• Title, Summary, Keyword: neoadjuvant chemotherapy

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Role of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in the Management of Advanced Ovarian Cancer

  • Zhao, Dan;Wu, Ling-Ying;Wang, Xiao-Bing;Li, Xiao-Guang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2369-2373
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    • 2015
  • Objective: To analyze efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 107 patients with advanced ovarian cancer undergoing cytoreductive surgery were divided into a neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (n=61) and a primary debulking group (n=46) and retrospectively analyzed. Platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy was applied to both groups after cytoreductive surgery ande overall and progression-free survival times were calculated. Results: No significant difference was observed in duration of hospitalization ($20.8{\pm}6.1$ vs. $20.2{\pm}5.4$ days, p>0.05). The operation time of neoadjuvant chemotherapy group was shorter than the initial surgery group ($3.1{\pm}0.7$ vs. $3.4{\pm}0.8$ h, p<0.05). There were no significant differences in median overall survival time between neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and surgery group (42 vs. 55 months, p>0.05). Similarly, there was no difference in median progression-free survival between neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and surgery group (16 vs. 17 months, p>0.05). The surgical residual tumor size demonstrated no significant difference between initial surgery and neoadjuvant chemotherapy groups (p>0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that more than 3 cycles of regimen with neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with more resistance to chemotherapy compared with patients without receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (OR: 5.962, 95%CI: 1.184-30.030, p<0.05). Conclusions:Neoadjuvant chemotherapy can shorten the operation time. However, it does not improve survival rates of advanced ovarian cancer patients.

Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on Axillary Lymph Node Positivity and Numbers in Breast Cancer Cases

  • Uyan, Mikail;Koca, Bulent;Yuruker, Savas;Ozen, Necati
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1181-1185
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    • 2016
  • Background: The aim of this study is to compare the numbers of axillary lymph nodes (ALN) taken out by dissection between patients with breast cancer operated on after having neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) treatment and otherswithout having neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and to investigate factors affecting lymph node positivity. Materials and Methods: A total of 49 patients operated due to advanced breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 144 patients with a similar stage of the cancer having primary surgical treatment without chemotherapy at the general surgery clinic of Ondokuz Mayis University Medicine Faculty between the dates 01.01.2006 and 31.10.2012 were included in the study. The total number of lymph nodes taken out by axillary dissection (ALND) was categorized as the number of positive lymph nodes and divided into <10 and ${\geq}10$. The variables to be compared were analysed using the program SPSS 15.0 with P<0.05 accepted as significant. Results: Median number of dissected lymph nodes from the patient group having neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 16 (16-33) while it was 20 (5-55) without chemotherapy. The respective median numbers of positive lymph nodes were 5 (0-19) and 10 (0-51). In 8 out of 49 neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients (16.3%), the number of dissected lymph nodes was below 10, and it was below 10 in 17 out of 144 primary surgery patients. Differences in numbers of dissected total and positive lymph nodes between two groups were significant, but this was not the case for numbers of <10 lymph nodes. Conclusions: The number of dissected lymph nodes from the patients with breast cancer having neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be less than without chemotherapy. This may not always be attributed to an inadequate axillary dissection. More research to evaluate the numbers of positive lymph nodes are required in order to increase the reliability of staging in the patients with breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Advanced Head and Neck Cancer : Protocol Based Study (진행성 두경부암에서 선행항암요법과 방사선요법의 치료성적)

  • Kim Chul-Ho;Choi Jin-Hyuk;Lee Jin-Seok;Oh Young-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.172-176
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    • 2004
  • Background and Objectives: Standard treatment of locally advanced laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, and some oropharyngeal cancers includes total laryngectomy. In an attempt to preserve the larynx through induction chemotherapy, we designed induction chemotherapy followed by definitive radiation in patients with potentially respectable head and neck cancer to determine whether organ preservation is feasible without apparent compromise of survival. Materials and Methods: The twenty-six patients diagnosed advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Stage III or IV (AJCC 2002) and performed organ preservation protocols in Ajou university hospital from 1994 to 2001 were included in this study. Results: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed an overall response rate of 84.6% and a complete remission (CR) rate was 59.1% following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Seven of thirteen patients were able to preserve their larynges for more than two years by chemotherapy and radiation. There were no treatment related mortality after 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy. Conclusion: Although Organ preservation protocol through neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation need more controlled randomized study, it was considered alternative treatment modality in advanced head and neck cancer.

