• Title, Summary, Keyword: natural antimicrobial

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Biological Characteristics of Protein Hydrolysates Derived from Yoensan Ogae Meat by Various Commercial Proteases (프로테아제 종류에 따른 이용한 연산 오계육 단백질 가수분해물의 아미노산 및 생리활성 특성)

  • Ha, Yoo Jin;Kim, Joo Shin;Yoo, Sun Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.1018-1027
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    • 2019
  • Natural-derived protein-derived low molecular weight peptides have been known to have physiological activities such as antioxidant, hypertension relief, immunomodulation, pain relief and antimicrobial activity. In this study, the low-molecular peptides were produced using commercial proteases (alcalase, bromelain, flavourzyme, neutrase, papain, protamex), and the antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, hydroxy radical scavenging activity, and metals chelation capacity), constituent amino acid and molecular weight of the peptide were analyzed. Enzyme reaction was performed by adding 50 g of chopped Ogae meat slurry and 2%(w/v) protein enzyme into the enzyme reactor for 2 h at a pH of 6 and a temperature of $60^{\circ}C$. The degree of hydrolysis(%) after the reaction ranged from $36.65{\pm}4.10%$ to $70.75{\pm}5.29%$. The highest degree of hydrolysis of protamex was 46.3%, and the highest value of papain hydrolysate was $70.75{\pm}5.29%$. On the other hand, alcalase hydrolysate showed the lowest value of $36.65{\pm}4.10%$. Bromelain-treated low molecular weight peptides showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and the lowest scavenging activity of alcalase-treated peptides. Superoxide radical scavenging activity showed that bromelain treated low molecular peptide showed the highest radical scavenging activity of 50% or more. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity ranged from about 16.73 to 69.16%, the highest among bromelain-treated low molecular peptides. $Fe^{2+}$ chelation abilities showed a distribution between about 17.85 to 47.84%. The chelation capacity of the hydrolysates was not significantly different without any difference to the enzymes used. The results of amino acid analysis showed differences between hydrolysates of alcalase, bromelain, flavourzyme, neutrase, papain, and protamex enzymes. The most amino acid was glutamic acid. The molecular weight distribution of the enzyme hydrolyzates was in the range of 300-2,000 Da, although the molecular weight distribution differed according to the treated enzymes.

Antibacterial Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) Bark Extract against Fish Pathogenic Bacteria (계피 추출물의 어류 질병 세균에 대한 항균 효과)

  • MOK Jong-Soo;SONG Ki-Cheol;CHOI Nack-Joong;YANG Ho-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.545-549
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    • 2001
  • To develop a natural antibacterial agent for fish bacterial diseases, antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and bactericidal effect of cinnamon bark extract were examined against fish pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial effect of the extract to the fish diet was also estimated, Cinnamon bark extract showed the broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against fish pathogenic bacteria, especially, it had strong activity against Streptococcus iniae, Edwardsiella tarda and Listonella anguillarum. Its MIC was $75.8\sim189.6{\mu}g/mL$ against Cram positive bacteria, and $75.8\sim113.8{\mu}g/mL$ against Gram negative bacteria in liquid medium, It was found to show stronger bactericidal action against Gram negative bacteria than Cram positive bacteria. According to increasing concentrations of the extract, it resulted in a proportional reduction of viable cell counts of both S. iniae and L. anguillarum. The former was not detected by addition of $189.6{\mu}g/mL$ after 12 hours incubation and the latter by addition of $151.6{\mu}g/mL$ after 24 hours incubation, respectively. It was reasonable that fish diet was soaked in cinnamon bark extract for ten minutes. The relationship formula between the weight of fish diet and the extract absorbed to fish diet was Y=7.2726X+4.5083 ($R^2=0.9998$). The fish diet soaked in the extract inhibited the growth of all strains used in this study. Its antibacterial activity was stable at the range from $10^{\circ}C\;to\;35^{\circ}C$ during the storage period of 28 days. When the diet soaked in the extract was incubated in liquid medium at $35^{\circ}C$, it inhibited the growth of microorganisms inhabited in the diet.

