• Title, Summary, Keyword: nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC)

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Another Evidence for Nitric Oxide as One of the Mediators of the Rat gastric Fundus in Response to NANC-Mediated Relaxation

  • Chang, Ki-Churl
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.149-153
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    • 1995
  • Nitric oxide (NO) has been regarded as one of the neurotransmitters of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) nerve stimulation in rabbit corpus cavernosum, rat gastric fundus and human intestine. PIANO (photo-induced adequate nitric oxide) is a very useful tool to investige the role of NO in various smooth muscles where NO is a mediator. The present study was undertaken to compare the physiological responses of the rat gastric smooth muscle in response to NANC nerve stimulation and to PIANO. Photolysis of L-NAME, D-NAME and streptozotocin (572) by UV light in the bathing medium caused relaxation of rat gastric fungus that contracted with carbachol, but was resistant to tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 $\mu$M). Electrical stimulation (20 V, 2~32 Hz, 0.2 msec, 10s) of the gastric fundus, in the presence of atropine and guanethidine, induced frequency-dependent, TTX-sensitive relaxation. Sodium nitroprusside (1 nM-10 $\mu$M), a NO donor, mimicked the relaxations observed after NANC-stimulation or PIANO. Furthermore, PIANO caused UV light exposure time-dependent increase of CGMP in rat gastric fungus strips. These results provide another evidence indirectly that NO is one of the mediators of the NANC inhibitory nerve stimulation in the rat gastric fundus.

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Nonadrenergic Noncholinergic Nerve-mediated Contraction of the Longitudinal Muscle of Rat Ileum (랫드 회장 종주근의 비아드레날린 비콜린성 신경에 의한 수축반응)

  • Kim, Tae-wan;La, Jun-ho;Sung, Tae-sik;Kang, Jung-woo;Yang, Il-suk;Han, Ho-jae
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.405-414
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the role of tachykinins (TK) in mediating nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) contractions produced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the longitudinal muscle of the rat ileum. In the presence of atropine ($1{\mu}M$), guanethidine ($5{\mu}M$), and L-nitroarginine (L-NNA, $200{\mu}M$), EFS (0.5ms pulse duration, 120 V, 1-20 Hz for 2 min) produced a frequency-dependent slowly-developing tonic contraction with superimposed phasic contractions ('on'-contraction) followed by off slowly-decreasing tonic and superimposed phasic contractions ('off'-contraction) of mucosa-free longitudinal oriented muscle strip. These EFS induced responses were blocked by tetrotoxin. $NK_1$ receptor selective antagonist L-732,138 strongly inhibited the EFS-induced excitatory responses. However $NK_2$ receptor selective antagonist, GR 159897 and $NK_3$ receptor selective antagonist SB 222200 did not significantly inhibited the responses. $NK_1$ receptor selective agonist [$Sar^9$,$Met(O_2)^{11}$] Substance P and $NK_2$ receptor selective agonist [${\beta}-Ala^8$]-neurokinin A (4-10) induced tonic contraction with superimposed phasic contractions of longitudinal oriented muscle strip and almost blocked by selective antagonist L-732,138 and GR 159897, respectively. But $NK_3$ receptor selective agonist senktide did not showed any effect. Nifedipine ($1{\mu}M$) abolished the contraction produced either by EFS or by the TK receptor agonists [$Sar^9$,$Met(O_2)^{11}$] Substance P or [${\beta}-Ala^8$]-neurokinin A (4-10). It is concluded that, in the longitudinal muscle of rat ileum, both $NK_1$ and $NK_2$ receptors modulated the responses to exogenous tachykinins, whereas $NK_1$ is mainly involved in NANC neuromuscular contraction.

