• Title, Summary, Keyword: nanoparticles

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Preparation and Cytotoxicity Comparison of Type A Gelatin Nanoparticles with Recombinant Human Gelatin Nanoparticles

  • Won, Young-Wook;Kim, Yong-Hee
    • Macromolecular research
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.464-468
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    • 2009
  • Gelatin nanoparticles derived from bovine or porcine have been developed as various types of drug delivery system, and they need to be cross-linked to maintain their physicochemical properties in aqueous environments. Although gelatin is a widely used material in pharmaceutical industries, the safety issue of animal-origin gelatins, such as transmissible mad cow disease and anaphylaxis, remains to be solved. The purpose of this study was to prepare type A gelatin (GA) nanoparticles by modified, two-step, desolvation method and compare the toxicity of the resulting GA nanoparticles with recombinant human gelatin (rHG) nanoparticles. The GA nanoparticles were characterized, and drug loading and release pattern were measured. FITC-BSA, a model protein, was efficiently loaded in the nanoparticles and then released in a biphasic and sustained release pattern without an initial burst. In particular, the cell viability of the GA nanoparticles was less than that of the rHG nanoparticles. This finding suggests that rHG nanoparticles should be considered as an alternative to animal-origin gelatin nanoparticles in order to minimize the safety problems.

In Vitro Cellular Uptake and Cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel-Loaded Glycol Chitosan Self-Assembled Nanoparticles

  • Park, Ji-Sun;Cho, Yong-Woo
    • Macromolecular research
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.513-519
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    • 2007
  • Self-assembled nanoparticles have great potential to act as vehicles for hydrophobic drug delivery. Understanding nanoparticle cellular internalization is essential for designing drugs intended for intracellular delivery. Here, the endocytosis and exocytosis of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated glycol chitosan (FGC) self-assembled nanoparticles were investigated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The cellular internalization of FGC nanoparticles was initiated by nonspecific interactions between nanoparticles and cell membranes. Although adsorptive endocytosis of the nanoparticles occurred quickly, significant amounts of FGC nanoparticles were exocytosed, particularly in the early stage of endocytosis. The amount of exocytosed nanoparticles was dependent on the pre-incubation time with nanoparticles, suggesting that exocytosis is dependent on the progress of endocytosis. FGC nanoparticles internalized by adsorptive endocytosis were distributed in the cytoplasm, but not in the nucleus. In vitro cell cycle analysis demonstrated that FGC nanoparticles delivered paclitaxel into the cytoplasm and were effective in arresting cancer cell growth.

In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Cultured Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea Cells

  • Lee, Handule;Park, Kwangsik
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.287-294
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    • 2019
  • The possibility of eye exposure for workers participating in manufacturing of nanoparticles or consumers using products containing nanoparticles has been reported, but toxicity studies on the eye are scarce. In this study, cytotoxicity of five nanoparticles including silver, ceria, silica, titanium and zinc were tested using Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea (SIRC) cells. When cells were treated with nanoparticles with concentrations of $1-100{\mu}g/mL$ for 24 hr, zinc oxide nanoparticles showed higher toxicity to cornea cells. $LC_{50}$ of zinc oxide nanoparticles was less than $25{\mu}g/mL$ but those of other nanoparticles could not be calculated in this test, which means more than $100{\mu}g/mL$. Generation of reactive oxygen species was observed, and expression of apoptosis related biomarkers including Bax and Bcl-2 were changed after treatment of zinc oxide nanoparticles, while no other significant toxicity-related changes were observed in cornea cells treated with Ag, $CeO_2$, $SiO_2$ and $TiO_2$ nanoparticles.

Sustained Release of Water-Soluble Blue Dextran from PLGA Nanoparticles (PLGA 나노파티클로부터 수용성 블루 덱스트란의 서방성 방출)