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Fish Safety and Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Sulfur Solution on Aquatic Microorganisms (Saprolegnia parasitica) Isolated from Misgurnus mizolepis (미꾸라지(Misgurnus mizolepis)에서 분리된 수생균 (Saprolegnia parasitica)에 대한 천연유황수의 항균 활성 및 처리에 대한 어류 안전성)

  • Yi, Seung-Won;Lee, Seung-Hyeop;Lee, Sang-Jong;Kim, Mi-Hee;Lee, Hye-Hyun;Chu, Saet-Byul;Kim, Kyung-Hee;Lee, Hee Jung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.116-122
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    • 2017
  • Basic dyes such as malachite green and methylene blue have been used as disinfectants to control water fungal infections since the 1930s. However, after succeeding reports of carcinogenicity and bioaccumulation of the dye, their use was forbidden in lieu of public health. This study undertook to evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfur solution processed by effective microorganisms (EM-PSS) against Saprolegnia parasitica infection, and its safety in fish. In vitro antifungal evaluation of EM-PSS inhibited the growth of S. parasitica mycelia at concentrations of 50 ppm or higher. The acute toxicity test of EM-PSS to the mud fish (Misgurnus mizolepis) measured a no effect concentration (NOEC) at 100 ppm, the lowest effect concentration (LOEC) at 125 ppm, and the half-lethal concentration ($LC_{50}$) at 125 ppm in juvenile and 250 ppm in the immature stage. In addition, the ecotoxicity test of EM-PSS using Daphnia magna inhibited swimming of D. magna at concentrations of 100 ppm or less. Lastly, the EM-PSS prevented infection of S. parasitica to mud fish, at concentrations of 50 ppm. Furthermore, at 100 ppm concentration, the EM-PSS showed no acute toxicity on mud fish, nor any eco-toxic effects on D. magnano. Therefore, we conclude that carcinogenic disinfectants such as malachite green and methylene blue could be replaced by EM-PSS to remove S. parasitica in mud fish farming, and might be a potential eco-friendly disinfectant in aquaculture.

Enhancing the Effects of Zerumbone on THP-1 Cell Activation (단핵구세포주의 활성에 미치는 Zerumbone의 영향)

  • Lee, Min Ho;Kim, Sa Hyun;Ryu, Sung Ryul;Lee, Pyeongjae;Moon, Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2017
  • Zerumbone is a major component of the essential oil from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, which is a kind of wild ginger. In addition, various biological functions, such as liver protection, pain relief, atherosclerosis, and antimicrobial activity have been reported. It is also known to be effective in the proliferation of immune cells and the expression of cytokines. In this study, we investigated the effects of zerumbone on monocyte activation. First, it was confirmed that the proliferation of THP-1 cells was increased by zerumbone. The strongest increase in THP-1 proliferation after lipopolysaccharide treatment was observed at $5{\mu}M$ zerumbone treatment, and the increase of cell proliferation without lipopolysaccharide was the highest at $10{\mu}M$. Conversely, when treated with $50{\mu}M$ zerumbone, a rapid decrease of proliferation was observed regardless of the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The phosphorylation of signaling protein, Erk, induced by LPS was also increased by zerumbone. The strongest increase in phosphorylation was observed when treated with $50{\mu}M$ of zerumbone with reduced proliferation. The activity of transcription factor $NF-{\kappa}B$ was not significantly altered by zerumbone alone, but increased when treated with lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, the transcription of the inflammatory cytokines $TNF-{\alpha}$ and IL-8, which are regulated by $NF-{\kappa}B$, is also increased by zerumbone. These results suggest that zerumbone can enhance the proliferation and activity of monocytes. Furthermore, it is believed that zerumbone can enhance rthe immune responses through increased monocyte activity in bacterial infections with LPS, thereby helping to treat effective bacteria.

Antibacterial effects of Chitosanon-ascorbate Treated Kwamaegi Prepared on Microorganism Contamination (Chitosan-ascorbate 처리 과메기에 있어서 오염미생물에 대한 저해효과)

  • Kim, Young-Sook;oh, Seung-Hee;Kim, Soon-Dong
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.156-162
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    • 2009
  • We examined saury, herring, gizzard shad kwamaegi to measure of microbic contamination rate of kwamegi that are sold in the market now. In the total bacteria, staphylococcus, peroxide value, and microorganisms is inhibited that from sample that we treated a substance with chitosan-ascorbate (CA) and other orders deep water (DW), ginseng steamed red and wine (GRW), NT (not treated). When we compared between SGRW and SNT, SCA show us more inhibition effect 0.22-0.49 log cycle in the total aerobacter. When we compared between HDW and HNT, HCA restraint 0.05-0.45log cycle, and when we compared between GDW and GNT, GCA inhibited 0.45 log cycle. In the coliform and E. coli, growths of microorganisms were inhibited followed order by treatment of CA, NT, and DW. GDW, HCA and HNT checked enough amount of water from the moisture measurement; but SGW, GCA, HEW and SCA showed 7-15% lack of moisture, and SNT and GNT have 10% more moisture. Peroxide value is changed to 41-51meq/kg when we did treat CA in there and a side that didn't add antimicrobial expressed the result numerically that 56-58meq/kg. In the sensory evaluation, customer gave preference to followed by Saury kwamaegi, herring, and gizzard shad kwamaegi. We have a point of view when kwamaeki manufactured if we add natural antibiotic and it uses to vacuum drying, we would inhibited of multiplication of microorganism, and of peroxides.

