• Title, Summary, Keyword: neutrophil

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Roles of White Blood Cells and Subtypes as Inflammatory Markers in Skin Cancer

  • Baykan, Halit;Cihan, Yasemin Benderli;Ozyurt, Kemal
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2303-2306
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    • 2015
  • Objective: Skin tumors are the most commonly seen cancer type worldwide. Regarding pathogenesis, it is thought that disruption of kinetics through T lymphocyte-mediated development of chronic inflammation may be involved. The present study was intended to identify role of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes in the determination of risk for skin cancer. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of 569 cases diagnosed as having primary skin tumors. Data regarding age, gender and histopathological subtype were recorded. Blood parameters studied on the day before surgery including WBCs, neutrophils, and lymphocyte counts, neutrophil:lymphocyte and neutrophil:monocyte ratios were also recorded. Two-hundred and two healthy individuals presented for check-up in an outpatient clinic were selected as the control group. Parameters studied in cases with skin cancer were compared to those healthy individuals. Findings: Of the cases with skin cancer, 401 were basal cell carcinoma (BCC) while 144 were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 13 were malignant melanoma (MM). WBC, neutrophil and monocyte counts and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio were found to be lower in the patient group than in the healthy control group (p<0.001) while no significant difference was found in other parameters reviewed (p>0.05). No significant difference was found in WBC, neutrophil, neutrophil: monocyte ratio according to gender (p>0.05). Monocyte count was found to be $0.68{\pm}0.61$ in men and $0.55{\pm}0.25$ in women, indicating strong statistical significance (p<0.001). WBC, neutrophil and monocyte values were highest in control group while lowest in BCC. When BCC and SCC groups were compared to controls, significant differences found (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in lymphocyte counts among groups (p=0.976). Neutrophil:lymphocyte ratios were 3.24 in BCC, 3.59 in SCC, 3.44 in MM and 5.06 in control group (p<0.001). Conclusions: In our study, it was found that there were significant differences in complete blood count, neutrophil, monocyte and neutrophil:lymphocyte levels among groups. Neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio was found to be lowest in BCC among skin cancers.

Neutrophil oxidative burst as a diagnostic indicator of IgG-mediated anaphylaxis

  • Won, Dong Il;Kim, Sujeong;Lee, Eun Hee
    • BLOOD RESEARCH
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.299-306
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    • 2018
  • Background IgG-mediated anaphylaxis occurs after infusion of certain monoclonal antibody-based therapeutics. New in vitro tests are urgently needed to diagnose such reactions. We investigated whether allergens trigger neutrophil oxidative burst (OB) and if neutrophil OB occurs due to allergen-specific IgG (sIgG). Methods Neutrophil OB was measured by dihydrorhodamine 123 flow cytometry using a leukocyte suspension spiked with a very small patch of the allergen crude extract, Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f). The mean fluorescence intensity ratio of stimulated to unstimulated samples was calculated as the neutrophil oxidative index (NOI). Results The Der f-specific NOI (Der f-sNOI) showed a time-dependent increase after Der f extract addition. At 15 min activation, higher Der f-sIgG levels were associated with lower Der f-sNOI values in 31 subjects (P<0.05). This inverse relationship occurs due to the initial blocking effect of free Der f-sIgG. Additionally, neutrophil OB was nearly absent (Der f-sNOI of -1) in two cases: a subject with undetectable Der f-sIgG levels and washed leukocyte suspensions deprived of Der f-sIgG. Conclusion Allergens can trigger neutrophil OB via preexisting allergen-sIgG. Neutrophil OB can be easily measured in a leukocyte suspension spiked with the allergen. This assay can be used to diagnose IgG-mediated anaphylaxis.

Clinical Significance of Preoperative Inflammatory Parameters in Gastric Cancer Patients

  • Lee, Deuk Young;Hong, Seong Woo;Chang, Yeo Goo;Lee, Woo Yong;Lee, Byungmo
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.111-116
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Chronic inflammation induces cancer and cancer induces local tissue damage with systemic inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential relationship between the severity of inflammation and prognosis in cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This study enrolled 220 patients from January 2002 to December 2006 who underwent gastric surgery. We evaluated the relationship between preoperative inflammatory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) and other clinicopathological factors. Survival outcomes were compared according to the extent of inflammation. Results: Significant elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate was related with old age, increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, decreased hemoglobin, increased carcinoembryonic antigen, increased tumor size and advanced TNM stage. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly correlated with old age, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and advanced TNM stage. In the univariate analysis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio had significantly poorer survival than those without elevation (all P<0.05). However, the multivariate analysis failed to prove erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil-tolymphocyte ratio as independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: The elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were correlated with poor prognosis in the univariate analysis and there was a strong correlation between inflammatory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil- to-lymphocyte ratio) and tumor progression. Thus, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are considered useful as follow-up factors.

