• Title, Summary, Keyword: municipal solid waste

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Heavy Metals of Landfilled Biomass and Their Environmental Standard, Including CCA-treated Wood for Eco-housing Materials (방부처리 목재를 포함한 토양매립 바이오메스의 중금속 함량과 안전성 문제)

  • Lim, Kie-Pyo;Lee, Jong-Tak;Bum, Jung-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2006
  • Recently, wood-framed houses has been built in the Korea for pension. Wood is good material for human healthy, while the construction lumbers are treated with preservative such as CCA (chromated copper arsenate), which contain some toxic elements for human body. However, if the waste woody biomass treated with various heavy metals, which has been collected from house construction or demolition, was fired in the field, and incinerated or landfilled after mass collection, such components will result in the toxic air pollutants in the burning or land fills, and spreaded into other areas. So the careful selection of wood and chemicals are required in advance for house construction, in particular, for environment-friendly housings. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the content of toxic heavy metals in woody materials such as domestic hinoki and imported hemlock treated with CCA for housing materials, and the post-treated wood components such as organic fertilizer, sludge, dry-distilled charcoal and carbonized charcoal, to be returned finally into soil. The results are as follows. 1) The chemical analysis of toxic trace elements in various solid biomass required accurate control and management of laboratory environment, and reagents and water used, because of the error of data due to various foreign substances added in various processing and transporting steps. So a systematic analyzers was necessary to monitor the toxic pollutants of construction materials. 2) In particular, the biomass treated with industrial biological or thermal conditions such as sludge or charcoals was not fully dissolvable after third addition of $HNO_3$ and HF. 3) The natural woody materials such as organic fertilizer, sludge. and charcoals without any treatment of preservatives or heavy metal components were nontoxic in landfill because of the standard of organic fertilizers, even after thermal or biological treatments. 4) The CC A-treated wood for making the construction wood durable should not be landfilled, because of its higher contents of toxic metals than the criterion of organic fertilizer for agriculture or of natural environment. So the demolished waste should be treated separately from municipal wastes.

Assessment on Environmental Stabilization of Used Open Dumping Landfill - A Case Study of Kamkok Landfill - (사용종료 비위생 매립지의 환경 안정성 평가 - 감곡 매립지 사례 연구 -)

  • Park, Sangchan;Cho, Byeongreal;Jeong, Jihye;Lee, Minhee;Kim, Taeyoung;Park, Jongho
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2008
  • The objectives of this paper are to investigate states of these open dumping landfills for managing, utilizing and stabilization of a municipal solid waste landfill site in environmentally secure conditions. The result of the physical analysis of the landfill showed that it is composed of between 29.72-63.84% organic matter, 32.88% vinyl plastic. The environmental assessment of the landfill site confirmed that the landfill is at a maturation phase due to 0.18 of $BOD_5$/CODcr of leachate. VS and FS of TS Was respectively 30.37%, 32.34% and C/N ratio was 21.8. Surface water around landfill was BOD 10.7 mg/g, SS 37.8 mg/g, E-Coli 31,157(MPN/$100m{\ell}$) and Ground water was $COD_{Mn}$ 1.13-1.38 mg/g, $NO_3-N$ 1.025-4.075 mg/g. Leachat indicated T-P 0.002-0.028 mg/g, $NH_3-N$ 4.0-21.0 mg/g. The soil contamination of around landfill didn't appear as below of the regulation of Soil Environment Conservation Act. The Landfill Gas was $CH_4$ 13.25%, $CO_2$ 6.17%, H2S and CO was not detected. Also Surface Water was not detected $CO_2$, $CH_4$, $H_2S$, CO.

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Characteristics of RDF Char Combustion in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed (기포 유동층 내에서 RDF 촤의 연소 특성)

  • Kang, Seong-Wan;Kwak, Yeon-Ho;Cheon, Kyoung-Ho;Park, Sung Hoon;Jeon, Jong-Ki;Park, Young-Kwon
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.429-432
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    • 2011
  • The feasibility of applications of the char obtained from a gasification process of municipal-waste refuse derived fuel (RDF) as an auxiliary fuel was evaluated by combustion experiments. The higher heating value of the RDF char was 3000~4000 kcal/kg and its chlorine content was below the standard requirement demonstrating its potential as an auxiliary fuel. In the combustion exhaust gas, the maximum $NO_x$ and $SO_2$ concentrations were 240 ppm and 223 ppm, respectively. If an aftertreatment is applied, it is possible to control their concentrations low enough to meet the air pollutant emission standard. The HCl concentration was relatively high indicating that a care should be taken for HCl emission from the combustion of RDF. Based on the temperature distribution within the reactor, the concentration change of $O_2$ and $CO_2$, and the amount and the loss on ignition of solid residue, it was inferred that the combustion reaction was the most reliable when the excess air ratio of 1.3 was used.

