• Title, Summary, Keyword: nonenzymatic browning

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Inhibiting Factors and Kinetics of Nonenzymatic Browning in Ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Paste Model System (생강 페이스트 모형액의 비효소적 갈색화 억제인자 및 반응속도)

  • 조길석;장영상;신효선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.1135-1139
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    • 1997
  • Major factors inhibiting nonenzymatic browning in stored ginger paste were investigated using aqueous model systems with temperature, water activity, pH and sulfur compounds. Browning index and total gingerols were measured during storage. The rate of nonenzymatic browning reactions showed a strong depencence on temperature and pH and a negligible influence on water activity. It was also reduced by the addition of 0.04% N-actyl-L-cysteine(NAcCys), effectively. Activation energies for aqueous ginger model systems with and without 0.04% NAcCys were 29.0 and 25.8kcal/mole, respectively.

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Major Components Affecting Nonenzymatic Browning in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Paste during Storage (생강 페이스트의 저장중 비효소적 갈색화에 영향을 주는 주요성분)

  • Jo, Kil-Suk;Kim, Jun-Hwan;Shin, Hyo-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.433-439
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    • 1996
  • Major components affecting nonenzymatic browning in stored ginger paste were investigated using five synthetic model solutions. The model systems were stored at $40^{\circ}C$ for 30 days and analyzed for browning, in addition the contents of sugars, organic acids, ascorbic acids, amino acids and gingerols were determined. Among the chemical components, fructose, asparagine and ascorbic acid were the main contributors to the browning development of ginger paste, while gingerol compounds were browning inhibitors.

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Storage Stability of Ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Paste (생강 페이스트의 저장 안정성)

  • 조길석;장영상;신효선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.1140-1146
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    • 1997
  • Storage stability of ginger paste product was investigated from the standpoint of the inhibition of nonenzymatic browning and loss of gingerol contents. For the experimentations, control, 0.04% of N-acetyl-L-cysteine in ginger paste(NAcCys), and combination treatment of NAcCys, 0.92 of water activity and 6.30 of pH in ginger paste (mixed treatment) were stored at 3$0^{\circ}C$ for 40 days and analyzed for browning and gingerol contents. In addition the changes in sugars, organic acids, ascorbic acids, amino acids, and sensory quality were determined. The results revealed that the mixed treatment agent was effective in preventing both nonenzymatic browning and loss of gingerol contents. The inhibition by combination treatment might be resulted from the control of radical formations by sulfhydryl groups of NAcCys and the increase of diffusion resistance in lower water activity. Browning development and total gingerol contents were found to be correlated to some physicochemical characteristics of ginger paste; that is, browning development to amino acid and color value in sensory evaluation, and total gingerol contents to flavor in sensory evaluation.

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Carotenoid Destruction and Nonenzymatic Browning during Red Pepper Drying as functions of Average Moisture Content and Temperature (고추 건조과정에 있어서 평균 수분함량 및 온도에 따른 Carotenoid파괴 및 비효소적 갈변)

  • Lee, Dong-Sun;Kim, Hyun-Ku
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.425-429
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    • 1989
  • Functional relationships of carotenoid destruction and nonenzymatic browning during red pepper drying were established by the dynamic test using the moisture-temperature-quality history curve in actual drying experiments. The dependence of the rate constants on temperature and moisture content was established and analysed assuming that carotenoid destruction and nonenzymatic browning are the first order and the zero order reaction, respectively. Carotenoid destruction rate constant was high at high moisture and high temperature, and had a minimum value at some intermediate moisture content. As dependence of rate constant on temperature, activation energy of carotenoid decolorization ranged from 7.7 to 27.4 kcal/mol, showing higher value at higher moisture content. Nonenzymatic browning showed higher rate at higher temperature and higher moisture content. Activation energy of browning was in the range of 7.5-20.2 kcal/mol with higher value at higher moisture level.

