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Current prospects of mushroom production and industrial growth in India

  • Raman, Jegadeesh;Lee, Seul-Ki;Im, Ji-Hoon;Oh, Min-Ji;Oh, Youn-Lee;Jang, Kab-Yeul
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.239-249
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    • 2018
  • The global mushroom industry has grown rapidly in recent years in terms of beneficial effects, market value, and demand. India has a wide range of agro-climatic conditions and is largely an agricultural country with a cultivated area of about 4.37 %, generating about 620 million tons of agro waste annually. Mushroom cultivation not only helps recycle agro wastes, but also fills the nutritional gap prevalent among a large population of India. Recently, government industrial policy and creative innovation has promoted research and other endeavors aiming towards the cultivation of mushrooms. Mushroom cultivation in India was initiated in Solan, in the mid-sixties. Mushroom cultivation has been successful in temperate regions of the Himalayas, the Western Ghats, and the hills of northeast India. Recently, many unemployed people have begun to adopt mushroom cultivation as a means of self-employment. It is high time that Indian mushroom cultivators and consumers became aware of the nutritional and medicinal values of cultivated and wild species of mushrooms. The total mushroom production in India between 2010 and 2017 was approximately 0.13 million tons, accounting for a 4.3% increase in the average growth rate of mushrooms per annum. In particular, the total production of white button mushrooms is the highest, with a share of about 73% of total mushroom production. In this review article, we have analyzed the current scenario of the Indian mushroom industry and its contribution to the economic growth of the country.

Quality Characteristics of Demi-glace Sauce with Pine mushroom and mushroom Powder Added (송이버섯과 양송이 분말을 첨가한 데미글라스 소스의 품질 특성)

  • Choi, Soo-Keun
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.119-127
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    • 2007
  • Pine mushroom is excellent for its unique smell, nutrients and functional factors. The quality characteristics of Demi-glace sauce made from pine mushrooms that have not been used despite their value as good ingredients and mushrooms that have been added to various kinds of sauce were examined by differing pine mushroom and mushroom powder in stock. The more pine mushroom and mushroom powder was added, the content of minerals increased; however, the content of moisture decreased. Overall, viscosity was increased. The content of each mineral varied in proportion to pine mushroom and mushroom powder contents level. Sensory evaluation of pine mushroom added to demi-glace sauce showed difference in sweetness, savory taste overall. 0.2% addition of sweetness, 0.3% addition of savory taste, 0.2% and 0.3% addition of overall acceptability appeared as the best estimation. Specially, 0.2% addition was the highest in salty taste and color. As the two mushroom powder contents was increased, tastes of demi-glace sauce were not increased; rather, the appropriate amount of addition existed.

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History of Mushroom Industry in Korea (한국 버섯산업의 발전사)

  • You, Chang-Hyun
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2003
  • Mushroom cultivation in Korea was launched in the early 1960's. At that time Korean government started a program for increasing cultivation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oak mushroom (Lentinula edodes) to export agricultural products and to increase farm income. National research institutes under Rural Development Administration, Korea Forest Service, etc. play a leading role in mushroom industry as follows : Development and spread of genetically superior commercial strains, good spawns, and cultivation techniques. Training and field advice to lead farmers for mass production of high quality mushrooms. Political support of facilities and establishments for mushroom cultivation. Several mushrooms including oak mushroom, button mushroom, oyster mushroom, winter mushroom, Ganoderma, P. eryngii, etc. have been popularized for their cultivation techniques and produced in large quantities in the farm. According to a recent statistics, mushrooms have been grown by about 20,000 farm households, in Korea and the gross production of fresh mushrooms is estimated about 170,000 M/T. The gross production of oyster mushroom is the highest followed by winter mushroom, oak mushroom and button mushroom. The gross amount of mushroom production stands over 700 billion won. Thus, mushroom industry goes to the most important cash crop to be produced yearly.

