• Title, Summary, Keyword: neutral axis

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LTPP-SPS : Evaluation of Structural Capacity on Asphalt Pavement Reinforced with Glass Fiber (LTPP-SPS : 섬유보강 아스팔트 포장의 구조적 성능 평가)

  • Jeon, Sung-Il;Kim, Boo-Il;Kim, Jo-Sun;Lim, Kwang-Soo
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.281-292
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    • 2008
  • In Korea-LTPP(Long Tenn Pavement Performance) project, the full depth asphalt pavement test sections are constructed on the national highway to evaluate the structural capacity of asphalt pavement reinforced with glass fiber. Truck loading test and FWD test were performed to measure the structural capacity of test sections. Test results showed that the reinforcement of glass fiber installed at between surface and intermediate asphalt layer decreased the strain at the bottom of surface layer and moved up the stress neutral axis in asphalt layer. As a result, the tensile stress was developed at the bottom of intermediate asphalt layer of reinforced asphalt pavement, while the compressive stress was developed at the bottom of intermediate asphalt layer of unreinforced asphalt pavement. On the other hand, the tensile strain at the bottom of asphalt base layer didn't show a difference between glass fiber reinforced and unreinforced pavements. From the FWD test, it was shown that the surface deflection of asphalt pavement reinforced with glass fiber decreased 24 percents comparing to that of unreinforced asphalt pavement. This shows that the reinforcement with glass fiber appears to improve the rutting resistance of asphalt pavement.

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Numerical Study on Shotcrete Lining with Steel Reinforcement Using a Fiber Section Element (화이버 단면 요소를 이용한 강재 보강된 숏크리트 라이닝의 수치해석적 연구)

  • Kim, Jeong Soo;Yu, Jee Hwan;Kim, Moon Kyum
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.919-930
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the load capacities and behaviors of a shotcrete member with steel supports, as composite member, are investigated numerically by using a fiber section element. The cross section of a shotcrete lining with steel support is divided into a bundle of fibers, which are allocated nonlinear stress-strain relations and used for determining internal forces. To verify the used approach of the finite element method for shotcrete with steel supports, the load-displacement relations of shotcrete lining obtained by numerical analysis are compared with existing experimental results and are analyzed with the stress distribution of the shotcrete and steel support obtained numerically. As a result, it is shown that the proposed approach can predict the load capacities of each material and the overall nonlinear behavior of shotcrete lining with steel supports. The change of location of the neutral axis and the flexural resistance ratio of each material are also derived from the stress distribution of the cross section of the shotcrete lining with steel supports. From the results, it is concluded that the flexural resistance performance of steel support should be considered in shotcrete lining design.

Performance Evaluation of Bending Strength of Curved Composite Glulams Made of Korean White Pine (잣나무 만곡 복합집성재의 휨강도 성능평가)

  • Song, Yo-Jin;Jung, Hong-Ju;Lee, In-Hwan;Hong, Soon-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.463-469
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    • 2015
  • In this study, to improve bending strength performance of Korean white pine, we made the curved composite glulam that was reinforced with glass fiber materials and larch lamina. Five types of Korean white pine curved glulams were made depending on whether they had been reinforced or not and how they had been reinforced. Type-A, reference specimen, was produced only with Korean white pine lamina, and Type-B was with larch lamina in the same thickness. Type-C was made by inserting a glass fiber cloth of textile shape between the each layer. Type-D was reinforced with two glass fiber cloths, which were placed inside and outside of the outermost lamina. Type-E was reinforced with GFRP sheet in the same way as Type-D. As a result of this bending strength test, the modulus of rupture (MOR) of Type-B, Type-C and Type-E were increased by 29%, 6%, and 48% in comparison with Type-A. However, MOR of Type-D was decreased by 2% in comparison with Type-A. In the failure modes, Type-A, Type-B and Type-C were totally fractured at the maximum load. However, load values of Type-D and Type-E decreased slowly because of reinforcement of fracture suppression, and the GFRP sheet (Type-E) had better reinforcing effect on compressive stress and tensile stress than the glass fiber cloth (Type-D).