Electrically Stimulated Relaxation is not Mediated by GABA in Cat Lower Esophageal Sphincter Muscle

  • Park Sun-Young;Shin Chang-Yell;Song Hyun-Ju;Min Young-Sil;La Hyen-O;Lee Jun-Woo;Kim Do-Young;Je Hyun-Dong;Sohn Uy-Dong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.400-404
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    • 2006
  • This study examined the effect of Gamma-Amino butyric acid (GABA) and selective GABA receptor related drugs on the electrically stimulated relaxation in the lower esophageal sphincter muscle (LES) of a cat. Tetrodotoxin $(10^{-6}\;M)$ suppressed the electrically stimulated (0.5-5 Hz) relaxation of the LES. However, guanethidine $(10^{-6}\;M)$ and atropine $(10^{-6}\;M)$ had no effect indicating that the relaxations were neurally mediated via the nonadrenergic and noncholinergic (NANC) pathways. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester ($10^{-4}M$, L-NAME) also inhibited the relaxant response but did not completely abolish the electrically stimulated relaxation with 60% inhibition, which suggests the involvement of nitric oxide as an inhibitory transmitter. This study examined the role of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, on neurally mediated LES relaxation. GABA ($10^{-3}-10^{-5}M$, non selective receptor agonist), muscimol ($10^{-3}-10^{-5}M$, GABA-A agonist), and baclofen ($10^{-3}-10^{-5}M$, GABA-B agonist) had no significant effect on the electrically stimulated relaxation. Moreover, bicuculline ($10^{-5}M$, GABA-A antagonist) and phaclofen ($10^{-5}M$, GABA-B antagonist) had no inhibitory effect on the electrically stimulated relaxation. This suggests that GABA and the GABA receptor are not involved in the electrically stimulated NANC relaxation in the cat LES.

Nitric oxide(NO) mediating non-adrenergic non-cholinergic(NANC) relaxation in the boar retractor penis muscle I. Mediators of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic relaxation of porcine retractor penis muscle : nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (Nitric oxide에 의한 수퇘지 음경후인근의 비아드레날린 비콜린 동작성 이완 I. 돼지 음경후인근의 비아드레날린 비콜린성 이완을 매개하는 신경전달물질 : nitric oxide와 vasoactive intestinal polypeptide)

  • Mun, Kyu-whan;Kim, Jeum-yong;Kim, Tae-wan;Kang, Tong-mook;Yang, Il-suk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.447-458
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to characterize nonadrenergic, noncholinergic(NANC) relaxation of porcine retractor penis(PRP) muscle induced by electrical field stimulation(EFS) and to investigate the actions of niric oxide(NO) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide(VIP) as candidates for NANC neurotransmitters. Biphasic relaxations of PRP muscle were induced by EFS to NANC nerve. Rapid-phase relaxation was observed at low frequency(0.5-16Hz) and slow-phase relaxation followed during high frequency(8-60Hz). Both relaxations were frequency-dependent and TTX($1{\times}10^{-6}M$)-sensitive. L-NAME($2{\times}10^{-5}M$) inhibited the rapid-phase relaxation, but not the slow-phase relaxation. The inhibition of the rapid-phase relaxation with L-NAME was reversed by L-arginine ($1{\times}10^{-3}M$) but not by D-arginine($1{\times}10^{-3}M$). Methylene blue($4{\times}10^{-5}M$) reduced the rapid-phase relaxation. Exogenous No(ExoNO, $1{\times}10^{-5}-1{\times}10^{-4}M$) induced dose-dependent relaxations of PRP muscle. Oxyhemoglobin($5{\times}1^{-5}M$) blocked the relaxation induced by ExoNO and inhibited EFS-induced relaxation. Hydroquinone($1{\times}10^{-4}M$) also abolished the relaxation induced by ExoNO, but did not affect EFS-induced relaxation. L-NAME resistant slow-phase relaxation to EFS was inhibited by ${\alpha}$-chymotrypsin(2.5 U/ml). Both methylene blue($4{\times}10^{-5}M$) and Nethylmaleimide($1{\times}10^{-4}M$) reduced the slow-phase relaxation by EFS. [4-Cl-D-$Phe^6$, $Leu^{17}$]-VIP($3{\times}10^{-6}M$) inhibited the slow-phase relaxation by EFS. External applications of VIP ($1{\times}10^{-7}M$) caused relaxations that were simillar to the L-NAME resistant slow-phase relaxations induced by EFS, and relaxant effects of exogenous VIP were blocked by ${\alpha}$-chymotrypsin(2.5 U/ml).