Evaluation of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls using human serum by congener-specific analysis (혈액 중 PCBs 이성질체별 분석에 의한 인체 노출 평가)

  • Park, Hyo-Keun;Lee, Se-Jin;Jin, Guang-Zhu;Kang, Jung-Ho;Baek, Song-E;Chang, Yoon-Seok
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.73-85
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    • 2006
  • Blood serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in employees who worked at a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI), members of residential community who lived near the MSWI (<0.3km) and members of residential community lived far from the MSWI (>10 km). Human blood serum samples were analyzed for all PCB congeners using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The mean levels of total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs in 87 serum samples were 242.77 ng/g lipid and 8.83 TEQ pg/g lipid, respectively. The PCB homologue profiles showed that penta-, hexa-, hepta-chlorinated biphenyls contributed more than 80% of the total PCBs concentration. The most abundant congeners were PCB153, PCB138, PCB180, PCB187, PCB118. A statistical analysis was performed to determine whether there were significant correlations between PCB concentrations and specific variables such as age, gender, smoking habits, occupation, BMI (Body Mass Index) and time of residence. As a result, the age was found to be strongly correlated with serum PCB concentrations. In addition, there were strong correlations between total PCBs and PCB153 (r=0.93, p<.0001), dioxin-like PCBs and PCB118 (r=0.98, p<.0001). So these two congeners are satisfactory indicators for total PCB concentrations and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood respectively.

Feasibility Evaluation of Co-Incineration with MSW for Efficient Recycling of the Rejects after Separation Processes in MRF (재활용 기반시설에서 발생하는 선별 잔재물의 자원화를 위한 도시생활폐기물과의 혼합소각 가능성 평가)

  • Shin, Taek-Soo;Sung, Baek-Nam;Yeon, Ik-Jun;Cho, Byung-Yeol;Kim, Kwang-Yul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.33 no.10
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    • pp.767-773
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of an alternative fuel resource by incinerating a mix of combustible MSW (municipal solid waste) and offals after separating recyclable material at the MRF (material recovery facilities) location. We analyzed the physical and chemical properties including the 3-contents, the calorific value, and chemical compositions of the separation rejects in MRF, and compared the results with combustible MSW. Moreover, we experimented the trend of combustible properties and the concentration change of air pollutants at mixed incineration in the MSW incinerator. According to the results of the experiment, the separation rejects showed higher heating value (5,865 kcal/kg), and lower moisture and ash content than combustible MSW. Since we have incinerated MSW in the MSW incinerator mixing the offals at 30% and 50% respectively, we know that the change of the concentration of dust, $SO_2$, $NO_2$, and CO did not appear significant, and not exceed the pollutants emission regulation. But, considering the enhancement of the HCl emission concentration (max. 33.7 ppm) at the co-incineration of the 50% offals, we believe that the proper mixing ratio of the separation rejects would become within 30%.

Development of Separation System with Rotating Rakes for Recovery of Film-based Plastics (기계식(機械式) 회전(回轉)레이크를 이용(利用)한 생활계(生活界) 폐기물(廢棄物) 필름류(類) 선별장치(選別裝置) 개발(開發)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Byung-Sun;Na, Kyung-Duk;Han, Sang-Kuk;Choi, Woo-Zin;Park, Eun-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.24-32
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    • 2010
  • In the present work, a new separation system with rotating rakes has been developed to separate the film-based plastics from the recyclable materials, and environment assessment is also carried out during operation of the device. Capacity of the device was about 5.3 ton/hr at a rakes rotation speed of 26.0 rpm (the number of rakes in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trials were 39, 52 and 48, respectively) and a belt conveyor speed of 38.5m/min, which satisfied the initial design capacity (5.0 ton/hr). Recovery ratio and purity of the plastic films were 92.6% and 96.5%, respectively at a rotation speed of 28 rpm. The levels of noise, vibration and particulate emission were below material standard regulatory limits. Plastic refused fuel (RPF) was also prepared with the recovered films. The calorific value and chlorine content of the prepared RPF were 9,740 kcal/kg and 0.18%, respectively which satisfy the first grade quality specification of the Korean RPF standard. As a result of this work, recovery of energy resources from the municipal solid waste is possible by adopting the developed separation device.

Preparation of Multi-functional Brick Using MSWI Fly Ash (소각재를 이용한 건축외장재 제조)

  • Ban, Hyo-Jin;Park, Eun-Zoo;Lee, Woo-Keun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.114-118
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    • 2009
  • With the advance of industrialization and urbanization, a lot of waste has been discharged and treated by incineration. But fly and bottom ashes are generated in this process. In addition, the treatment method to recycle sewage sludge and melting slag is required to manage these wastes. The objective of this research was to prepare of multi-functional brick which were made from MSWI (Municipal solid wastes incinerator) fly ash, sewage sludge and slag. The bricks were made by mixing raw materials and then drying for 24 hours. Next, they were dried for 24 hours at $160^{\circ}C$ and fired for 2 hours. Calcination temperature was changed to discuss the effect of temperature from $1,080^{\circ}C$ to $1,130^{\circ}C$. Compressive strength of a brick was creased with the increase of temperature. To increase mixing ratio of fly ash and slag reduce the compressive strength the optimal condition was the mixing ratio of fly ash : melting slag : sewage sludge : clay as 10 : 20 : 5 : 65 and $1,150^{\circ}C$ of calcination temperature. Compressive strength was obtained as about 41 MPa at this condition.