Strut-and-Tie Model for Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Squat Shear Walls (저층형 철근콘크리트 전단벽의 전단강도 평가를 위한 스트럿-타이 모델)

  • Mun, Ju-Hyun;Yang, Keun-Hyeok
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.615-623
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    • 2015
  • The previous strut-and-tie models (STMs) to evaluate the shear strength of squat shear walls with aspect ratio less than 2.0 do not consider the axial load transfer of concrete strut and individual shear transfer contribution of horizontal and vertical shear reinforcing bars in the web. To overcome the limitation of the existing models, a simple STM was established based on the crack band theory of concrete fracture mechanics. The equivalent effective width of concrete strut having a stress relief strip was determined from the neutral axis depth and effective factor of concrete strength. The shear transfer mechanism of shear reinforcement at the extended crack band zone was calculated from an internally statically indeterminate truss system. The shear transfer capacity of concrete strut and shear reinforcement was then driven using the energy equilibrium in the stress relief strip and crack band zone. The shear strength predictions of squat shear walls evaluated from the current models are in better agreement with 150 test results than those determined from STMs proposed by Siao and Hwang et al. Furthermore, the proposed STM gives consistent agreement with the observed trend of the shear strength of shear walls against different parameters.

Analytical Study on Flexural Behavior of Concrete Member using Heavyweight Waste Glass as Fine Aggregate (고밀도 폐유리를 잔골재로 사용한 RC 부재의 휨거동에 관한 해석적 연구)

  • Cha, Kyoung-Moon;Choi, So-Yoeng;Kim, Il-Sun;Yang, Eun-Ik
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.88-96
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    • 2020
  • It were found that the heavyweight waste glass can be used as a construction materials including concrete from previous experimental studies. In this study, in order to evaluate the structural behavior of RC members using heavyweight waste glass as fine aggregate, a flexural behavior test was performed. And then, its results were compared with those obtained from non-linear finite element model analysis. From the results, when the heavyweight waste glass as fine aggregate in RC member, the area of compressive crushing and the number of cracks increased, however, the mean of cracking spacing decreased. Also it had reduced the ductility at high loading stage. For this reason, the same analysis method about the RC member using natural sand as fine aggregate did not predict the initial stiffness, yield load and maximum load on the flexural behavior of the RC members using heavyweight waste glass as fine aggregate. On the other hand, when it is analytically implemented the reduction of neutral axis depth due to developed compression crushing, the results of non-linear finite element analysis could be predicted the experimental results, relatively well.

Effects of Encapsulation Layer on Center Crack and Fracture of Thin Silicon Chip using Numerical Analysis (봉지막이 박형 실리콘 칩의 파괴에 미치는 영향에 대한 수치해석 연구)

  • Choa, Sung-Hoon;Jang, Young-Moon;Lee, Haeng-Soo
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2018
  • Recently, there has been rapid development in the field of flexible electronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic solar cells and flexible sensors. Encapsulation process is added to protect the flexible electronic devices from exposure to oxygen and moisture in the air. Using numerical simulation, we investigated the effects of the encapsulation layer on mechanical stability of the silicon chip, especially the fracture performance of center crack in multi-layer package for various loading condition. The multi-layer package is categorized in two type - a wide chip model in which the chip has a large width and encapsulation layer covers only the chip, and a narrow chip model in which the chip covers both the substrate and the chip with smaller width than the substrate. In the wide chip model where the external load acts directly on the chip, the encapsulation layer with high stiffness enhanced the crack resistance of the film chip as the thickness of the encapsulation layer increased regardless of loading conditions. In contrast, the encapsulation layer with high stiffness reduced the crack resistance of the film chip in the narrow chip model for the case of external tensile strain loading. This is because the external load is transferred to the chip through the encapsulation layer and the small load acts on the chip for the weak encapsulation layer in the narrow chip model. When the bending moment acts on the narrow model, thin encapsulation layer and thick encapsulation layer show the opposite results since the neutral axis is moving toward the chip with a crack and load acting on chip decreases consequently as the thickness of encapsulation layer increases. The present study is expected to provide practical design guidance to enhance the durability and fracture performance of the silicon chip in the multilayer package with encapsulation layer.

Growth and characterization ofZnIn$_2S_4$ single crystal thin film using hot wall epitaxy method (Hot Wall Epitaxy(HWE)에 의한 ZnIn$_2S_4$ 단결정 박막 성장과 특성)

