• Title, Summary, Keyword: naringin

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Studies on Naringinase of Mold. (Part 3) Naringin solubilizing enzyme of Aspergillus niger S-1 and removing of bitter taste from chinese citron. (사상균의 Naringin 분해효소에 관한 연구(제3보) Aspergillus niger S-1의 naringin 용해화효소의 특성과 여름밀감의 탈고미에 대하여)

  • 기우경
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.111-117
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    • 1974
  • Studies were carried out on the practical use of Naringinase and some chracteristics of Naringin solublizing enzme which might hydrolyae naringin to purunin. Obtained results were as follows. 1. Selected strain for Naringinase producing was identified to be Aspergillus niger S-1 and its naringinase was applied to chinese citron processing to remove the bitter taste. 2. Of the naringinase, naringin solubilizing enzyme was purified on a DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column and crystalized from acetone and ammonium sulfate. 3. Hydrolized naringin which has higher solubility rather than naringin or naringenin were identified by thin layer chromatography. 4. Hydrolyzed naringin and naringin were separatly determinated by ethylacetate extraction and this result was compared with sensory test.

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Effect of Naringin Pretreatment on Bioavailability of Verapamil in Rabbits

  • Yeum, Cheul-Ho;Choi, Jun-Shik
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 2006
  • The aim of present study is to investigate the effect of naringin on the pharmacokinetics of verapamil and its major metabolite, norverapamil in rabbits. The pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil and norverapamil were determined after administering verapamil (9 mg/kg) orally to rabbits in the pretreated with naringin (1.5, 7.5, and 15 mg/kg). Naringin pretreatment significantly altered the pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil. Compared with the control group (given verapamil alone), the $K_a,\;C_{max}$ and AUC of verapamil were significantly (p<0.05 or p<0.01) increased in the pretreatment of naringin, However there were no significant change in $T_{max}\;and\;t_{1/2}$ of verapamil. Consequently, pretreatment of naringin significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01) increased the AB% of verapamil significantly in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05 or p<0.01 ), and elevated the RB% of verapamil by 1.26- to 1.69-fold. the MR of verapamil were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the pretreatment of naringin, implying that pretreatment of naringin may effectively inhibit the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of verapamil. In conclusion, pretreatment of naringin enhanced the oral bioavailability of verapamil. Based on these results, the verapamil dosage should be adjusted when given with naringin or a naringin-containing dietary supplement.

Elution Properties of Naringin from Soft Contact Lens Containing Naringin (나린진(naringin)이 함유된 소프트 콘택트렌즈에서 나린진의 용출 특성)

  • Ryu, Geun-Chang;Jun, Jin;Jin, Moon-Seok;Chae, Soo-Chul;Kim, In-Suk
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: A soft contact lens was manufactured by adding naringin known as natural anti-bacterial material to resin solution. With solution eluted from manufactured contact lens, we examined its optical properties, physical and chemical states of naringin in the polymer, and elution properties. Methods: The soft contact lens with naringin was synthesized by bulk polymerization method. IR spectrum and HPLC were used to define the bonding type of naringin itself in the soft contact lens contained naringin, elution process of naringin to the saline solution, and the amount of naringin solution eluted from the lens with elapsed time. Results: Naringin was continuously eluted with constant concentration from the soft contact lens for about a month and the structure ofnaringin which is eluted was as same as before it was added to resin solution. Any change in optical properties such as transmittance couldn't be found. Bonding state and the structure of naringin in contact lens were explained with IR spectrum and HPLC results. Conclusions: In the contact lens with naringin, naringin remained in the contact lens bonding with weak hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals force between naringin and polymer. Naringin was continuously eluted from the contact lens contained naringin during about 1 month. Even after 1 month, it showed that the concentration of the naringin eluted was approximately 10 ppm in a day. From the results, adding naringin to the soft contact lens resin is very effective method for manufacturing the soft contact lens which has anti-bacterial function for a period of time.

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Comparison of the Effects of Cyclodextrin-Naringin Inclusion Complex with Naringin on Lipid Metabolism in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet (고지방식이를 섭취한 마우스에서 나린진과 나린진-사이클로텍스트린 포접화합물의 지질대사에 대한 영향 비교)

