• Title, Summary, Keyword: non-fermentable carbon source

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The Gene Encoding γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase II in the Fission Yeast Is Regulated by Oxidative and Metabolic Stress

  • Kang, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Byung-Chul;Park, Eun-Hee;Ahn, Ki-Sup;Lim, Chang-Jin
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.609-618
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    • 2005
  • $\gamma$-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, EC 2.3.2.2.) catalyzes the transfer of the $\gamma$-glutamyl moiety from $\gamma$-glutamyl containing ompounds, notably glutathione (GSH), to acceptor amino acids and peptides. A second gene (GGTII) encoding GGT was previously isolated and characterized from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In the present work, the GGTII-lacZ fusion gene was constructed and used to study the transcriptional regulation of the S. pombe GGTII gene. The synthesis of $\beta$-galactosidase from the GGTII-lacZ fusion gene was significantly enhanced by NO-generating SNP and hydrogen peroxide in the wild type yeast cells. The GGTII mRNA level was increased in the wild-type S. pombe cells treated with SNP. However, the induction by SNP was abolished in the Pap1-negative S. pombe cells, implying that the induction by SNP of GGTII is mediated by Pap1. Fermentable carbon sources, such as glucose (at low concentrations), lactose and sucrose, as a sole carbon source, enhanced the synthesis of $\beta$-galactosidase from the GGTII-lacZ fusion gene in wild type KP1 cells but not in Pap1-negative cells. Glycerol, a non-fermentable carbon source, was also able to induce the synthesis of $\beta$-galactosidase from the fusion gene, but other non-fermentable carbon sources such as acetate and ethanol were not. Transcriptional induction of the GGTII gene by fermentable carbon sources was also confirmed by increased GGTII mRNA levels in the yeast cells grown with them. Nitrogen starvation was also able to induce the synthesis of $\beta$-galactosidase from the GGTII-lacZ fusion gene in a Pap1-dependent manner. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that the S. pombe GGTII gene is regulated by oxidative and metabolic stress.

Efficient assay for respiration inhibitor using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae를 이용한 효율적인 호흡저해제 검정법)

  • Choi, Gyung-Ja;Kim, Jin-Cheol;Kim, Heung-Tae;Cho, Kwang-Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 2000
  • A rapid assay to determine respiration inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by chemicals was developed. S. cerevisiae was harvested with two different liquid media, yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) medium capable of occurring both glucose fermentation and mitochondrial respiration, and non-fermentable carbon-yeast extract (NFY) medium capable of occurring respiration only Wells in 96-well plate were loaded with each cell suspension and various concentrations of 46 fungicides with various modes of action. n NFY medium, the non-fermentable carbon source, ethanol (NFY-E medium), glycerol (NFY-G medium) or lactate (NFY-L medium), was used. After incubation for $1{\sim}3$ days, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the chemicals were recorded in the media. Of the 46 inhibitors employed in this study, four inhibitors of fungal respiration by blockage of electron flux in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, metominostrobin, and trifloxystrobin, exhibited strong antifungal activity in all of NFY media, but no activity in YPD medium. In contrast to this, five N-trihalomethylthio fungicides showed much stronger antifungal activities in YPD medium than three NFY media. Eleven fungicides inhibited growth of S. cerevisiae in all media and the other 26 fungicides showed no antifungal activity in all media. Thus, our rapid and efficient in vitro method can be considered as an alternative assay system for respiration inhibitor.

