• 제목, 요약, 키워드: neutral axis

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적층목질재(積層木質材)(Glulam)의 중립축(中立軸)과 강도적(强度的) 성질(性質)에 관한 연구(硏究) (Study on the Neutral Axis of Glulam and its Mechanical Properties)

  • 박헌
    • 목재공학
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.42-52
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    • 1990
  • In this study, thick 24mm glulams were composed of thick. 3, 4, 6, 8mm Larch laminas to study that the theoretical analysis and the experimental analysis regarding the location of neutral axis of the glulams were compared, and to study on the effect of location of neutral axis on mechanical properties of glulam. The variation of location of neutral axis after proportional limit(or elastical limit) was studied to offer basic data to make the better composition method of glulam. The result obtained can be summarized as follows: 1. The theoretical neutral axis was 0.547 in solid wood, and also 0.547 in glulams because glulams were composed of only Larch laminas. 2. In solid wood, the deviation of the theoretical and the experimental neutral axis location was 0.1%, But in glulams, the deviation from-12.2% to + 7.8% showed nonuniform pattern but no large deviation. Because laminas was only of Larch and so the mechanical properties of laminas were monotonous. 3. The neutral axis exerted no influance on the elasticity of glulam, which meaned that the maximum shear strength in the neutral axis showed no influance on elasticity limit. 4. The only minutely lower elasticities of glulam than that of solid wood were shown. This was because of influance of glue lines of glulam on the elasticlties. 5. The failure type of glulam was wholly simple tension failure and the horizontal shear failure near neutral axis was not taken place, which was that glue line was complete in bonding and the strength of the lamina was not various but uniform. 6. The ratio of tension strain($^{\varepsilon}t$) I compression strain($^{\varepsilon}c$) initially showed uniform level After the elasticity limit. the ratio was increased with the flow of time and so the tension strain was more increased than compression strain. So this proved tension lamination technique, which is that the mechanical properties of glulam could be improved, if the lamina of more superior strength would he added on the bottom side of the glulam.

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하중(荷重) 변화(變化)가 적층목질재(積層木質材)(Glulam)의 중립축(中立軸)의 위치변이(位置變移)에 미치는 영향(影響) (Effect of Load Variation on Transition of Neutral Axis of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL))

  • 박헌;안치환
    • 목재공학
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 1991
  • In this study, thickness 40mm glulams were composed of thickness 5mm, 10mm Quercus laminas and Pinus koraiensis laminas to study on the effect of load variation on transition of neutral axis of laminated veneer lumber(LVL). The transition of neutral axis was examined by strain variation, which was checked by strain gauge. amplifier, recorder, and strain meter. The elasticity of glulam was estimated by E = $\Sigma(E_i\;I_ i)$/I and this estimated elasticity values were compared with the elasticity values of glulam in bending. The result obtained can be summarized as follows: 1. The location of neutral axis of glulam was effected by glulam composition methods 2. The neutral axis did not shift by load variation within proportional limit. 3. The estimated elasticity of glulam by E = $\Sigma(E_i\;I_ i)$/I showed much lower value than the elasticity of glulam in bending.

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선박의 비대칭 단면 특성에 대한 연구 (Study on Section Properties of Asymmetric-Sectioned Vessels)

  • 정준모;김영훈
    • 대한조선학회논문집
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.843-849
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    • 2010
  • This paper presents definition of symmetry of a ship section where three symmetries are proposed: material, geometric, and load symmetries. Precise terminologies of centroid, moment plane, and neutral axis plane are also defined. It is suggested that force vector equilibrium as well as force equilibrium are necessary condition to determine new position of neutral axis due to translational and rotational mobility. It is also stated that new reference datum of ENMP(elastic neutral moment plane), PNMP(fully plastic moment plane), ENAP(elastic neutral axis plane), and INAP(inelastic neutral moment plane) are required to define asymmetric section properties such as second moment of area, elastic section modulus, yield moment, fully plastic moment, and ultimate moment. Since collision-induced damage and flooding-induced biaxial bending moment produce typical asymmetry of section, the section properties are calculated for a typical VLCC. Geometry asymmetry is determined from ABS and DNV rules and two moment planes of 0/30 degs are assumed for load asymmetry. It is proved that the property reduction ratios directly calculated from second moment of area are usually larger than area reduction ratio. Reduction ratio of ultimate moment capacity shows almost linearly proportional to area reduction ratio. Mobility of elastic and inelastic neutral axis planes is visually provided.