Photodynamically induced endothelial cell injury and neutrophil-like HL-60 adhesion

  • Takahashi, Miho;Nagao, Tomokazu;Matsuzaki, Kazuki;Nishimura, Toshihiko;Minamitani, Haruyuki
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.518-520
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    • 2002
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality based on photochemical reaction and the resultant cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. The platelet thrombus formation leading to stasis observed in vivo during PDT is called vascular shut down (VSD) effect. To investigate the mechanism of the VSD effect, we observed Human Umblical Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) injury induced by photochemical reaction. We observed cell retraction and blebbing after PDT. It seems that the injury was not fetal and only morphological change. Then, the cytoplasm was stained by Calcein-AM and subendothelial area was evaluated from fluorescence microscopy. The rate of subendothelial area after PDT increased significantly. Second, we investigated interaction between neutrophils and HUVEC. Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) were differentiated into neutrophil by incubation with all-trans retinoic acid. Calcein-AM labeled neutrophil adhesion to HUVEC was evaluated from fluorescence microscopy. PDT-induced neutrophil adhesion to HUVEC depended more on the exposure of subendothlial area than on neutrophil activation. This result suggests that there is a certain interaction between neutrophil and HUVEC during PDT.

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Effect of CJ-50001 (rG-CSF) on the Recovery of the Neutrophil Numbers in the Mice with Bone Marrow Transplantation BMT) (CJ-50001 (rG-CSF)의 골수이식모델 마우스에 대한 호중구수 회복 촉진효과)

  • 임동문;조효진;김종호;김달현;고형곤;김제학;김현수
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.376-379
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    • 1997
  • The peripheral neutrophil recovery test was conducted to determine the efficacy of CJ-50001, a drug developed in Cheil Jedang R&D center as a recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rG-CSF). Grasin was used as control drug. CJ-50001 and Gratin were subcutaneously administered to ${\gamma}$-ray irradiated mice for 21 days at a dose of 10$\mu$g/kg after bone marrow transplantation and the recovery of neutrophil number was examined on the days of 9, 13, 17, and 21 after the drug administration. It was observed that the peripheral neutrophil number of the vehicle control group was recovered to the normal level on the day of 13 after the transplantation whereas the group administered with CJ-50001 and Grasin respectively, showed the normal level of peripheral neutrophil number on 9th day after the bone marrow transplantation. The number of peripheral neutrophils reached the highest level on the 21 st day of drug administration, and was recovered to the normal level on the 4th day after ceasing of the drug administration (on the 25th day of the transplantation). Thus, it was presumed that CJ-50001 showed efficacy similar to Grasin on the peripheral neutrophil recovery after bone marrow transplantation.

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The Effect of a Single Administration of rG-CSF on the Peripheral Neutrophil Levels and Its Dose Responsiveness in Normal ICR mice and SD rats (정상 ICR mouse 및 SD rat에서 CJ-50001 (rG-CSF)의 단회투여후 말초호중구수의 변동 및 용량상관성)

  • 임동문;조효진;김달현;이현수;김제학;김현수
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.380-383
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    • 1997
  • CJ-50001 is a recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rG-CSF) developed by Cheil Jedang R&D Center. The effects of CJ-50001 on the increase of peripheral neutrophil count following intravenous and subcutaneous single administration at a dose of 20$\mu$g/kg in normal ICR mice and SD rats, respectively, were compared with those of Grasin, a control drug. Both CJ-50001 and Grasin significantly increased the peripheral neutrophil number in four treatment groups and the maximum number of neutrophil was achieved at 12 to 18 h in rats and mice, respectively. The dose dependency test was studied for CJ-50001 only in normal mice by intravenous or subcutaneous administration. When administered i.v or s.c at the various doses in normal mice, CJ-50001 significantly increased the neutrophil number over the dose of 160 ng/kg, compared with the vehicle control group. From these results, it was concluded that CJ-50001 showed efficacy similar to Grasin in the peripheral neutrophil count increase.

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Antibiotics; Methicillin, Cefamandole and Oxytetracycline, Can Modulate the Activity of Human Neutrophil Elastases (Methicillin, Cefamandole, Oxytetracycline에 의한 사람 호중구 Elastase의 변화)

  • Ghim, Sa-Youl;Jeong, Hye-Young;Bae, Sung-Jun;Kang, Koo-Il
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.109-113
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    • 1989
  • Human neutrophil elastase (HNE, EC 3, 4 21, 11), a major causative factor in the induction of pulmonary emphysema, were purified by two steps of liquid chromatography. Purified elastases were cross-reacted with antibody to human neutrophil elastases. Methicillin and cefamandole, which are known as inhibitors of cell wall synthesis of microorganisms, could inhibit the activity of human neutrophil elastase up to 50% with 10mM of both agents and $IC_{50}$ of methicillin was 9.8 mM. Gentamicin, one of the aminoglycosides, also inhibits human neutrophil elastases up to 60% of original activity with 10 mM of this agent and $IC_{50}$ was 9.0 mM. We could demonstrate similar effects in oxytetracycline. 10 mM of oxytetracycline inhibited 95% of human neutrophil elastase and $IC_{50}$ was 0.3 mM. Overall, oxytetracycline, cefamandole and methicillin are strong inhibitors of human neutrophil elastase, and they could be a drug of cholice for the diseases which were known as pathogenesis related to elastase. We also suggest that the mechanism of action of these antibitics are different from the mechanism of antimicrobial effects like inhibition of both cell wall synthesis and protein synthesis.

