• Title, Summary, Keyword: needle retention

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Identification of Coffee Fragrances Using Needle Trap Device-Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometry (NTD-GC/MS)

  • Eom, In-Yong;Jung, Min-Ji
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.1703-1707
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    • 2013
  • A fast and simple sampling and sample preparation device, (NTD) has been developed and applied to sample and analyze volatile components from ground coffee beans. Coffee fragrances and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled by the NTD and then analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Divinylbenzene (DVB) particles (80/100 mesh size) were the sorbent bed of the NTD. More than 150 volatile components were first identified based on the database of the mass library and then finally 30 fragrances including caffeine were further confirmed by comparing experimental retention indices (i.e. Kovat index) with literature retention indices. Total sampling time was 10 minutes and no extra solvent extraction and/or reconstitution step need. Straight n-alkanes (C6-C20) were used as retention index probes for the calculation of experimental retention indices. In addition, this report suggests that an empty needle can be an alternative platform for analyzing polymers by pyrolysis-GC/MS.

Effect of Pre-treatment or Post-treatment of Acupuncture, Low Frequency Electro-acupuncture and High Frequency Electro-acupuncture at $LI_4$ on Intestinal Motility in Rats (합곡에 대한 유침, 저주파 및 고주파 전침이 흰쥐의 장운동에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Se-Hyeon;Lee, Hyun
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.11-29
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of acupuncture and electro-acupuncture at $LI_4$ on intestinal motility in rat. Methods : We made over-activated state of intestinal motility with carbachol and suppressed state of intestinal motility with loperamide in rat and carried out needle retention acupuncture, low frequency electro-acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture at $LI_4$ or sham point in rat devided into pre-treatment group and post-treatment group. and we resulted as follow for measuring charcoal travel rate to observe intestinal motility. Results : 1. Any of needle retention acupuncture, low frequency electro-acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture at $LI_4$ have no significant influences on intestinal motility of rat in normal state. 2. All of the pre-treatment and post-treatment of needle retention acupuncture, low frequency electro-acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture didn't significantly decrease intestinal motility in rat which over-activated with carbachol. 3. Pre-treatment of needle retention acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture significantly increased intestinal motility in rat which suppressed with loperamide. 4. Post-treatment of needle retention acupuncture, low frequency electro-acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture significantly increased intestinal motility in rat which suppressed with loperamide. Conclusions : These results suggest that acupuncture on $LI_4$ have preventive effect and therapeutic effect on suppressed intestinal motility, and especially high frequency electro-acupuncture is more effective.

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A SQUID MEG Study on the Auditory Primary Response induced by Acupuncture on TE5 (Waiguan).GB43 (Xiaxi) (외관(外關)(TE5).협계(俠谿)(GB43) 자침이 SQUID로 측정한 뇌 청각영역의 뇌자도(腦磁圖) 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi Chan-Hun;Ra Ki-Uung;Jang Kyeong-Seon;Na Chang-Su
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.135-145
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    • 2006
  • Objectives and Methods : Using the 2-channel DROS SQUID (Korea Research Institute of Standards of Science, 1999), the present study was carried out to record changes elicited in the auditory cortex by acupuncture stimulus on right TE5 (Waiguan) and GB43 (Xiaxi). Needle-retention stimulation of TE5 and GB43 were done for acquiring the brain activities changed by acupuncture. Acupoint TE5 and GB43 is known to be effective for the treatment of ear-related disease, such as deafness and tinnitus, and to be suspected to be related to the auditory cortex. Auditory evoked magnetic fields were recorded hem the left hemisphere of five subjects, in response to contralateral ear stimulation by irregularly spaced 170 msec long 1kHz tone busts (Korea Research Institute of Standards of Science) Results and Conclusions : The result as follows. The latency and amplitude of SQUID MEG responses at the human auditory cortex changed by needle-retention condition on TE5 were 4msec and 9.2 fT, respectively, which were slower and smaller than those of no-acupuncture condition. The latency and amplitude of SQUID MEG responses at the human auditory cortex changed by needle-retention condition on GB43 were 7.2 msec and 1.6 fT, respectively, which were slower and larger than those of no-acupuncture condition. The latency of SQUID MEG responses at the human auditory cortex changed by needle-retention condition on GB43 condition was slower than that of TE5 acupuncture condition.