Analysis of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids Using Ion-Exchange Chromatography: Application to Groundwater Affected by Landfill Leachates (이온-교환 크로마토그래피를 활용한 유기산 분석: 매립지 침출수의 영향을 받은 지하수에 대한 적용)

  • Cheon, Su-Hyun;Koh, Dong-Chan;Ko, Kyung-Seok
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 2007
  • An analytical method using ion-exchange chromatography was developed for simultaneous quantification of low-molecularweight organic acids ($C_1-C_6$ aliphatic carboxylic acids) and inorganic anions, and then applied to the assessment of ground water contaminated by leachates from a municipal solid waste landfill. Peak interferences of halide ions to organic acids were removed by pretreatment of water samples with Ag-containing cartridges. This method allowed accurate detection of low-molecular weight organic acids (i.e., formate, acetate, propionate, pyruvate, succinate, and oxalateas) low as 0.5 mg/L with a linear dynamic range up to 20 mg/L within 11 min run time along with typical inorganic anions. High level of pyruvate and low level of formate and acetate were detected in groundwater and landfill leachates using the analytical method. Pyruvate concentration in groundwater showed a significant correlation with concentrations of $Cl^-$ and $HCO_3^-$, and pyruvate levels decreased along the downgradient from the landfill, indicating the sources of pyruvate are landfill leachate.

A study on the Dioxin behavior in the process of representative pyrolysis/gasfication/melting plant (대표적인 열분해가스화 용융시설의 공정별 다이옥신 배출거동에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Chan-Ki;Shin, Dae-Yun
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2007
  • The incineration process has commonly used for wastes amount reduction and thermal treatments of pollutants as the technologies accumulated. However, the process is getting negative public images owing to matter of hazardous pollutants emission. Specially dioxins became a main issue and is mostly emitted from municipal solid wastes incineration. In this reason, pyrolysis/gasfication/melting process is presented as a alternative of incineration process. The pyrolysis/gasfication/melting process, a novel technology, is middle of verification of commercial plant and development of technologies in Korea. But the survey about the pollutant emission from the process, and background data in these facilities is necessary. So in this survey, it Is investigated that the behavior of dioxins in three pyrolysis/gasfication/melting plant (S, T, P) of pilot scale. In case of S plant, concentration of dioxins shows high at latter part of cogenerated boiler and stack which are operate on low temperature conditions than a latter parts of pyrolysis and melting furnace which are operate on high temperature condition. Concentration of gas phage dioxins had increased after combusted gas passed cogenerated boiler and this is attributed to react of precursor materials such as chlorobenzene and chlorophenol. Concentration of dioxins in T plant showed lower levels at latter part of cooling equipment which are operate with water spray type on low temperature conditions than a latter parts of gasfied melting furnace which are operate on high temperature condition. Removal efficiency of dioxins at gas treatment equipment was 78.8 %. Concentration of dioxins in P plant was low at latter part of SDA/BF which is operate at low temperature conditions than a latter parts of pyrolysis gasfied chamber which are operate at high temperature condition. Removal efficiency of dioxins of SDA/BF was 85.9 % and therefore, it showed high efficiency at those of stoker type incineration facility. However, concentration of dioxins which emitted at high temperature condition were low in three facilities and satisfied present standard emission level of dioxins. To consider the distribution ratio of dioxins, Particulate phase dioxins at S and P plants showed similar ratio with which shows in current stoker type for middle scale domestic waste incineration facility. It is necessary to continuos monitoring the ratio of distribution of dioxins in T plant in because ratio of gas phage dioxins showed high.

Study on Recycling of Incombustion Materials from MSWI Fluidized Bed Incinerator Ash (생활쓰레기 유동상(流動床) 소각로(燒却爐) 불연물(不燃物)의 재활용에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Choi, Woo-Zin;Park, Eun-Kyu;Kang, Seung-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.3-9
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    • 2008
  • The total amount of fluidized bed incinerator ash, i.e. incombustion materials generated from the municipal solid waste incineration(MSWI) in Korea was approximately 14,000 tons in 2006. Most of the ash after ferrous metal separation is finally discard to the landfill sites. In the present work, possibility for recycling of the ash is studied to utilize the ash as raw materials for ceramic products. Incombustion materials obtained from the two different incinerators were used to recover the raw materials by applying the magnetic separation and screening process to remove metallic particles. The raw materials show relatively low heavy metals content obtained from the KSLP leaching tests. The ceramic products were prepared by mixing the clay with the various amounts of the raw material. The physical properties, i.e. shrinkage rate, absorbancy and compressive strength of the ceramic products sintered at $1,000^{\circ}C$ and $1,050^{\circ}C$, respectively were improved by increasing the addition amounts of the incinerator ash. Based on the leaching tests the ceramic products also be satisfied with the standard limits on the leachability of heavy metals because most of the metallic materials are effectively removed from the incombustion materials by appling the separation processes.