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Incapability of Utilizing Galactose by pgs1 Mutation Occurred on the Galactose Incorporation Step in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Rho, Min-Suk;Su, Xuefeng;Lee, Yoon-Shik;Kim, Woo-Ho;Dowhan, William
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.84-91
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    • 2006
  • A Saccharomyces cerevisiae pgs1 nulI mutant, which is deficient with phosphatidyl glycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL) biosynthesis, grows well on most fermentable carbon sources, but fails to grow on non-fermentable carbon sources such as glycerol, ethanol, and lactate. This mutant also cannot grow on galactose medium as the sole carbon source. We found that the incorporation of $[^{14}C]-galactose$, which is the first step of the galactose metabolic pathway (Leloir pathway), into the pgs 1 null mutant cell was extremely repressed. Exogenously expressed PGS1 (YCpPGS1) under indigenous promoter could completely restore the pgs1 growth defect on non-fermentable carbon sources, and dramatically recovered $[^{14}C]-galactose$ incorporation into the pgs1 mutant cell. However, PGS1 expression under the GALl promoter $(YEpP_{GAL1}-PGS1myc)$ could not complement pgs1 mutation, and the GAL2-lacZ fusion gene $(YEpP_{GAL2}-lacZ)$ also did not exhibit its $\beta-galactosidase$ activity in the pgs1 mutant. In wild-type yeast, antimycin $A(1\;{\mu}g/ml)$, which inhibits mitochondrial complex III, severely repressed not only the expression of the GAL2-lacZ fusion gene, but also uptake of $[^{14}C]-galactose$. However, exogenously expressed PGS1 partially relieved these inhibitory effects of antimycin A in both the pgs1 mutant and wild-type yeast, although it could not basically restore the growth defect on galactose by antimycin A. These results suggest that the PGSI gene product has an important role in utilization of galactose by Gal genes, and that intact mitochondrial function with PGS1 should be required for galactose incorporation into the Leloir pathway. The PGS1 gene might provide a clue to resolve the historic issue about the incapability of galactose with deteriorated mitochondrial function.

Restoration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae coq7 Mutant by a Neurospora crassa Gene (Neurospora crassa 유전자에 의한 Saccharomyces cerevisiae coq7 돌연변이의 회복)

  • 김은정;김상래;이병욱
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.933-942
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    • 2003
  • CoenzymeQ is a quinone derivative with a long isoprenoid side chain. It transports electrons in the respiratory chain located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes and the plasma membrane of prokaryotes. It also functions as an antioxidant. Saccharomyces cerevisine coq mutants, that are deficient coenzyme Q biosynthesis fail to aerobically grow. They are not able to grow on non-fermentable carbon sources, such as glycerol, either The putative $coq^{-7}$ gene involved in coenzyme Q biosynthesis of Neurospora crassa was cloned and used for complementation of S. cerevisiae coq7 mutant. The predicted amino acid sequence of N. crassa COQ7 showed about 58% homology with Coq7p of S. cerevisiae. The growth rate of S. cerevisiae $coq^7$ mutant transformed with the N. crassa $coq^{-7}$ gene was restored to the wild-type level. The complemented 5. cerevisiae strain was able to grow with glycerol as a sole carbon source and showed less sensitivities to linolenic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid.

The Effect of the Addition of Carbohydrate on the Concentration of Odorous Compounds in Pig Slurry (양돈 슬러리에 첨가된 발효탄수화물의 종류별 악취물질 농도 비교)

  • Hwang, Ok Hwa;Yang, Seung Hak;Jeon, Jung Hwan;Kwag, Jeong Hoon;Choi, Dong Yun;Yang, Seung Bong;Kim, Doo Hwan;Cho, Sung Back
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2013
  • Slurry treatments included peanut shell, palm golden fiber, almond hull, which was added 2% of the amount of slurry, and non-treatment control (n=4 each group). Levels of odorous compounds were measured from the liquid slurry incubated in $20^{\circ}C$ for 2 wk in chamber whose structure is similar to slurry pit. Concentration of phenols and indoles was higher (p<0.05) in control (48.4, 4.0 ppm) compared to almond hull (31.5, 1.4 ppm) or palm golden fiber (29.1, 1.6 ppm) group. Short chain fatty acid (SCFA) level was lowest (p<0.05) in control (2,121 ppm) but highest in peanut shell group (3,640 ppm). Branched chain fatty acid (BCFA) concentration was highest (p<0.05) in peanut shell (296 ppm), but lowest in almond hull (90 ppm). Taken together, concentration of odorous compounds was decreased by addition of almond hull in pig slurry by which crude fiber and non-digestible fiber (NDF) may act as a carbon source.