  • 최승평;홍광준
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.138-147
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    • 2001
  • The stochiometric mixtures mixture of evaporating materials for the $ZnIn_{2}S_{4}$ single crystal thin film was prepared from horizontal furnace. To obtain the $ZnIn_{2}S_{4}$ single crystal thin film, $ZnIn_{2}S_{4}$ mixed crystal was deposited on throughly etched semi-insulting GaAs(100) in the Hot Wall Epitaxy(HWE) system. The sourceand substrate temperature were $610^{\circ}C$ and $450^{\circ}C$, respectively and the growth rate of the $ZnIn_{2}S_{4}$ single crystal thin film was about 0.5$\mu\textrm{m}$/hr. The crystalline structure of $ZnIn_{2}S_{4}$ single crystal thin film was investigated by photoluminescence and double crystal X-ray diffraction (DCXD) measurement. The carrier density and mobility of $ZnIn_{2}S_{4}$ single crystal thin film measured from Hal effect by van der Pauw method are $8.51{\times}10^{17}{\textrm}{cm}^{-3}$, 291$\textrm{cm}^2$/V.s at $293^{\circ}$K, respectively. From the photocurrent spectrum by illumination of perpendicular light on the c-axis of the $ZnIn_{2}S_{4}$ single crystal thin film, we have found that the values of spin orbit splitting $\Delta$So and the crystal filed splitting DCr were 0.0148eV and 0.1678 eV at $10^{\circ}$K, respectively. From the photoluminescence measurement of $ZnIn_{2}S_{4}$ single crystal thin film, we observed free excition($E_{X}$) typically observed only in high quality crystal and neutral donor bound exicton ($D^{\circ}$, X) having very strong peak intensity. The full width at half maximum and binding energy of neutral donor bound excition were 9meV and 26meV, respectively. The activation energy of impurity measured by Haynes rule was 130meV.

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Immunohistochemical study on distribution of proliferating cells and tumor formations in intestinal tracts of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated rats (1,2-dimethylhydrazine을 투여한 rat 장관의 증식세포 분포와 종양발생에 대한 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Kang, Won-hwa;Kwak, Soo-dong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.167-176
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    • 1997
  • The present investigation was focussed mainly on the development of the tumors and proliferating cells on the intestinal tracts of 1, 2-dimethyl-hydrazine(DMH)-treated young or adult rats. 26 rats(Wistar, 14 young rats weighting approximately 130~180gm and 12 adult rats weighting approximately 500~550gm) were given subcutaneously once weekly with 20mg of DMH/kg body weight(BW)/week for 8~22 weeks. Individual body weight were recorded weekly at the same day and time. The rats were killed at 8, 13, 15. 17, 19, 21 and 22 weeks. The intestinal tracts were opened longitudinally and carefully examined for tumors. The localization, number, and size of tumors were noted. Tumor-bearing areas were dissected out and fixed on neutral buffered 10% formalin and normal-looking mucosa from 8~22 weeks rats were also taken for fixation. Paraffin sections were stained by H-E for histopathological examination or with immunohistochemical stain for bromodeoxyuridine(Brdur) positive cells. 1. The growth proportion of body weight appeared to be decreased in the DMH-treated young rats than in control young rats and body weight of DMH-treated adult rats appeared to be 13.4% or less lower than weighted on 0 week. 2. Macroscopically, the developed tumors in the intestinal tracts were not observed as early as the 13 weeks after DMH treatment. The number of developed tumors per rat was found to be 14.3, 18.8, 22.3 in 15, 17 and 22 weeks. The numbers of tumors in intestinal regions per rat were 2.1, 4.3, 5.4, 2.5 in duodenum, jejunum, ilium and colon on 15 weeks, 2.3, 6.4, 7.8, 2.3, on 17 weeks, and 2.7, 9.3, 9.0, 1.3 on 22 weeks, respectively and the ileum and jejunum were higher in appearance rate of tumors and tumor types are dome shapes and diameter of largest tumor were 6.3mm. 3. Histopathologically, intestinal mucosa were thickened by the irregular distorted and distended crypts following hyperplasia. The tumors developed on the mucosa and submucosa and were recognized to be adenocarcinoma. 4. Immunohistochemically, the labeling index(LI) was calculated as the ratio of the number of Brdur-labeled cells to the total number of column cells of the crypts with longitudinal axis. LI of Brdur positive cells per crypt were 5.6%, 8.0% on small intestine of control and 22 week group, respectively and 3.7%, 12.7% on large intestine of control and 22 week group, respectively and were appeared to be increase in 22 week group than in control group and to be more number of proliferating cells in 22 week group than in control group. 5. LI of Brdur positive cells in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 segments of crypt column were 11.7%, 10.7%, 3.8%, 0.6%, 0% in small intestine of control group and 23.5%, 11.8%, 2.3%, 2.4%, 0.8% in small intestine of 22 week group, and 5.4%, 7.4%, 3.8%, 1.0%, 0.4% in large intestine of control group and 29.5%, 20.3%, 5.9%, 6.3%, 1.3% in large intestine of 22 week group respectively. So results indicate that the number of proliferating cells by DMH treatment increase and were concentrated on the 1, 2 segments of crypt columns.

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