accelerations, water levels and earthquake magnitudes. The PIV method realized the observation of continuous deformation of the landfill model, and its results were consistent with those by LDT, which had higher precision than the MT method. The deformation of the landfill was mainly vertically downward and increased linearly with the rising centrifugal acceleration. When the water level rose, the horizontal deformation of the landfill developed gradually due to the seepage, and a global slide surface formed when the critical water level was reached. The seismic deformation of the landfill was mainly vertical at a low water level, but significant horizontal deformation occurred under a high water level. The results of the tests and analyses verified the applicability of PIV in the two-dimensional deformation measurement in the centrifuge model tests of the MSW landfill, and provide an important basis for revealing the instability mechanism of landfills under extreme hydraulic and seismic conditions.

Evaluation of Landfilling Method of Organic Sludge from Mix of Pre-treated Organic Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste (전처리된 유기성오니와 생활폐기물 혼합에 따른 유기성오니 매립방법 평가)

  • Ko, Jae-Young;Phae, Chae-Gun;Do, In-Hwan;Park, Joon-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.278-285
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    • 2008
  • This research was performed to evaluate the landfilling method of organic sludge from mix of pre-treated organic sludge (OS) and municipal solid waste(MSW). Organic sludges were dried, composted, and solidified as pre-treatment and the OS and MSW were mixed in ratios of 2 to 8 and 4 to 6. Approximately 1,800$\sim$2,500 L of landfill gas(LFG) was generated in the lysimeter with solidified-OS, which was higher than 1,150$\sim$1,650 L of the dried- and composted- ones. Maximum H$_2$S concentration was found in the following order : Composted-20(80 ppmv) > Composted-40(55 ppmv) > Dried-20(30 ppmv) > Dried-40 $\fallingdotseq$ Solidified-20 $\fallingdotseq$ Solidified-40 (20 ppmv). BOD$_5$ at initial leachate generation period was 38,000 mg/L for Composted-40, 28,000 mg/L for Dried-40, 26,000 mg/L for Dried-20, 21,000 mg/L for Composted-20 and Solidified-40, and Solidified-20 for 17,000 mg/L. In the final period of experiment, BOD$_5$ was low as 300$\sim$500 mg/L in the lysimeter with solidified-OS and MSW and showed 2,000$\sim$3,500 mg/L in dried- and composted- ones. As the results, landfilling by mix of solidified-OS and MSW was evaluated as the most appropriate method for biodegradable organics. Direct landfilling of OS is permitted for landfill site with CDM facility. Therefore, mixed landfilling of solidified-OS and MSW should be considered for much more LFG generation as methane.

Effect of Biodegradable Waste Particle Size on Aerobic Stabilization Reactions in MBT System (생분해성 폐기물 입경이 MBT시스템과 연계된 호기성안정화반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Sang-Hagk;Ban, Jong-Sub;Kim, Su-Jin;Phae, Chae-Gun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.33 no.7
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    • pp.523-529
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    • 2011
  • This study has been performed to examine the influence of the size of particles on the stabilization in the aerobic stabilization equipment connected with MBT system. The biodegradable waste inside the reactor (60% of food waste, 25% of paper waste, 2% of wood waste and 5% of compost) has been charged in same composition. The degree of stabilization was compared and analyzed after charging with adjustment of particle size in 5 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm, 50 mm, 100 mm and state of no separation. The experiment revealed that highest temperature beyond $65^{\circ}C$ was shown in the particle size of less than 50 mm in change of temperature and the highest temperature was about $50^{\circ}C$ in reactor of 100 mm and no separation. The proportionality between generated quantity of $CO_2$ and particle size was not observed, even the highest in generated quantity was shown in over 100 mm. The weight changes based on wet and dry conditions in the reaction process showed the 30% and 46% of reduction in the smallest particle size of 5 mm and it showed the trend of the lower reduction rate at the bigger particle size. The water soluble $COD_{Cr}$ and TOC showed the reduction rate of 60% in reactor of particle size in 100 mm and no separation while the reduction rate comparing to the initial stage of reaction in the reactor of less than 50 mm was 80%. Such result derived the conclusion of acceleration in the decomposing stabilization of biodegradable material due to the decomposing rate of organic substance as the particle size of biodegradable waste gets smaller. It is concluded as necessary to react in adjustment under 50 mm of particle size as much as possible.

Exposure Assessment of PCDD/Fs and Monitoring of Health Effects on Workers and Resident near the Waste Incinerators in Korea (국내 일부 소각장 근로자와 주변지역주민들의 PCDDs/Fs 노출과 건강 영향 평가)