  • Ryu, Sang-Hwa;Hwang, Sung-Joo;Park, Jeong-Sook
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.109-114
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    • 2006
  • Biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles were developed for sustained delivery of water-soluble macromolecules. PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated by spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method generating negatively charged particles and heterogeneous size distribution. As a model drug, blue dextran was encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles. In addition, nanoparticles were also prepared with varying ratio of poloxamer 188 (P188) and poloxamer 407 (P407), and coating with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Then, the particle size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency of nanoparticles containing blue dextran were studied. In vitro release of blue dextran from nanoparticles was also investigated. The surface and morphology of nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In case of nanoparticles prepared with PLGA, P407, and different organic solvents, particle size was in the range of $230{\sim}320\;nm$ and zeta potentials of nanoparticles were negative. The SEM images showed that ethyl acetate is suitable for the formulation of PLGA nanoparticles with good appearance. Moreover, ethyl acetate showed higher encapsulation efficiency than other solvents. The addition of P188 to formulation did not affect the particle size of PLGA nanoparticles but altered the release patterns of blue dextran from nanoparticles. However, PVA, as a coating material, altered the particle size with increasing the PVA concentration. The nanoparticles were physically stable in the change of particle size during long-term storage. From the results, the PLGA nanoparticles prepared with various contents of poloxamers and PVA, could modulate the particles size of nanoparticles, in vitro release pattern, and encapsulation of water-soluble macromolecules.

Evaluation of Magnetic and Thermal Properties of Ferrite Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

  • Tomitaka, Asahi;Jeun, Min-Hong;Bae, Seong-Tae;Takemura, Yasushi
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.164-168
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    • 2011
  • Magnetic nanoparticles can potentially be used in drug delivery systems and for hyperthermia therapy. The applicability of $Fe_3O_4$, $CoFe_2O_4$, $MgFe_2O_4$, and $NiFe_2O_4$ nanoparticles for the same was studied by evaluating their magnetization, thermal efficiency, and biocompatibility. $Fe_3O_4$ and $CoFe_2O_4$ nanoparticles exhibited large magnetization. $Fe_3O_4$ and $NiFe_2O_4$ nanoparticles exhibited large induction heating. $MgFe_2O_4$ nanoparticles exhibited low magnetization compared to the other nanoparticles. $NiFe_2O_4$ nanoparticles were found to be cytotoxic, whereas the other nanoparticles were not cytotoxic. This study indicates that $Fe_3O_4$ nanoparticles could be the most suitable ones for hyperthermia therapy.

Fabrication of Nearly Monodispersed Silica Nanoparticles by Using Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) and Their Application to the Preparation of Nanocomposites

  • Chung, You-Sun;Jeon, Mi-Young;Kim, Chang-Keun
    • Macromolecular research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2009
  • To fabricate dental nanocomposites containing finely dispersed silica nanoparticles, nearly monodispersed silica nanoparticles smaller than 25 nm were synthesized without forming any aggregates via a modified sol-gel process. Since silica nanoparticles synthesized by the Stober method formed aggregates when the particle size is smaller than 25 nm, the synthetic method was modified by changing the reaction temperature and adding poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) (PVP) to the reaction mixture. The size of the formed silica nanoparticles was reduced by increasing the reaction temperature or adding PVP. Furthermore, the formation of aggregates with primary silica nanoparticles smaller than 25 nm was prevented by increasing the amount of PVP added to the reaction mixture. To enhance the dispersion of the silica particles in an organic matrix, the synthesized silica nanoparticles were treated with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane ($\gamma$-MPS). A dental nanocomposite containing finely dispersed silica nanoparticles could be produced by using the surface-treated silica nanoparticles.

Encapsulation of Plasmid DNA in PLGA Nanoparticles: Effects of Poloxamer and Temperature (PLGA 나노파티클의 Plasmid DNA 봉입: 폴록사머와 온도의 영향)

  • Kang, Hyun-Suk;Ryu, Sang-Hwa;Myung, Chang-Seon;Hwang, Sung-Joo;Park, Jeong-Sook
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.39-43
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    • 2007
  • Previously, we have reported that PLGA nanoparticles were prepared for sustained release of water-soluble blue dextran and the particle size, in vitro release pattern and encapsulation were modulated by varying polymers. This study was designed to encapsulate plasmid DNA in PLGA nanoparticles and to investigate the effect of Polymers and temperatures. PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated with poloxamer 188 (P188) or poloxamer 407 (P407) by using spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method. As a model plasmid DNA, pCMV-Taq2B/1L-18 was encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles. Then, the particle size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency of nanoparticles containing plasmid DNA were investigated. Particle sizes of PLGA nanoparticles prepared with P188 and P407 were in the range of 200-330 nm and 250-290 nm, respectively. Zeta potentials of nanoparticles were negative regardless of nanoparticle compositions. Encapsulation efficiency of P407 nanoparticles prepared at $30^{\circ}C$ was higher than those at other preparation condition. From the results, the PLGA nanoparticles prepared with poloxamers at different temperature, could modulate the particles size of nanoparticles, and encapsulation efficiency of plasmid DNA.