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Resectable Esophageal Carcinoma: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

  • Xu, Xiao-Hua;Peng, Xue-Hong;Yu, Ping;Xu, Xiao-Yuan;Cai, Er-Hui;Guo, Pi;Li, Ke
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.103-110
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    • 2012
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for resectable esophageal carcinoma has been a focus of study, but no agreement has been reached on clinical randomized controlled trials and relevant systematic evaluation. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis on published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery with surgery alone for resectable esophageal carcinoma. Medline and manual searches was conducted in PubMed, ASCO (American Society of Clinical Oncology) meeting summary, Embase, the Cochrane Library (up to October 2010), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database, Wanfang Database. The selection contents were to identify all published and unpublished RCTs that compared neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery with surgery alone for resectable esophageal carcinoma. Sixteen RCTs which included 2,594 patients were selected. The risk ratio (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]; P value), expressed as neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery versus surgery alone (treatment versus control), was 1.02 (0.95, 1.10; P=0.54) for 1-year survival, 1.29 (1.13, 1.47; P=0.0001) for 3-year survival, 1.31 (1.13, 1.51; P=0.0003) for 5-year survival, 1.00 (0.95, 1.04; P= 0.85) for rate of resection and 0.89 (0.64, 1.23; P=0.48) for operative mortality. The results showed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy for resectable esophageal carcinoma can raise the overall survival rate of patients with esophageal carcinoma, but it does not affect treatment-related mortality.

Expression of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) as a Predictor of Poor Pathologic Response to Chemotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Prajoko, Yan Wisnu;Aryandono, Teguh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.595-598
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    • 2014
  • Background: NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibits apoptosis through induction of antiapoptotic proteins and suppression of proapoptotic genes. Various chemotherapy agents induce NF-${\kappa}B$ translocation and target gene activation. We conducted the present study to assess the predictive value of NF-${\kappa}B$ regarding pathologic responses after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 131 patients with locally advanced invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect NF-${\kappa}B$ expression. Evaluation of pathologic response was elaborated with the Ribero classification. Results: Expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ was significantly associated with poor pathological response (p=0.02). From the multivariate analysis, it was found that the positive expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ yielded RR=1.74 (95%CI 0.77 to 3.94). Conclusions: NF-${\kappa}B$ can be used as a predictor of poor pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Neoadjuvant Treatment for Gastric Cancer

  • Schuhmacher, Christoph;Reim, Daniel;Novotny, Alexander
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2013
  • Surgery is still considered to be the mainstay for the treatment of localized gastric cancer with negative margins (R0-resection) and an adequate lymph-node-dissection (D2-lymphadenectomy). Unfortunately, most cases of gastric cancer are only diagnosed at an advanced stage due to frequent recurrences after primary resection in curative intent. In order to improve prognosis after curative resection, in the recent past, patients with locally advanced tumors were subjected to a pre-, peri-, or postoperative treatment. Interestingly, postoperative chemotherapy has significantly improved survival after gastric resection in Asia, adjuvant radiochemotherapy is favored in North America and perioperative chemotherapy is considered as a treatment of choice in Europe indicating region specific approach towards the treatment. Recently there has also been growing evidence of positive outcomes of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy on patient survival. In the present article, we discuss the concepts of neoadjuvant treatment approach and provide recommendations to surgeons based on current evidence.

Preoperative Chemotherapy in Advanced Stomach Cancer (Pros) (위암에서의 수술 전 선행항암화학요법(in the View of Pros))

  • Park, Sook Ryun
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.57-64
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    • 2008
  • In gastric cancer, the only potentially curative treatment is surgery that attempts to achieve curative (R0) resection. However, despite the use of curative resection, a recurrence develops in a high percentage of patients, especially in cases of serosa and/or lymph node involvement. As a strategy to improve the survival of the patients with resectable advanced gastric cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been evaluated in several phase II trials and a few phase III trials. The results of these trials have confirmed the feasibility and safety of this approach with no apparent increase in surgical complications. Recently, the findings of a large phase III randomized trial (MAGIC trial) have indicated that compared to the use of surgery alone, perioperative chemotherapy, using both a neoadjuvant and adjuvant strategy, decreased the number of T and N stage cancers and improved survival. The results of another recent phase III trial (FNLCC 94012/FFCD 9703) also showed that compared to the use of surgery alone, perioperative chemotherapy improved the R0 resection rate and survival. In both trials, the improved outcomes may be attributed to the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy because of poor compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy. These results cannot be directly translated to clinical practice in Korea due to differences in surgical techniques and outcomes. However, the findings of a few small phase II and III trials performed in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer in Korea have also suggested that neoadjuvant chemotherapy would result in the improvement of the R0 resection rate and down-staging of the disease. More effective chemotherapy regimens are needed in future large randomized trials to determine the subset of patients that will benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy and to determine the extent of benefit.