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Quality Changes of Low Temperature Storage and Storage Period of New Cultivar Dewdrop Pine Mushroom (Lentinula edodes GNA01) and Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Sing.) (신품종 이슬송이버섯(Lentinula edodes GNA01)과 양송이버섯(Agaricus bisporus Sing.)의 저온 저장과 저장기간에 따른 품질 변화)

  • Choi, Duck-Joo;Lee, Yun-Jung;Kim, Youn-Kyung;Kim, Mun-Ho;Choi, So-Rye;Youn, Aye-Ree
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.174-180
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate quality characteristics and antioxidant effects on storage by temperature between new cultivar Dewdrop Pine Mushroom (Lentinula edodes GNA01) and button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). Methods: Dewdrop Pine Mushroom and button mushroom were prepared at low storage temperature. Results: Weight loss increased with time, whereas the new cultivar Dewdrop Pine Mushroom showed a decrease of less than 4% until 15days. Hardness of new cultivar Dewdrop Pine Mushroom was reduces less than button mushroom during storage. Color change of new cultivar Dewdrop Pine Mushroom was not altered during storage. For viable cell count, new cultivar Dewdrop Pine Mushroom proliferated less than button mushroom. For antioxidant activity, polyphenol content increased with storage period of both mushrooms. The electron-donating action of new cultivar Dewdrop Pine Mushroom maintained high antioxidant activity accounting for 80% until 12 days of storage. New cultivar Dewdrop Pine Mushroom was evaluated as better than pine mushroom as it exceeded the middle of storage in sensory characteristics; such as appearance, color, aroma and overall acceptability, etc. Conclusion: In summary, new cultivar Dewdrop Pine Mushroom was stored for 12 days while button mushroom was stored for 9 days.

Drying Characteristics of Mushroom (버섯의 건조특성(乾燥特性)에 관한 연구)

  • Shong, S.K.;Koh, H.K.;Lee, J.H.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.112-123
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    • 1994
  • At present, no appropriate drying conditions can be found for the heated-air drying of mushroom in Korea. Usually, mushroom is being dried at the temperature range of 40 to $50^{\circ}C$ until the moisture content reaches 10~13% (wb). However, drying characteristics of the mushroom should be investigated for quality improvement and efficient drying operation of the mushroom. The results of this study may be summarized as follows ; 1. The effect of air temperature on the rate of drying was greater than that of relative humidity for drying of mushroom, and the rate of drying was increased with increase in the air temperature. 2. Drying rate for Shiitake mushroom showed falling-rate period of drying without constant-rate period of drying. Drying rate for Oyster mushroom showed a short constant-rate period at the initial stage of drying process, and followed by falling-rate period of drying. 3. Exponential and App.-Diffusion models were found to describe well the drying process of Shiitake mushroom. Exponential and Thompson models for Oyster mushroom in which Thompson model was the most suitable for Oyster mushroom. 4. The equilibrium moisture content of the mushroom decreased with decrease in the air temperature and increase in the relative humidity. In room condition($20^{\circ}C$, 54% RH), the calculated values of the equilibrium moisture content showed 11.17% for Shiitake mushroom and 13.19% for Oyster mushroom, respectively.

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Industrial utilization of spent mushroom substrate (버섯 수확 후 배지의 산업적 활용)

  • Kang, Hee-Wan
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2019
  • Over a million tons of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are generated as by-products of mushroom cultivation every year in Korea. Disposal of SMS by mushroom farmers is difficult, therefore, recycling solutions that do not harm the environment are necessary. SMS consists of mushroom mycelia and residues of fruiting bodies, containing a variety of bioactive substances, such as extracellular enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, and secondary metabolites. This paper reviews utility of SMS for bioremediation, controlling plant disease, and production of lignocellulytic enzymes, organic fertilizer, and animal feed.

Characteristics and pathogenicity of Cladobotryum mycophilum isolated from cobweb disease of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) in Korea

  • Lee, Chan-Jung;Han, Hye-Su;Jhune, Chang-Sung;Cheong, Jong-Chun;Oh, Jin-A;Kong, Won-Sik
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.198-201
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    • 2011
  • Cobweb disease symptoms were observed in a mushroom farm in Buye, Korea during a disease survey in 2008-2011. Five isolates of Cladobotryum sp. were obtained from the infected caps and stipes. These isolates of Cladobotryum sp. were identified as C. mycophilum based on their morphological, cultural characteristics and analysis of the ITS sequences. Early symptoms were noticed as round, fleshy, yellowish brown lesions on mushroom caps. Late symptoms progressed when the parasitic fungus formed white cobweb circular colonies on dead or damaged pinheads, spread on the surface of the casing, and covered entirely fruiting bodies. Optimal temperature and pH for mycelial growth on MEA is $23^{\circ}C$ and 6.0. Microscopically the spores of the fungus are large and most 2~3 celled produced on vertically branched conidiophores. Mushroom caps turned dark brown and shrunk due to soft rot. Testing of sensitivity to selected fungicides showed that isolate was highly resistance to Mancozeb and Thiophanate-methyl, moderately sensitivity to Iprodione, and highly sensitivity to Benomyl, Prochloraz-Mn and Carbendazim.