  • Hong, Yun-Chul;Lee, Kwan-Hee;Kwon, Ho-Jang;Jang, Jae-Yeon;Leem, Jong-Han
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.314-322
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    • 2003
  • Objectives : In this study, the exposure status of the hazardous substances from incinerators, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), were studied , and the relationship between the exposure of these hazardous substances and their heath effects on the workers and residents near municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators and an industrial incinerator investigated. Methods : Between July 2001 and Jure 2002, 13 workers at two MSW incinerators, 16 residents from the area around the two MSW incinerators, 6 residents from the control area, and further 10 residents near an industrial incinerator, estimated to emit higher levels of hazardous substances, were interviewed. Information, including sociodemographic information, personal habits, and work history, detailed gynecologic and other medical history were collected through interviews. Blood samples were also collected from 45 subjects, and analyzed for PCDD/DFs, by high resolution gas chromatography -high resolution mass spectrometry, using the US EPA 1613 method. In addition to the questionnaire survey, urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured as oxidative injury biomarkers. The urinary concentrations of 8-OH-dG were determined by in vitro ELISA, and the MDA by HPLC, using u adduct with thiobarbituric acid. Results : The PCDD/DFs concentrations in the residents near the industrial incinerator were higher than those in the controls, workers and residents near the MSW incinerators. The average TEQ (Toxic Equivalencies) concentrations of the PCDD/DFs in residents near the industrial incinerator were 53.4pg I-TEQs/g lipid. The estimated daily intakes were within the tolerable daily intake range (1-4 pg I-TEQ/Kg bw/day) suggested by WHO (1997) in only 30% to the people near the industrial incinerator. Animal studies have already shown that even a low body border of PCDD/DFs, such as 10 ng TEQ/kg bw, can cause oxidative damage in laboratory animals. Our study also showed that the same body burden of PCDD/DFs can cause oxidative damage to humans. Conclusions : The exposures to PCDD/DFs and the oxidative stress of residents near the industrial incinerator, were higher than those in the controls, workers and residents near the MSW incinerators. Proper protection strategies against these hazardous chemicals are needed. Because a lower body burden of PCDD/Fs, such as 10ng TEQ/kg bw, can cause oxidative damage, the tolerable daily intake range should be restrictedly limited to 1pg I-TEQ/kg bw/day.

Thermophilic Anaerobic Biodegradability of Agro-industrial Biomass (농축산바이오매스 고온 혐기성 생분해도 평가)

  • Heo, Namhyo;Kang, Ho;Lee, Seungheon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.101-101
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    • 2010
  • Anaerobic digestion(AD) is the most promising method for treating and recycling of different organic wastes, such as organic fraction of municipal solid waste, household wastes, animal manure, agro-industrial wastes, industrial organic wastes and sewage sludge. During AD, i.e. organic materials are decomposed by anaerobic forming bacteria and fina1ly converted to excellent fertilizer and biogas which is a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane. AD has been one of the leading technologies that can make a large contribution to produce renewable energy and to reduce $CO_2$ and other green-house gas(GHG) emission, it is becoming a key method for both waste treatment and recovery of a renewable fuel and other valuable co-products. Currently some 80% of the world's overall energy supply of about 400 EJ per year in derived from fossil fuels. Nevertheless roughly 10~15% of this demand is covered by biomass resources, making biomass by far the most important renewable energy source used to date. The representative biofuels produced from the biomass are bioethanol, biodiesel and biogas, and currently biogas plays a smaller than other biofuels but steadily growing role. Traditionally anaerobic digestion applied for different biowaste e.g. sewage sludge, manure, other organic wastes treatment and stabilization, biogas has become a well established energy resource. However, the biowaste are fairly limited in respect to the production and utilization as renewable source, but the plant biomass, the so called "energy crops" are used for more biogas production in EU countries and the investigation on the biomethane potential of different crops and plant materials have been carried out. In Korea, with steadily increasing oil prices and improved environmental regulations, since 2005 anaerobic digestion was again stimulated, especially on the biogasification of different biowastes and agro-industrial biomass including "energy crops". This study have been carried out to investigate anaerobic biodegradability by the biochemical methane potential(BMP) test of animal manures, different forage crops i.e. "energy crops", plant and industrial organic wastes in the condition of thermophilic temperature, The biodegradability of animal manure were 63.2% and 58.2% with $315m^3CH_4/tonVS$ of cattle slurry and $370m^3CH_4/tonVS$ of pig slurry in ultimate methane yields. Those of winter forage crops were the range 75% to 87% with ultimate methane yield of $378m^3CH_4/tonVS$ to $450m^3CH_4/tonVS$ and those of summer forage crops were the range 81% to 85% with ultimate methane yield of $392m^3CH_4/tonVS$ to $415m^3CH_4/tonVS$. The forge crops as "energy crops" could be used as good renewable energy source to increase methane production and to improve biodegradability in co-digestion with animal manure or only energy crop digestion.

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Study on $CaCO_3$ Preparation from MSWI Fly Ash (생활쓰레기 소각(燒却)비산재로부터 $CaCO_3$ 제조(製造)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Choi, Woo-Zin;Park, Eun-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2006
  • The total amount of ash generated from the municipal solid waste incineration(MSWI) in Korea was approximately 420,000 tons in 2005 including 68,000 tons of fly ash. Fly ash from MSWI generally contains high amount of CaO (upto ${\sim}50%$) due to the treatment of flue gas by spraying CaO-base materials. Currently, most of fly ash generated is finally ended up with specially designed landfill sites and only less then 20% of fly ash is recycled. In the present work, preparation of $CaCO_3$ from the MSWI ny ash was studied to promote the fly ash recycling. Fly ash obtained from the dust collector in stoker-type MSWI is used to selectively dissolve CaO by using the sugar solution. Then, $CO_2$ gas was passed through the dissolved solution to pro- duce $CaCO_3$ powder. The optimum conditions for CaO dissolution were solid content 10%, reaction time 15 minutes, sugar concentration $10{\sim}15%\;and\;pH\;10.5{\sim}11.0$. The high grade $CaCO_3$ powder was obtained and the experimental conditions are also discussed.