The Effects of the Fermentation Broth of Fruits and Vegetables on Antimicrobial Activity and Egg Quality with its Supplementation in Feed (과채발효액의 항균 및 탈취력 효과와 사료 첨가시 계란 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • So, Kwang-Seob;Park, Young-Ho;Joung, II-Yong;Ko, Byoung-Seob;Hong, Sang-Mee;Park, Sun-Min
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the fermentation broth of fruits and vegetables and various kinds of lactobacillus containing in the broth on anti-microbial activity, anti-acidity, its organic acid concentrations and deorderization. In addition, the quality of eggs laid from the hens supplemented with the fermentation broth was determined. The fermentation broth contained over 8 kinds of lactobacillus and other microbes. Lactobacillus (L.) hilgardii, L. reuteri, L. nagelii, L. plantarum, and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus were survived especially in pH 2.0 among them. The concentrations of acetic acid and lactic acid in the broth were higher than minimum inhibitory concentration values (MIC) to Escherichia (E.) coli and Salmonella sp. Overall the broth contained sufficient organic acid to inhibit the growth of E. coli and Salmonella sp. In addition, L. nagelii and L. plantarum had the greatest anti-microbial activity against E. coli, Salmonella (S.) typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and S. gallinarium among lactobacillus in the broth. The broth had greater anti-microbial activity than individual lactobacillus. The fermentation broth had deodorization capacity of ammonia and hydrogen sulfate and the 50% of their concentrations were removed after 30 min treatment. Egg production rates, egg weight, and feed efficiency were increased in eggs laid from hens that supplemented with 0.1 % fermented broth compared to the control. The supplementation also increased the thickness and strength of egg shell to reduce broken eggs and decreased cholesterol levels in egg yolk. In conclusion, the fermentation broth of fruits and vegetables can be a natural alternative supplementation of feed in laying hens.

Antibacterial Activities of Bamboo Sap Against Salmonella Typhimurium and Inhibitory Effects in a Model Food System (죽력의 Salmonella typhimurium 등에 대한 항세균 활성과 Model Food System에서의 생육억제 효과)

  • Chung, Hee-Jong;Ko, Bong-Guk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.709-714
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    • 2005
  • Antibacterial activities of the freeze-dried bamboo sap dissolved into the water or 50% ethanol were determined and antimicrobial activity of bamboo sap dissolved into distilled water was most strong with 15 mm of the diameter of inhibiting clear zone against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19114 among gram positive bacteria tested, but it did not inhibit Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 at all, and the sap was most greatly inhibited the growth of Shigella dysenteriae ATCC 9361 among gram negative bacteria with 15 mm of the diameter of inhibiting clear zone. Bamboo sap dissolved into 50% ethanol most strongly inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19114 and it also inhibited the growth of B. subtilis ATCC 6633 which did not show any with the sap dissolved into distilled water. The sap dissolved into 50% ethanol was most greatly inhibited the growth of S. dysenteriae ATCC 9361 among gram negative bacteria with 23 mm of the diameter of inhibiting clear zone, and it inhibited Vibrio parahaemolyticus WSDH 22, Vibrio vulnilicus ATCC 29307 and Escherichia coli O157 WSDH 54 with 16 mm of the diameter of inhibiting clear zone. However, Both of the saps dissolved in distilled water and 50% ethanol did not showed any inhibition against the lactic acid bacteria of Lactobacillus plantarum KCTC and Lactobacillus brevis KCTC. Most of the tested bacteria were more sensitive to the sap dissolved in 50% ethanol than the sap dissolved in distilled water. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration of the bamboo sap dissolved into 50% ethanol was 0.6 mg eq./disc with L. monocytogenes ATCC 19114, but that of the sap dissolved into distilled water was 0.8 mg eq./disc with Staphylococcus epidermides ATCC 12228, S. dysenteriae ATCC 9361, L. monocytogenes ATCC 19114, Salmonella typhimurium WSU 2380 and V. parahaemolyticus WSDH 22. In a model food system of the sterilized chocolate milk, antibacterial activities of the sap dissolved into 50% ethanol were relatively stronger than those of the sap dissolved into distilled water and the activities against the bacteria tested were very similar each other. These result suggested the bamboo sap can be used as a natural food preservative.