Introduction of the representative mushroom cultivars and groundbreaking cultivation techniques in Korea

  • Jang, Kab-Yeul;Oh, Youn-Lee;Oh, Minji;Woo, Sung-I;Shin, Pyung-Gyun;Im, Ji-hoow;Kong, Won-Sik
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.136-141
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    • 2016
  • The production scale of mushrooms in Korea is approximately 600 billion won, which is 1.6% of Korea's gross agricultural output. In Korea, ca. 190,000 tons of mushrooms are harvested annually. Although the numbers of mushroom farms and cultivators are constantly decreasing, total mushroom yields are increasing owing to large-scale cultivation facilities and automation. The recent expansion of the well-being trend has caused an increase in mushroom consumption in Korea: the annual per capita mushroom was 3.9 kg ('13), whichis a little higher than that in Europe. Thus, mushroom export, mainly Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus ostreatus, has increased since the mid-2000s. Recently, however, it is slightly reduced. Nevertheless, Vietnam, Hong Kong, the United States, and the Netherlands continue to export mushrooms, and Korea has increased its export to Australia, Canada, Southeast Asia, etc. Canned Agaricus bisporus, the first export of the Korean mushroom industry, reached it speak sales in 1977-1978. When Korea initiated trade with China in 1980, the international prices of mushrooms fell sharply, leading to shrinkage of the domestic markets. Spurred by the high demand to develop substitute goods for A. bisporus, the oyster mushroom (P. ostreatus) gained attention since it seemed to suit the taste of Korean consumers. Although the log cultivation technique for oyster mushroom was developed in the early 1970s, it required a great deal of labor. Thus, we developed the shelf cultivation technique, which is easier to manage and allows for mass production. In this technique, the growing shelf is made mafrom fermented rice straw, whichis the only P. ostreatus medium in the world and isused only in South Korea. After then, the use of cotton wastes as an additional material of medium, the productivity. Currently, we are developing a standard cultivation technique and environmental control system that can stably produce mushrooms throughout the year. The increase of oyster mushroom production may boostthe domestic market and contribute to industrial development. In addition, oyster mushroom production technology played a role in forming the basis for the development of bottle cultivation, which made mass production. In particular, bottle cultivation using liquid spawn could allow for the export of F. velutipes and Pleurotus eryngii. In addition, the white varieties of F. velutipes were second developed in the world after Japan. We also developed the new A. bisporus cultivar 'Saeah', which is easy to grow in Korea. In hopes to advance the mushroom industry, we will continue to develop cultivars with international competitive power and to improve cultivation techniques.

Feeding Value of Spent Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) Substrate (새송이버섯 수확후배지의 사료적 가치)

  • Moon, Yea Hwang;Shin, Pyung Gyun;Cho, Soo Jeong
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.236-243
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    • 2012
  • Spent mushroom substrates is composted organic material remaining after a crop of mushroom is harvested. The raw materials of mushroom substrates are same feed ingredient as corncobs, rice brown, wheat brown, cotton seeds and beet pulp. During the mushroom cultivation process, the mushroom substrates was used 15-25% by mushroom and 75-85% of mushroom substrates was remained in the SMS. Among of the spent mushroom substrates, spent mushroom substrates of pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus and Flammuliua velutipes is can be use the energy feedstock of animal feed. The cellulose content of spent mushroom(pleurotus eryngii) substrates containing the sawdust was high and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values was low. The spent mushroom(pleurotus eryngii) substrates fermented with cellulase and xylanase producing bacteria is may be used as an ingredient of feed in TMR for Hanwoo steer.

Characteristics of melanin related fruiting body colors in mushrooms (버섯의 자실체색과 관련된 멜라닌의 특성)

  • Lee, Kang-Hyo;Jang, Kab-Yeul;Noh, Hyung-Jun;Kim, Seung-Hwan;Jhune, Chang-Sung;Sung, Jae-Mo
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 2009
  • Melanins in cell walls of mushroom are known to related with fruiting body color. Fruiting body color in oyster mushrooms is various and is very important characteristic for new cultivars. Recently, several cultivars have been breeded with various fruiting body color, for example yellow, pink, white in Korea. Recent research trend of fungal melanins and fruiting body color of mushroom will be introduced.

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