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THE ROLE OF TUMOR-ASSOCIATED MACROPHAGES ON MICROVESSEL DENSITY AFTER NEOADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY IN TONGUE CANCER (설암에서 신부가화학요법후 미세혈관밀도에 대한 종양관련 대식세포의 역할)

  • Park, Bong-Wook;Chung, In-Kyo;Kim, Jong-Ryoul;Kim, Uk-Kyu;Park, Bong-Soo;Kim, Gyoo-Cheon;Byun, June-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.209-215
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    • 2006
  • Preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy using cisplatin and 5-FU is generally given in oral and maxillofacial cancer. At tissue level both inflammation and fibrosis occur after chemotherapy. The cellular changes mimic those of a granulating wound, with activated macrophages and fibroblasts replacing the malignant cells as they are erradicated. Stromal cells, together with extracellular matrix components, provide the microenvironment that is pivotal for tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastatic progression. Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF), an important regulator of angiogenesis in cancer, induces mitogenesis of vascular endothelial cells, and vascular permeabilization and microvessel formation in a tumor are associated with tumor nutrition and oxygenation. Also, they are associated with chemotherapeutic drug delivery. Oxygen delivery to tumor appears to rely on a network of microvessels, On the other hand, the tumor microvessel is clearly an important factor in chemotherapeutic drug delivery to cancer cells, and the efficacy of drug delivery can be high in richly vascularized tumors. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on microvessel density from 11 patients with tongue cancers. Our results showed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy was seemed to decrease VEGF expression in tumor cells, however, it did not significantly alter VEGF expression in tumor-associated macrophages. Also, Neoadjuvant chemotherapy had little effect on the microvessel density using CD34, and tumor-associated macrophage level using CD68. Thus, tumorassociated macrophages seem to be the key factor associated with the maintenance of microvessel density after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in tongue cancer.

Response of Triple Negative Breast Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Correlation between Ki-67 Expression and Pathological Response

  • Elnemr, Gamal M;El-Rashidy, Ahmed H;Osman, Ahmed H;Issa, Lotfi F;Abbas, Osama A;Al-Zahrani, Abdullah S;El-Seman, Sheriff M;Mohammed, Amrallah A;Hassan, Abdelghani A
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.807-813
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    • 2016
  • Triple-negative breast cancers constitute about 15% of all cases, but despite their higher response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the tumors are very aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis as well as a higher risk of early recurrence. This study was retrospectively performed on 101 patients with stage II and III invasive breast cancer who received 6-8 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Out of the total, 23 were in the triple negative breast cancer subgroup. Nuclear Ki-67 expression in both the large cohort group (n=101) and triple negative breast cancer subgroup (n=23) and its relation to the pathological response were evaluated. The purpose of the study was to identify the predictive value of nuclear protein Ki-67 expression among patients with invasive breast cancers, involving the triple negative breast cancer subgroup, treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy in correlation to the rate of pathological complete response. The proliferation marker Ki-67 expression was highest in the triple negative breast cancer subgroup. No appreciable difference in the rate of Ki-67 expression in triple negative breast cancer subgroup using either a cutoff of 14% or 35%. Triple negative breast cancer subgroup showed lower rates of pathological complete response. Achievement of pathological complete response was significantly correlated with smaller tumor size and higher Ki-67 expression. The majority of triple negative breast cancer cases achieved pathological partial response. The study concluded that Ki-67 is a useful tool to predict chemosensitivity in the setting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive breast cancer but not for the triple negative breast cancer subgroup.

Predictive Value of the Pattern of β-Catenin Expression for Pathological Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients

  • Elsamany, S;Elemam, O;Elmorsy, S;Alzahrani, A;Abbas, MM
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.4089-4093
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study aimed to explore the association of ${\beta}-catenin$ expression pattern with pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer (BC) patients. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective exploratory study, data for 50 BC patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were recorded. ${\beta}-catenin$ expression in tumours was assessed using immunohistochemistry and classified as either membranous or cytoplasmic according to the pattern of staining. Distributions of different clinico-pathological parameters according to ${\beta}-catenin$ expression were assessed using the Chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess any relation of the pattern of ${\beta}-catenin$ expression with the pathological response. Results: Cytoplasmic ${\beta}-catenin$ expression was detected in 34% of BCs. Among our cases, 52% were hormonal receptor (HR)-positive, 24% were HER2-positive, 74% were clinical stage III and 74% received both anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy. Patients with cytoplasmic expression were more commonly younger than 40 years at diagnosis (cytoplasmic, 41.2% vs. no cytoplasmic expression, 12.1%, p=0.03). By doing t-test, cytoplasmic ${\beta}-catenin$ expression was linked with a higher body mass index compared to membranous-only expression ($mean{\pm}SD$ $33.0{\pm}4.47$ vs. $29.6{\pm}6.01$, respectively, p=0.046). No significant associations were found between ${\beta}-catenin$ expression and other parameters such as HR and HER2 status, or clinical stage. Complete pathological response (pCR) rate was twice as great in patients with membranous expression but without statistical significance (membranous-only, 33.3% vs. cytoplasmic, 17.6%, OR= 2.3, 95% CI= 0.55-9.87, p=0.24). Conclusions: This study suggests that cytoplasmic ${\beta}-catenin$ expression may be linked with lower probability of achieving pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. These data need to be validated in a larger cohort of patients.