Exact vibration and buckling analyses of arbitrary gradation of nano-higher order rectangular beam

  • Heydari, Abbas
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.589-606
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    • 2018
  • The previous studies reflected the significant effect of neutral-axis position and coupling of in-plane and out-of-plane displacements on behavior of functionally graded (FG) nanobeams. In thin FG beam, this coupling can be eliminated by a proper choice of the reference axis. In shear deformable FG nanobeam, not only this coupling can't be eliminated but also the position of neutral-axis is dependent on through-thickness distribution of shear strain. For the first time, in this paper it is avoided to guess a shear strain shape function and the exact shape function and consequently the exact position of neutral axis for arbitrary gradation of higher order nanobeam are obtained. This paper presents new methodology based on differential transform and collocation methods to solve coupled partial differential equations of motion without any simplifications. Using exact position of neutral axis and higher order beam kinematics as well as satisfying equilibrium equations and traction-free conditions without shear correction factor requirement yields to better results in comparison to the previously published results in literature. The classical rule of mixture and Mori-Tanaka homogenization scheme are considered. The Eringen's nonlocal continuum theory is applied to capture the small scale effects. For the first time, the dependency of exact position of neutral axis on length to thickness ratio is investigated. The effects of small scale, length to thickness ratio, Poisson's ratio, inhomogeneity of materials and various end conditions on vibration and buckling of local and nonlocal FG beams are investigated. Moreover, the effect of axial load on natural frequencies of the first modes is examined. After degeneration of the governing equations, the exact new formulas for homogeneous nanobeams are computed.

Effect of position of hexagonal opening in concrete encased steel castellated beams under flexural loading

  • Velrajkumar, G.;Muthuraj, M.P.
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.95-106
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    • 2020
  • Castellated beams fabricated from standard I-sections are being used for several structural applications such as commercial and industrial buildings, multistory buildings, warehouses and portal frames in view of numerous advantages. The advantages include enhanced moment of inertia, stiffness, flexural resistance, reduction in weight of structure, by passing the used plate girders, the passage of service through the web openings etc. In the present study, experimental and numerical investigations were carried out on concrete encased steel castellated beams with hexagonal openings under flexural loading. Various positions of openings such as along the neutral axis, above the neutral axis and below the neutral axis were considered for the study. From the experimental findings, it has been observed that the load-carrying capacity of the castellated beam with web opening above neutral axis is found to be higher compared to other configurations. Nonlinear finite element analysis was performed by using general purpose finite element software ABAQUS considering the material nonlinearities. Concrete damage plasticity model was employed to model the nonlinearity of concrete and elasto-plastic model for steel. It has been observed that FE model could able to capture the behaviour of concrete encased steel castellated beams and the predicted values are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values.

부분 프리스트레스트 콘크리트 보의 도심축 추정 (Prediction of Centroidal Axis Location for Partially Cracked Prestressed Concrete Beams)

  • 김수만;윤종대
    • 한국콘크리트학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.399-404
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    • 1998
  • Analysis of partially prestressed beams in which cracking under service loads is allowed requires a knowledge of geometric cross section properties such as neutral axis, centroid, area and moment of initia of this cracked transformed section. Especially an exact calculation for the stresses of steel and concrete and the width of crack and the amount of deflection can be obtained with accrurate prediction of neutral of centroidal axis location. In this paper, the procedures for predicting the centroidal axis location of partially cracked prestressed concrete members, using the compatibility of deformation of concrete and steel are formulated and compared with Dilger`s computed results. And also the computed results according to this paper are compared with Branson`s experimental results.

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비대칭 손상 선박의 잔류 종강도 평가를 위한 간이 해석 알고리즘 개발 (Development of a New Simplified Algorithm for Residual Longitudinal Strength Prediction of Asymmetrically Damaged Ships)

  • 정준모;남지명;이민성;전상익;하태범
    • 대한조선학회논문집
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.281-287
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    • 2011
  • This paper explains the basic theory and a new development of for the residual strength prediction program of the asymmetrically damaged ships, being capable of searching moment-curvature relations considering neutral axis mobility. It is noted that moment plane and neutral axis plane should be separately defined for asymmetric sections. The validity of the new program is verified by comparing moment-curvature curves of 1/3 scaled frigate model where the results from new algorithm well coincide with experimental and nonlinear FEA results for intact condition and with nonlinear FEA results for damaged condition. Applicability of new algorithm is also verified by applying VLCC model to the newly developed program. It is proved that reduction of residual strengths is visually presented using the new algorithm when damage specifications of ABS, DNV and IMO are applied. It is concluded that the new algorithm shows very good performance to produce moment-curvature relations with neutral axis mobility on the asymmetrically damaged ships. It is expected that the new program based on the developed algorithm can largely reduce design period of FE modeling and increase user conveniences.