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A study on the nonadrenergic noncholinergic neurotransmitters in porcine gastric fundus (돼지 위저부 평활근의 비아드레날린 비콜린성 신경전달물질에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-wan;Na, Jun-ho;Lee, Jang-hern;Yang, Il-suk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.119-128
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    • 1997
  • The relaxation of gastric fundus smooth muscles is the primary physiological event which induces the receptive relaxation of monogastric animals. L-arginine/Nitric oxide(L-arg/NO) system is known to mediate the inhibitory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic(NANC) neurotransmission in various tissues including gastrointestinal smooth muscles. The longitudinal smooth muscles of porcine gastric fundus showed fast relaxation during electrical field stimulation(EFS) and rebound contraction after EFS in NANC condition. So, the purpose of present study was elucidation of the neurotrasmitters related to the NANC relaxation and explanation of the relation between NANC relaxation and L-arg/NO system. The longitdinal smooth muscles of porcine gastric fundus were hung in the organ bath and under the presence of guanethidine($5{\times}10^{-5}M$), precontraction was induced by carbachol($1{\times}10^{-6}M$). The muscle responses to EFS and drugs were isomerically recorded. The rusults were summarized as follows. 1. The longtudinal muscles of porcine gastric fundus showed frequency-dependent relaxation and rebound contraction to electrical field stimulaton(1ms, 8V, 1~16Hz, 20sec, EFS). These responses were blocked by tetrodotoxin($1{\times}10^{-6}M$). 2. The relaxation and rebound contraction of the longitudinal muscles of porcine gastric fundus to EFS were inhibited by L-NAME($2{\times}10^{-5}M$). The inhibitory effect of L-NAME was antagonized by L-arginine($1{\times}10^{-3}M$), but not by D-arginine($1{\times}10^{-3}M$). 3. Exogenous NO($NaNO_2$, $1{\times}10^{-5}{\sim}1{\times}10^{-4}M$, pH=2.0) caused concentration-dependent relaxation as EFS did. 4. Methylene Blue($2{\times}10^{-5}M$), a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, inhibited the relaxation and rebound contraction of the longitudinal muscles of porcine gastric fundus induced by EFS, but N-ethlmaleimide, a adenylate cyclase inhibitor, did not. 5. 8-Br-cGMP($1{\times}10^{-6}{\sim}3{\times}10^{-6}M$), permeable cGMP analogue, induced dose-dependent relaxation. but 8-Br-cAMP($1{\times}10^{-6}{\sim}3{\times}10^{-6}M$), permeable cAMP analogue, did not. Both did not evoked rebound contraction. 6. ${\alpha}$-chymotrypsin did not affect the relaxation of the longitudinal muscles of porcine gastric fundus. 7. Reactive blue 2($1{\times}10^{-4}M$, 40min) siginificantly inhibited the rebound contraction induced by EFS and inhibited contraction caused by exogenous ATP($1{\times}10^{-4}{\sim}1{\times}10^{-3}M$). These results suggests that NANC relaxation of the longitudinal muscles of porcine gastric fundus mainly mediated by NO and the rebound contraction is related to NO and other neurotransmitters.