Analysis of Au-DNA Nanowires by Adding HCl to Change Charges of Au Nanoparticles

  • Jeong, Yun-Ho;Kim, Dae-Cheol;Park, Hyeon-Gyu;No, Yong-Han
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.421.1-421.1
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    • 2014
  • Top-down processes based on photolithography technology have been developed by using light sources with short wavelength, however, the processes are expected to meet their limits in higher integration of semiconductor integrated circuits. To overcome the limits, researches on bottom-up processes have been proceeded. One of those, fabrication of nanodevices by using nanoparticles has been on research. But it is difficult to align nanoparticles at appropriate positions. To resolve this, studies has been proceeded to form nanowires by bonding DNA molecules which have self-assembly property and positive-charged functionalized gold nanoparticles. There are negative-charged phosphates in backbones of DNA molecules. By using the attractive force between the negative charge of the phosphates and the positive charge of gold nanoparticles, the Au-DNA nanowires are made. However, bonding Au nanoparticles only on DNA molecules, not other nanoparticles, is to be solved. So we studied to resolve this problem. In the formation of Au nanoparticles, we changed the charge of Au nanoparticles by adding HCl to control pH of the functionalized nanoparticles, measured zeta potential. Then we bonded the nanoparticles and DNA molecules and made observation by using FE-SEM and AFM.

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Phospholipid polymer can reduce cytotoxicity of poly (lactic acid) nanoparticles in a high-content screening assay

  • Kim, Hyung Il;Ishihara, Kazuhiko
    • Biomaterials and Biomechanics in Bioengineering
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.95-104
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. We used a water-soluble, amphiphilic phospholipid polymer, poly (2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB30W), as a stabilizer for the PLA nanoparticles. The PLA nanoparticles and PMB30W-modified PLA (PLA/PMB30W) nanoparticles were prepared by evaporating tetrahydrofuran (THF) from its aqueous solution. Precipitation of the polymers from the aqueous solution produced PLA and PLA/PMB30W nanoparticles with a size distribution of $0.4-0.5{\mu}m$. The partial coverage of PMB30W on the surface of the PLA/PMB30W nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic light-scattering (DLS). A high-content automated screening assay (240 random fields per group) revealed that the PLA nanoparticles induced apoptosis in a mouse macrophage-like cell line (apoptotic population: 73.9% in 0.8 mg PLA/mL), while the PLA/PMB30W nanoparticles remained relatively non-hazardous in vitro (apoptotic population: 13.8% in 0.8 mg PLA/mL). The reduction of the apoptotic population was attributed to the phosphorylcholine groups in the PMB30W bound to the surface of the nanoparticle. In conclusion, precipitation of PLA in THF aqueous solution enabled the preparation of PLA nanoparticles with similar shapes and size distribution but different surface characteristics. PMB30W was an effective stabilizer and surface modifier, which reduced the cytotoxicity of PLA nanoparticles by enabling their avoidance of the mononuclear phagocyte system.

Plasmonic effects and size relation of gold-platinum alloy nanoparticles

  • Jawad, Muhammad;Ali, Shazia;Waseem, Amir;Rabbani, Faiz;Amin, Bilal Ahmad Zafar;Bilal, Muhammad;Shaikh, Ahson J.
    • Advances in nano research
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.169-180
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    • 2019
  • Plasmonic effects of gold and platinum alloy nanoparticles (Au-Pt NPs) and their comparison to size was studied. Various factors including ratios of gold and platinum salt, temperature, pH and time of addition of reducing agent were studied for their effect on particle size. The size of gold and platinum alloy nanoparticles increases with increasing concentration of Pt NPs. Temperature dependent synthesis of gold and platinum alloy nanoparticles shows decrease in size at higher temperature while at lower temperature agglomeration occurs. For pH dependent synthesis of Au-Pt nanoparticles, size was found to be increased by increase in pH from 4 to 10. Increasing the time of addition of reducing agent for synthesis of pure and gold-platinum alloy nanoparticles shows gradual increase in size as well as increase in heterogeneity of nanoparticles. The size and elemental analysis of Au-Pt nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, XRD, SEM and EDX techniques.