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Effect of Acupuncture and High Frequency Electroacupuncture at $ST_{39}$ on Intestinal Motility in Rats (하거허 유침 및 고주파 전침이 흰쥐의 장운동에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Eun-Kyoung;Choi, Eun-Hee;Jeon, Ju-Hyon;Kim, Young-Il
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.79-89
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe the effect of acupuncture and high frequency electroacupuncture at $ST_{39}$ on intestinal motility in rats. Methods: We made over-activated state of intestinal motility with carbachol and suppressed state of intestinal motility with loperamide in rat and carried out needle retention acupuncture and high frequency electroacupuncture at $ST_{39}$ or sham point in rat divided into pre-treatment group and post-treatment group. We fed charcoal to them after the treatment and measured the travel rate of charcoal in the gastrointestinal tract to observe intestinal motility. Results : Examining intestinal motility of normal rat treated with needle retention acupuncture at $ST_{39}$ significantly suppressed intestinal motility. Pre-treatment of needle retention acupuncture significantly suppressed intestinal motility in rat which over-activated with carbachol. Pre-treatment and post-treatment of high frequency electroacupuncture significantly suppressed intestinal motility in rat which over-activated with carbachol. All of the pre-treatment and post-treatment of needle retention acupuncture, high frequency electroacupuncture showed no significant effect than control group on intestinal motility of rat which was suppressed with loperamide. Conclusions : These results suggest that acupuncture and high frequency electroacupuncture at $ST_{39}$ have preventive and therapeutic effects on over-activated intestinal motility, and high frequency electroacupuncture is more effective.

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The Effect of Low Frequency Electro-acupuncture at ST39 on Intestinal Motility in Rats (하거허 상응부위 저주파 전침자극이 흰쥐의 장운동에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Seo Jin;Lee, Hyun;Kang, Jae Hui
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.9-21
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low frequency electro-acupuncture at ST39 on intestinal motility in rats. Methods : Intestinal hypermotility and hypomotility in rats were induced by oral carbachol ingestion and loperamide injection. Rats were divided into seventeen experimental groups including the normal and holder groups. The rats were induced with intestinal hypermotility and hypomotility and divided into pre and post-treatment groups. I also carried out acupuncture (needle retention) and low frequency electro-acupuncture at ST39 or the sham point. I fed charcoal to rats after the treatment and calculated its distance travelled in the gastrointestinal tract, which was compared by groups so as to determine which treatment was more effective in increasing or decreasing intestinal motility. Results : 1. In normal rats, low frequency electro-acupuncture at ST39 showed no significant effect on intestinal motility. 2. Pre-treatment with acupuncture (needle retention) at ST39 on intestinal motility over-activated with carbachol significantly decreased intestinal motility in rats. 3. Pre-treatment with low frequency electro-acupuncture at ST39 on intestinal motility over-activated with carbachol significantly decreased intestinal motility in rats. 4. Pre-treatment with acupuncture (needle retention and low frequency electro-acupuncture) at ST39 showed no significant effect on intestinal hypomotility in rats that was induced by loperamide injection. Conclusions : These results suggest that acupuncture (needle retention) and low frequency electro-acupuncture at ST39 have preventive effects on intestinal hypermotility. Regardless of the stimulation method, ST39 showed an effect on intestinal motility. Further study is required to confirm other effects of ST39.

New Model of Verifiation for Demonstration of Neuronal Basis of Acupuncture by Comparison of Two Different Methods of Acupuncture which Increase Regional Cerebral Blood Flow ( rCBF ) on SPECT (핵의학(SPECT)을 이용한 뇌혈류변화에 대한 침구효과 검증방법의 새로운 모델에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Soog-Gi;Kang, Hwa-Jeong;Song, Ho-Chun;Bom, Hee-Seung
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.247-259
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    • 2000
  • Objective : The mechanism of acupuncture to increase cerebral blood flow is still uncertain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neural basis of acupuncture by comparing the cerebral regions activated by the stimulation of two different methods of acupunctures at the same acupoint which was suggested by oriental medicine to increase rCBF. Materials and Methods : Thirty-nine healthy volunteers(26 males, 13 females, age $31{\pm}11$ years) were studies by rest/acupuncture Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT using a subtraction method. SPECTs using two methods(needle retention and heated needle with 90% alcohol) at two acupoints (right LI. 4 and ST. 36) were peformed at an interval of three days. For the needle retention method, acupuncture needle was inserted to a depth of about 2 cm into each acupoint 8 minutes after the lst acquisition and continued to retain, and the second injection of Tc-99m ECD was done 15 minutes after the insertion of needle. For the heated acupuncture method, heated needle was inserted in a twinkle within several msec 20 second after the second injection of Tc-99m ECD. The differences of between rest and acupuncture activation state were statistically analyzed using a statistical parametric mapping software. Result : Acupunctures of both methods reveal similar patterns of increase in rCBF. Acupuncture at ST.36 increase rGBF in left anterior temporal, right inferior frontal lobes, and left cerebellum. Acupuncture at LI. 4 increase rCBF in the left frontal cortex, right temporal pole, both inferior frontal cortices and right cerebellum. Conclusion : The effects of two different acupunctures to the same acupoints on rCBF were similar. Therefore, this result suggests Chat the mechanism of acupuncture in the increase of cerebral blood flow have a neural basis.