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Neural Mechanism in Bronchial Asthma (기관지천식에서의 신경적 기전)

  • Choi, Byoung-Whui
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 1994
  • In addition to classic cholinergic and adrenergic pathways, the existence of a third division of autonomic control in the human airways has been proved. It is called a nonadrenergic noncholinergic(NANC) nervous system, and difficult to study in the absence of specific blockers. Neuropeptides are certainly suggested to be transmitters of this NANC nervous system. It is very frustrating to understand the pathophysiologic role of these peptides in the absence of any specific antagonists. However, further studies of neuropeptides might eventually lead to novel forms of treatment for bronchial asthma. Another study of the interaction between different components of the autonomic nervous system, either in ganglionic neurotransmission or by presynaptic modulation of neurotransmitters at the end-organ will elute neural control in airway disease, particularly in asthma. Studies of how autonomic control may be disordered in airway disease should lead to improvements in clinical management. Epithelial damage due to airway inflammation in asthma may induce bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Axon reflex mechanism is one of possible mechanisms in bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Epithelial damage may expose sensory nerve terminals and C-fiber nrve endings are stimulated by inflammatory mediators. Bi-directional communication between the nerves and mast cells may have important roles in allergic process. The psychological factors and conditioning of allergic reactions is suggested that mast cell activation might be partly regulated by the central nervous system via the peripheral nerves. Studies in animal models, in huamn airways in vitro and in patients with airway disease will uncover the interaction between allergic disease processes and psychologic factors or neural mechainsms.

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Nitric oxide(NO) mediating non-adrenergic non-cholinergic(NANC) relaxation in the boar retractor penis muscle II. Comparison of the relaxant properties induced by nonadrenergic, noncholinergic nerve stimulation and S-nitrosothiols in the porcine retractor penis muscle (Nitric oxide에 의한 수퇘지 음경후인근의 비아드레날린 비콜린 동작성 이완 II. 비아드레날린 비콜린성 신경의 전장자극과 S-nitrosothiols에 의한 돼지 음경후인근의 이완 효과 비교)

  • Mun, Kyu-whan;Kim, Tae-wan;Kang, Tong-mook;Lee, Wan;Yang, Il-suk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.459-469
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    • 1995
  • As S-nitrosothiols were proposed as nitrergic carriers in vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, we have investigated the relaxant properties of several S-nitrosothiols in the porcine retractor penis(PRP) muscle and compared them with the effects of exogenously added NO, electrical field stimulation(EFS) of NANC nerves and sodium nitroprusside(SNP). Also the influences of oxyhemoglobin and hydroquinone on the relaxant responses were investigated. In addition, effects of NO on membrane potentials and its involvement in the generation of inhibitory junction potential(IJP) were investigated with conventional intracellular microelectrode technique. The results were summerized as follows. 1. Frequency-dependent relaxations of PRP muscle were induced by EFS to NANC nerve. Tetrodotoxin($1{\times}10^{-6}M$) abolished the relaxations of PRP muscle induced by EFS, and L-NAME(($2{\times}10^{-5}M$) and methylene blue($4{\times}10^{-5}M$) inhibited the relaxations. L-NAME-induced inhibition of the relaxations was reversed by L-arginine($1{\times}10^{-3}M$), but not by D-arginine. 2. Exogenous NO($1{\times}10^{-5}-1{\times}10^{-4}M$), sodium nitroprusside(($1{\times}10^{-7}-1{\times}10^{-4}M$) induced dose-dependent relaxations of PRP muscle. All S-nitrosothiols($1{\times}10^{-7}-1{\times}10^{-4}M$) tested relaxed the PRP muscle in dose-dependent manner and the potency order was SNAP>GSNO>CysNO>SNAC. 3. Oxyhemoglobin($5{\times}10^{-5}M$) blocked the relaxation induced by exogenous NO and inhibited EFS-, S-nitrosothiols-, and SNP-induced relaxation. 4. Hydroquinone($1{\times}10^{-4}M$) also abolished the relaxations induced by exogenous NO, and reduced the relaxations induced by S-nitrosothiols, but did not affect EFS- and SNP-induced relaxations. 5. SNP($2{\times}10^{-6}-5{\times}10^{-6}M$) relaxed muscle strips but the membrane potentials were not affected. 6. EFS with several pulses(1ms, 2Hz, 80V) produced an inhibitory junction potential(IJP) with muscle relaxation. They were abolished by TTX($2{\times}10^{-6}M$). $N^G$-nitro-$_{\small{L}}$-arginine(L-NNA, $2{\times}10^{-5}M$) abolished the muscle relaxation, but had no effect on IJP.