Inhibitory Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Pine Buds (Pinus densiflora) on Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Xanthine Oxidase and Nitric Oxide Synthesis (소나무 새순 에탄올 추출물의 angiotensin converting enzyme, xanthine oxidase 및 nitrix oxide synthase 활성)

  • Cho, Eun-Kyung;Song, Hyo-Ju;Cho, Hea-Eun;Kim, Mi-Hyang;Choi, In-Soon;Choi, Young-Ju
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1629-1636
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    • 2009
  • Pine trees (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zacc.) have been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. This research was performed to determine the antioxidative and antibacterial activities, tyrosinase, nitric oxide synthesis, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and xanthine oxidase inhibition effects of the pine bud ethanol extract (PBE). Antioxidative activities of PBE were measured by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase-like activity (SODA). DPPH radical scavenging and SOD-like activities of PBE were remarkably increased in a dose-dependent manner, and were about 88.9% and 47.9% at 1 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml, respectively. The xanthine oxidase and angiotensin converting enzyme activities were inhibited about 71.9% and 60.8% at 1 mg/ml and $100{\mu}g/ml$ of PBE, respectively. The tyrosinase inhibitory activities of PBE were slightly increased in a dose-dependent manner. The PBE showed strong antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Vibrio paraheamolyticus. Stimulation of the macrophages RAW264.7 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in increased production of nitric oxide (NO) in the medium. However, NO synthesis was reduced up to 54% by addition of PBE at $200{\mu}g/ml$. These results revealed that pine buds have a strong antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity, and exhibit angiotensin converting enzyme and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. This suggests that pine buds have the greatest property as a source for natural health products.

The Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Selected Barley and Wheat Inhabited in Korean Peninsula (국내산 보리와 밀 추출물의 항산화 및 항균 활성)

  • Jo, Sung-Hoon;Cho, Cha-Young;Ha, Kyoung-Soo;Choi, Eun-Ji;Kang, Yu-Ri;Kwon, Young-In
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.7
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    • pp.1003-1007
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    • 2013
  • In this study, the antibacterial activities of selected barleys (UB, unhulled barley; PB, pearl barley; and NB, naked barley) and wheat (WG, wheat with germ and endosperm) extracts were evaluated against the food-borne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus KCTC 1927, Escherichia coli KCTC 2593, Salmonella Typhimurium KCTC 2054, and Bacillus cereus KCTC 1014. The amount of the antibacterial biomarker, 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ), present in selected barleys and wheat, was measured by HPLC. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of samples was determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. WG ($22.35{\pm}0.04mm$) was found to be highly inhibitory to Staphylococcus aureus followed by UB ($17.91{\pm}0.10mm$), PB ($16.87{\pm}0.05mm$), and NB ($15.69{\pm}0.20mm$). The antibacterial activity of the selected grains was correlated with antioxidant activities and the amount of DMBQ (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.7831). The antioxidant activity of the selected grains was also correlated with the total phenolic content (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.9934). WG extract showed significantly higher antibacterial activity, compared with barley extracts such as UB, PB, and NB. The results of this study suggest that barley has a potential in the development of natural antimicrobials and food preservatives for controlling food-borne pathogens.

The Anti-angiogenic Potential of a Phellodendron amurense Hot Water Extract in Vitro and ex Vivo (in Vitro와 ex vivo에서 황백 온수추출물의 신생혈관 억제효과)

  • Kim, Eok-Cheon;Kim, Seo Ho;Bae, Kiho;Kim, Han Sung;Gelinsky, Michael;Kim, Tack-Joong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.693-702
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    • 2015
  • Blocking new blood-vessel formation (angiogenesis) is now recognized as a useful approach to the therapeutic treatment of many solid tumors. The best validated approach to date is to target the vascular endothelial growth-factor (VEGF) pathway, a key regulator of angiogenesis. Many natural products and extracts that contain a variety of chemopreventive compounds have been shown to suppress the development of malignancies through their anti-angiogenic properties. Phellodendron amurense, which is widely used in Korean traditional medicine, has been shown to possess antitumor, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties, among others. The present study investigated the effects of P. amurense hot-water extract (PAHWE) on angiogenesis, a key process in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. To investigate PAHWE’s anti-angiogenic properties, this study’s authors performed an analysis of angiogenesis and endothelial-cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation, as well as zymogram assays and the rat aortic ring-sprouting assay. PAHWE inhibited cell growth, mobility, and vessel formation in response to VEGF in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, it reduced VEGF-induced intracellular signaling events, such as the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9. These results indicate that PAHWE’s anti-angiogenic properties might lead to the development of potential drugs for treating angiogenesis-associated diseases such as cancer.