Sensitivity analysis of flexural strength of RC beams influenced by reinforcement corrosion

  • Hosseini, Seyed A.;Shabakhty, Naser;Khankahdani, Fardin Azhdary
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.72 no.4
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    • pp.479-489
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    • 2019
  • The corrosion of reinforcement leads to a gradual decay of structural strength and durability. Several models for crack occurrence prediction and crack width propagation are investigated in this paper. Analytical and experimental models were used to predict the bond strength in the period of corrosion propagation. The manner of flexural strength loss is calculated by application of these models for different scenarios. As a new approach, the variation of the concrete beam neutral axis height has been evaluated, which shows a reduction in the neutral axis height for the scenarios without loss of bond. Alternatively, an increase of the neutral axis height was observed for the scenarios including bond and concrete section loss. The statistical properties of the parameters influencing the strength have been deliberated associated with obtaining the time-dependent bending strength during corrosion propagation, using Monte Carlo (MC) random sampling method. Results showed that the ultimate strain in concrete decreases significantly as a consequence of the bond strength reduction during the corrosion process, when the section reaches to its final limit. Therefore, such sections are likely to show brittle behavior.

하악의 습관적 개폐구 운동시 중립대 결정에 관한 연구 (A STUDY ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE NEUTRAL ZONE AT THE HABITUAL OPENING AND CLOSING MANDIBULAR MOVEMENTS)

  • 이돈오;계기성;강동완
    • 대한치과보철학회지
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.123-135
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    • 1990
  • It would be of importance to determine the neutral Tone by a resultant axis of relation on relation to the mandible in understanding the biomechanics of the mandibular movement. In this study, the neutral zone at the habitual opening and closing mandibular movements is the shape of the paths described by a minimum moving point occured as an average center of the determined instantaneous centers of rotation. Twenty, aged $23{\sim}25$, male dental students without Temporomandibular disorders and with normal occlusion clinically were selected for the study. The habitual opening and closing mandibular movements were recorded by the Gnathorecouder and analyzed by the computer program of a planer rigid body model and the determined method of a minimum moving point. The results obtained from this study were as follows. 1. The minimum moving points were placed in the body of the mandible except two subjects. 2. The mean of maximum displacements of a minimum moving point was $0.62{\pm}0.08cm$ on X-axis and $0.73{\pm}0.16cm$ on y-axis. 3. The mean of maximum displacements of a minimum moving point was $3.39{\pm}0.62cm$ 4. The position and shape of the neutral zone were determined by the position, displacements, and moving distances of a minimum moving point.

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Investigation of Low-Frequency Characteristics of Four-Switch Three-Phase Inverter

  • Yuan, Qingwei;Cheng, Chong;Zhao, Rongxiang
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.1471-1483
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    • 2017
  • The low-frequency characteristics of four-switch three-phase (FSTP) inverter are investigated in this paper. Firstly, a general space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) directly involved the neutral point voltage of DC-link is proposed, where no sector identifications and trigonometric function calculations are needed. Subsequently, to suppress the DC offset in the neutral point voltage, the relationship between the neutral point voltage and the ${\beta}-axis$ component of the load current is derived, and then a new neutral point voltage control scheme is proposed where no low pass filter is adopted. Finally, the relationship between the load power factor and the maximum linear modulation index of the FSTP inverter is revealed. Since the operational region for the FSTP inverter in low frequency is reduced by the enlarged amplitude of the neutral point voltage, a linear modulation range enlargement scheme is proposed. A permanent magnet synchronous motor with preset rotary speed serves as the low-frequency load of the FSTP inverter. Experimental results verify that the new neutral point voltage control scheme is effective in the deviation suppression of the neutral point voltage, and the proposed scheme is able to provide a larger linear operational region in low frequency.