  • Jeon, Seon-Min;Choi, Myung-Sook
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2010
  • Naringin has antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic properties, however, phenolic compounds including naringin are unstable in the presence of light, heat and oxygen. Beta-cyclodextrin ($\beta$-CD) is a cyclic heptamer composed of seven glucose units that enhances the stability and solubility of molecules through the formation of inclusion complexes. This study was conducted out to compare the effects of CD-naringin (CD-N) inclusion complexes with naringin on lipid metabolism in high fat-fed animals. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either CD-N (0.048%, w/w) or naringin (N, 0.02%, w/w) in a 20% high-fat (HFC, 15% lard, 5% corn oil, w/w) diet for 10 weeks. Orlistat (Xenical, 0.01%, w/w) was used as a positive control (PC). There were no differences in body weight, food intake, liver and heart weights, plasma triglyceride(TG), leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6 concentrations, and hepatic $\beta$-oxidation, carnitine palmitoyl transferase(CPT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme activities between the HFC and CD-N groups or between the HFC and N groups. However, both CD-naringin and naringin supplementation les to a significant reduction in the epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissue weights, plasma free fatty acid, insulin and blood glucose concentrations, hepatic cholesterol and TG contents and hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS), phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP) and HMG-CoA reductase activities compared to the HFC group. The plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in CD-N and N groups than in HF and PC groups. These results indicate that both CD-naringin and naringin supplementation effectively improved plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism without differences between CD-N and naringin groups.

Effect of Naringin on the Bioavailability of Losartan in Rats (흰쥐에서 나린진이 로살탄의 생체이용율에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Chong-Ki;Choi, Jun-Shik
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.259-264
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    • 2009
  • The present study was to investigate the effect of naringin, a flavonoid, on the pharmacokinetics of losartan in rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters of losartan in rats were determined after an oral administration of losartan (9 mg/kg) in the presence or absence of naringin (0.5, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetic parameters of losartan were significantly altered by the presence of naringin compared with the control group (given losartan alone). Presence of naringin significantly (p<0.05, 2.5 mg/kg; p<0.01, 10 mg/kg) increased the area under the plasma concentration?time curve (AUC) of losartan by 43.7~63.0% and peak plasma concentration ($C_{max}$) of losartan by 31.7~45.5%. Consequently, the absolute bioavailability (AB) of losartan in the presence of naringin was 43.8~62.9%, which was enhanced significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01) compared to that in the oral control group (22.4%). The relative bioavailability (R.B.) of losartan increased by 1.44- to 1.63-fold in the presence of naringin. However, there was no significant change in the peak plasma concentration ($T_{max}$) and terminal half-life ($t_{1/2}$) of losartan in the presence of naringin. In conclusion, the presence of naringin significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of losartan, implying that presence of naringin might be mainly effective to inhibit the cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A-mediated metabolism, resulting in reducing gastrointestinal and hepatic first-pass metabilism and Pglycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux of losartan in small intestine. Concurrent use of naringin or naringin-containing dietary supplement with losartan should require close monitoring for potential drug interactions.

Studies on Antimicrobial Activities and Safety of Natural Naringin in Korea (한국산 천연 Naringin의 항균작용 및 안전성에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Seong-Sun;You, Il-Jun
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 1988
  • To investigate the antimicrobial activities and safety of natural naringin, it was isolated with methanol from peels of Citri fructus. Its hydrolysate, naringenin was obtained by hydrolysis of naringin. In the antimicrobial activities of two components against eleven species of bacteria and eleven species of Fungi were examined by serial dilution method. Its result appeared to the minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) and the antimicrobial activities of naringin and naringenin were compared. Naringenin showed considerably high order of activities against bacteria. There were no effect against Fungi $(MIC>100{\mu}g/ml)$. In the safety tests of naringin, examined for 50% lethal dose, Blood clinical chemical tests and organ tissue tests. The results showed that 50% lethal does in mice was 1,650 mg/kg. The experiments of administration in rats showed that there were no changes in blood clinical chemical future and organ tissue as control.

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Effect of Naringin on Tamoxifen Pharmacokinetics in Rats (흰쥐에서 나란진이 타목시펜의 약물동태에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyung-Seok;Choi, Jun-Shik;Choi, In
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of naringin on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen in rats. Tamoxifen (10 mg/kg) was administered orally 0.5 h and 3 days after oral administration of naringin (5 mg/kg). The plasma concentrations of tamoxifen were increased significantly tv naringin compared to control. Absorption rate constant ($K_a$) of tamoxifen with naringin was increased significantly compared to that of the control. The areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the peak concentrations ($C_{max}$) of tamoxifen with naringin were significantly higher than those of the control. Consequently, the relative bioavailability (R.B${\%}$) of tamoxifen with naringin was 2-3-fold higher than the control, and absolute bioavailability (A.B${\%}$) of tamoxifen were significantly higher (p<0.05 with coadministration, p<0.01 with pretreatment) than those of the control. The increased bioavailability of tamoxifen in rats with naringin might be associated with the inhibition by naringin of an efflux pump P-glycoprotein and the first-pass metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4.