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Effects of frequency - amplitude electrical stimulation on sympathetic neurotransmitter and vasoactive intestinal peptide (SSP 주파수 진폭변조가 Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide와 $\beta$-endorphin, cGMP에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi Young-duk;Shim Kyu-Rhee;Chang Moon-kyung
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.454-474
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    • 2002
  • Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a very potent dilatator and a nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the peripheral and the central nervous systems. The mechanisms of action of VIP were examined in aortic circular and in uterine longitudinal smooth muscle strips of the rat. The effects of sympathetic neurotransmitter were investigated in gastric and aortic circular muscle strips of the mouse and the rat. The effects of silver spike point, SSP, low frequency electrical stimulations of VIP, sympathetic neurotransmitter and $\beta$-endorphin were examined in plasma, serum and 24h urine from the healthy volunteer. In gastric smooth muscle strips from the mouse, adrenergic neurotransmitter norepinephrine was inhibitory effected, followed by caused phasic and tonic contraction to the, muscrine receptor agonist carbachol and acetylcholine, respectively. In urine from the healthy volunteer, both norepinephrine and epinephrine were significantly decreased in continue type and low frequency (3 Hz) of SSP electrical stimulations. The contractile responses to S-HT in uterine longitudinal smooth muscle strips of the rats were completely decreased by a VIP 1 $\mu$M. The contractile responses to PGF2$\alpha$ were not decreased by a VIP. In plasma and serum from the healthy volunteer, both VIP and $\beta$-endorphin were significantly increased in continue type and low frequency (3 Hz) of SSP electrical stimulations. Therefore, this study demonstrate that VIP has the capacity to relax vascular or gastric smooth muscles in part by stimulating the generation of NO, and silver spike point low frequency electrical stimulation has the capacity both to decrease sympathetic neurotransmitters and to increase VIP, $\beta$-endorphin.

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Effect of transmural stimulation to motility on isolated gastric smooth muscle (토끼 적출 위 평활근의 운동성에 대한 transmural stimulation의 효과)

  • Kim, Joo-heon;Shim, Cheol-soo;Hong, Yong-geun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.472-477
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    • 1999
  • To elucidate the action of the cholinergic and adrenergic nerve on isolated gastric fundus smooth muscle of rabbit, the effects of electrical transmural stimulation were investigated in the presence of atropine, cholinergic receptor blocker; phentolamine, nonselective ${\alpha}$-adrenergic receptor blocker; propranolol, nonselective ${\beta}$-adrenergic receptor blocker and L-arginine from the isometric contraction of physiological recording system. 1. The contractile response induced by electrical transmural stimulation was increased as the frequency(1~32Hz)-dependent manner on the isolated gastric fundus smooth muscle. 2. The contractile response induced by electrical transmural stimulation was markedly inhibited by the pretreatment of atropine($1{\mu}M$). 3. The contractile response induecd by electrical transmutal stimulation was inhibited by the pretreatment of phentolamine($1{\mu}M$). 4. The relaxative response induced by electrical transmural stimulation on presence of atropine ($1{\mu}M$) was inhibited by the pretreatment of propranolol($1{\mu}M$). 5. The relaxative responses on precontraction induced by histamine($10{\mu}M$) with guanethidine ($50{\mu}M$) and atropine($1{\mu}M$) by electrical transmural stimulation were increased by L-arginine (1mM). These findings suggest that it was the excitatory action of cholinergic and ${\alpha}$-adrenergic nerve, and the inhibitory action of ${\beta}$-adrenergic nerve and nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerve on the isolated gastric fundus smooth muscle of rabbit.

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