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Quantitative Comparison of Acupuncture Needle Force Generation According to Diameter

  • Lee, YeonSun;Bong, SungMin;Kim, Eun Jung;Lee, Seung Deok;Jung, Chan Yung
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.238-243
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    • 2018
  • Background: Various factors can alter the efficacy of acupuncture treatment, such as the location of points, manipulations, depth of insertion, needle retention time, and needle type. In this study, the effect of needle diameter on the efficacy of acupuncture treatment was quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Five acupuncture needles of different diameters used in clinical practice were compared. Force on the porcine tissue phantom was measured using a sensor. Lifting-thrusting and twisting-rotating movements were performed using a needle insertion-measurement system. After repeated measurements, force magnitude was calculated and compared. Following this, we correlated needle diameter and force magnitude during lifting-thrusting and twisting-rotating movements. Results: The force magnitude was significantly altered between needle diameters during lifting-thrusting movements, as shown by a significant positive correlation between needle diameter and force magnitude. In contrast, there was no difference in force magnitude with different needle diameters during twisting-rotating movements. Conclusion: Needle diameter can significantly affect stimuli and force magnitude dependent upon the type of manipulation. Research into the effect of other needle type characteristics and stimulation method is necessary to fully elucidate the role of acupuncture needle choice in treatment efficacy.

SQUID MEG Responses of the Human Auditory Cortex Generated by Acupuncture on GB43(Xiaxi) (협계혈(GB43) 자침시 침시술 방법에 따른 SQUID MEG 신호의 변화 관찰)

  • Jeon Yong Srok;Jang Kyeong Seon;Kim Jin geun;Choi Chan Hun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.1032-1038
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    • 2005
  • Using the 2-channel DROS SQUID (Korea Research Institute of Standards of Science, 1999), the present study was carried out to record changes elicited in the auditory cortex by acupuncture stimulus (right GB43, Xiaxi). Needle-retention and manual needle-twitching stimulation of GB43 and SP1 were done for acquiring the brain activities changed by acupuncture. Acupoint GB43 is known to be effective for the treatment of ear-related disease, such as deafness and tinnitus, and to be suspected to be related to the auditory cortex. Auditory evoked magnetic fields were recorded from the left hemisphere of five or four subjects, in response to contralateral ear stimulation by irregularly spaced 170msec long 1kHz tone busts (Korea Research Institute of Standards of Science). The result as follows The latency and amplitude of SQUID MEG responses at the human auditory cortex changed by needle-retention condition on GB43 were 7.2msec and 1.617, respectively, which were slower and larger than those of no-acupuncture condition. The amplitude of SQUID MEG responses at the human auditory cortex changed by needle-twitching condition on GB43 was 13.517, which was larger than that of no-acupuncture condition. The change in SP1 following GB43 needle-twitching condition were not observed in latency. The amplitude changed by needle-twitching condition on SP1 was 12.2fT, which was not significant. These results suggested that auditory cortex can be affected by acupuncture stimulus, though not specific or significant because of small number of subjects.

Preparation and Weatherability Assessments of Duplicated Geotextiles (Duplicated Geotextiles의 제조 및 내후성 평가)

  • 전한용
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.534-546
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    • 2003
  • Duplicated geotextiles to improve the weatherability were made of recycled polyester (PET) geotextile with carbon black as ultraviolet stabilizer and polypropylene (PP) geotextile by needle-punching method. Their physical properties, ultraviolet resistance, and chemical stability of duplicated geotextiles were evaluated. Retention ratio of tensile properties of nonwoven polypropylene geotextiles decreased by about 50% on exposure to ultraviolet light, but those of geotextile composites were slightly decreased compared with polypropylene geotextiles. Duplicated geotextiles which have larger weights of polyester geotextile were more stable against ultraviolet light. The changes of tensile properties of geotextile composites were in the range of -20∼+10% under the various chemical conditions.

Assesment of Weather ability of Polyester/Polypropylene Geotextile Composites (폴리에스테르/폴리프로필렌 복합형 지오텍스타일의 내후성 평가)

  • 전한용
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.39-55
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    • 1999
  • Geotextile composites to improve the weather ability were composed of recycled polyester geotextile with carbon black as ultraviolet stabilizer and polypropylene geotextile by needle-punching method, and evaluated physical properties, ultraviolet resistance and chemical stability. Retention ratio of tensile properties of non woven polypropylene geotextiles were decreased about 50% by the exposed condition with ultraviolet but those of geotextile composites were slightly decreased than polypropylene geotextiles. Geotextile composites which have larger weights of polyester geotextile were more stable against ultraviolet. For chemical stability, the changes of tensile properties of geotextile composites were in the range of -20~+10% at the various chemical conditions.

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