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Protective Effect Naringin on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Injury in Mice (나린진(Naringin)의 $CCl_4$에 의한 급성 간독성 보호효과)

  • Chae, Soo-Chul;Kho, Eun-Gyeong;Choi, Seung-Hyun;Ryu, Geun-Chang
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.325-335
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    • 2008
  • The protective effects of the Naringin, on carbon tetrachloride ($CCl_4$)-induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in mice. Pretreatment with Naringin prior to the administration of $CCl_4$ significantly prevented an increase in serum alanine, aspartate aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pretreatment with Naringin also significantly prevented the depletion of glutathione (GSH) content in the livers of $CCl_4$-induced mice. However, reduced hepatic glutathione levels was unaffected by treatment with Naringin alone. In addition, Naringin prevented $CCl_4$-induced apoptosis and necrosis, as indicated by a liver DNA laddering. To determine whether caspase-8,-3 pathway involved in $CCl_4$-induced acute liver injury, caspase-8, -3 activities were tested by ELISA. Naringin attenuated $CCl_4$induced caspase-8, -3 activities in mouse livers. $CCl_4$-induced hepatotoxicity was also prevented, as indicated by a liver histopathologic study. The effects of Naringin on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1, the major isozyme involved in $CCl_4$ were also investigated. Treatment of mice with Naringin resulted in a significant decrease of the CYP2E1-dependent hydroxyl at ion and aniline in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that protective effects of Naringin against the $CCl_4$-induced hepatotoxicity may be due to its ability to block CYP2E1-mediated $CCl_4$ bioactivation and that is also protects against caspase-8, -3 pathway mediated apoptosis.

Effect of Pretreatment of Naringin on the Bioavailability of Diltiazem and Deacetyldiltiazem in Rabbits (토끼에서 나린진이 틸티아젬과 그대사체, 디아세틸딜티아젬의 생체이용율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Hyuong Joong;Choi Jun Shik
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.230-236
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of naringin pretreatment on the bioavailability and phar-macokinetics of diltiazem and one of its metabolites, deacetyldiltiazem, in rabbits. Pharmacokinetic parameters of diltiazem and deacetyldiltiazem were determined after oral administration of diltiazem (15 mg/kg) pretreated with naringin (1.5, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg). Absorption rate constant ($k_a$) of diltiazem after oral administration of diltiazem pretreated with naringin was significantly (p<0.05 or p<0.0l) increased compared to the control group. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak concentration ($C_{max}$) of the diltiazem were significantly (p<0.05 or p<0.01) higher than those of the control. Absolute bioavailability ($AB\%$) of diltiazem pretreated with naringin ranged from $13.5\%$ to $18.6\%$, being enhanced compared to that of the control, $7.2\%$. Relative bioavailability ($RB\%$) of diltiazem was $1.9\~2.6$ times higher than that of the control group. There was no significant change in terminal half-life ($t_{1/2}$) and $T_{max}$ of diltiazem in the presence of naringin. AUC of deacetyldiltiazem pretreated with naringin was significantly (p<0.05) higher than (p<0.05) that of the control. But the metabolite ratios (MR) were significantly decreased (p<0.05), implying that pretreatment of naringin could be effective to inhibit the CYP 3A4-mediated metabolism of diltiazem. In this study, pretreatment of naringin significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of diltiazem. These results suggested that the diltiazem dosage should be adjusted when it is administered with naringin or a naringin-containing dietary supplement in the clinical setting.

Effect of Naringin on the Pharmacokinetics of Nifedipine in Rabbits (토끼에서 나린진이 니페디핀의 약물동태에 미치는 영향)

  • Na, Chong-Hak;Choi, Jun-Shik
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.101-106
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    • 2005
  • The pharmacokinetics of oral nifedipine (5 mg/kg) was studied in rabbits given after or simultaneously with naringin (1.5, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg, respectively). The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the peak concentration $(C_{max})$ of nifedipine coadministered or pretreated with naringin were significantly increased (p < 0.05, coad.; p < 0.01, pret.) compared with the control group. The absolute bioavailability (AB%) of nifedipine was significantly (p < 0.05, coad.; p < 0.01, pret.) higher by 22.3 - 28.1 % compared to the control (17.9%). The relative bioavailability (RB%) of nifedipine was higher by 1.24 - 1.43 times (coad.) and 1.32 -1.57 times (pret.) than those of the control, showing that preatreatrnent of naringin was more effective than that of the coadministration of naringin. Naringin did not show significant effect on the Tmax and $t_{1/2}$ of nifedipine. It is suggested that naringin may alter pharmacokinetic paramiters of nifedipine by inhibition of P-glycoprotein efflux pump and its first-pass metabolism. The dosage of nifedipine should be adjusted when it is administered with naringin in a clinical situation.