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Cytotoxicity of Vibrio vulnificus Cytolysin on Rat Neutrophils

  • Park, Kwang-Hyun;Rho, In-Whan;Park, Byung-Hyun;Kim, Jong-Suk;Kim, Hyung-Rho
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.273-278
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    • 1999
  • Cytolysin produced by Vibrio vulnificus has been known to be lethal to mice by increasing vascular permeability and neutrophil sequestration in the lung. In the present study, a cytotoxic mechanism of V. vulnificus cytolysin on the neutrophil was investigated. Cytolysin rapidly bound to neutrophils and induced cell death, as determined by the trypan blue exclusion test. V. vulnificus cytolysin caused the depletion of cellular ATP without the release of ATP or lactate dehydrogenase. Formation of transmembrane pores was evidenced by the rapid efflux of potassium and 2-deoxy-D-[$^3H$]glucose from cytolysin-treated neutrophils. It was further confirmed by the rapid flow of monovalent ions in the patch clamp of cytolysin-treated neutrophil membrane. The pore formation was accompanied by the oligomerization of cytolysin monomers on the neutrophil membrane as demonstrated by immunoblot, which exhibited a 210 kDa band corresponding to a tetramer of the native cytolysin of $M_r$ 51,000. These findings indicate that V. vulnificus cytolysin rapidly binds to the neutrophil membrane and oligomerizes to form small transmembrane pores, which induce the efflux of potassium and the depletion of cellular ATP leading to cell death without cytolysis.

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Suppressive Effect of Arazyme on Neutrophil Apoptosis in Normal and Allergic Subjects

  • Kim, In Sik;Lee, Ji-Sook
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.244-249
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    • 2014
  • Arazyme is a metalloprotease secreted by Aranicola proteolyticus that was previously shown to suppress cytokine expression of keratinocytes and endothelial cells and inhibit histopathological features in an atopic dermatitis-like animal model. However, the regulatory effects of arazyme in other allergic diseases have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether arazyme is effective against neutrophil apoptosis in allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Arazyme inhibited neutrophil apoptosis of normal subjects in a dose-dependent manner. However, the antiapoptotic effect of arazyme was reversed by LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, AKTi, an inhibitor of Akt, PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK, and BAY-11-7085, an inhibitor of NF-${\kappa}B$. Arazyme induced activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ via PI3K/Akt/ERK pathway. The anti-apoptotic effect of arazyme is associated with inhibition of cleavage of caspase 3 and caspase 9. Arazyme inhibited constitutive apoptosis of neutrophil in a dose-dependent manner in allergic subjects, and its mechanism was shown to be associated with PI3K/Akt/ERK/NF-${\kappa}B$. The results presented here improve our understanding of neutrophil apoptosis regulation and will facilitate development of drugs for treatment of allergic diseases.

Promotion of formyl peptide receptor 1-mediated neutrophil chemotactic migration by antimicrobial peptides isolated from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

  • Park, Yoo Jung;Lee, Sung Kyun;Jung, Young Su;Lee, Mingyu;Lee, Ha Young;Kim, Sang Doo;Park, Joon Seong;Koo, JaeHyung;Hwang, Jae Sam;Bae, Yoe-Sik
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.9
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    • pp.520-525
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    • 2016
  • We investigated the effects of two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) isolated from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans on neutrophil activity. Stimulation of mouse neutrophils with the two AMPs elicited chemotactic migration of the cells in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. The two AMPs also stimulated activation of ERK and Akt, which contribute to chemotactic migration of neutrophils. We found that AMP-stimulated neutrophil chemotaxis was blocked by a formyl peptide receptor (FPR) 1 antagonist (cyclosporin H); moreover the two AMPs stimulated the chemotactic migration of FPR1-expressing RBL-2H3 cells but not of vector-expressing RBL-2H3 cells. We also found that the two AMPs stimulate neutrophil migration in vivo, and that this effect is blocked in FPR1-deficient mice. Taken together, our results suggest that the two AMPs stimulate neutrophils, leading to chemotactic migration through FPR1, and the two AMPs will be useful for the study of FPR1 signaling and neutrophil activation.