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Quality Evaluation and Shelf-life of Dried Squid (마른 오징어의 품질평가 및 보존기간)

  • YOU Byeong-Jin;LEE Kang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 1988
  • In order to obtain the objective indices which can assess the quality and the shelf-life of dried squid, nonenzymatic browning, carbonyl value, trimethyl amine (TMA) and trimethyl amine oxide (TMAO) decrease and panel test were determined in dried squid at various water activity levels. When the data of nonenzymatic browning fit a zero order equation, $r^2$ value were more than 0.92 except aw 0.52 for 0.8241. Through variance analysis for the data of browning extent and TMAO decrease, the confidence limits of regression equation were $99\%$ and their limit values of shelf-life were shown 0.45390 O. D./g. solid and 190.322 g/g respectively. In case of TMAO, $r^2$ value was calculated more than 0.95. Linear regression equation for the correlation between browning data and average panel score was Y=0.6138-0.053X and its $r^2$ value was 0.9285. Also in TMAO decrease, the equation was InY=2.0314+0.08269x and $r^2$ value was 0.7854. The shelf-life, evaluated by nonenzymatic browning, TMAO decrease and panel test, was 110-170 days at aw 0.45-0.76 except aw 0.15.

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Estimation of Kinetic Parameters of Nonenzymatic Browning Reaction Using Equivalent Time at Reference Temperarture with Linearly Increasing Temperature Profile (정속가열(定速加熱)조건에서 표준온도상당시간(相當時間)을 이용한 비효소적 갈색화 반응의 동력학 파라미터 추정(推定))

  • Cho, Hyung-Yong;Kwon, Yun-Joong;Kim, In-Kyu;Pyun, Yu-Ruamg
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.178-184
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    • 1993
  • The procedure using equivalent time at reference temperature has been assessed for the estimation of kinetic parameters with experimental data. Kinetic studies of nonenzymatic browning reaction in model and food system were carried out with linearly increasing temperature method. These kinetic parameters, n, $k_{ref}$ and $E_a$ of the systems were evaluated from original data in one step by nonlinear least square regression. The one step procedure yielded efficiently accurate parameter estimation. Computer simulated data with the kinetic models were well consistent with experimental data (average correlation coefficient=0.96).

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The Browning Reaction and Inhibition of Apple Concentrated Juice (사과농축액의 갈변현상 및 그 억제)

  • 배수경;이영철;김현위
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.6-13
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    • 2001
  • The study was conducted to investigate the effect of the browning inhibitors such as PVPP(polyvinylpoly-pyrrolidone), A.A.(ascorbic acid) on nonezymatic browning factors [free sugar, total amino acid, organic acid, A.A., HMF (hydroxymethylfurfural)] and enzymatic browning factors [PRO (polyphenoloxidase) activity, polyphenol compounds] in concentrated apple juice during 90 days storage. Considering color value (L value, $\Delta$E), absorbance at 420 nm, concentrated apple juice during 90 days storage. Considering color the effect of browning inhibition. According to the storage period, the changes of nonenzymatic factors in concentrated apple juice added with browning inhibitors were similar to those in control (concentrated apple juice without browning inhibitors), which were the decreased of sucrose(0.24~0.35% at 90 days), the slight increase of glucose and fructose, the decrease of total amino acid (530.4~573.1 mg/10g at 90 days), same value of A.A. at 90 days (38.5~78.6 mg/100g), and the increase of HMF (27.8~30.6 mg/100g at 90 days). On the contrary, enzymatic browning factors were significantly inhibited in concentrated apple juice added with PVPP, judging from the slow increase of PRO activity and the significant decrease of initial value in polyphenol compounds (especially chlorogenic acid). These results suggest that PVPP plays an important role as enzymatic browning inhibitor, that is, a scavenger of polyphenol compounds by adsorption in concentrated apple juice.

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Maillard Browning Reaction and Antioxidant Activity of Red Ginseng Stored for Long Periods (장기 저장 홍삼의 마이야르 갈색화반응과 항산화효과 특성)

  • 이광승;최강주
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.121-127
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    • 1988
  • Samples of Red Ginseng, which had been. manufactured and packaged by the ' Korean Monopoly Corporation, were stored under ambient temperatures and humidities (12-$28^{\circ}C$ and 55-68 percent) during one to nine years to examine their browning reaction and antioxidant activity. The brown-color intensity of the Red Ginseng samples increased significantly according to increasing storage period. The pH of the aqueous extracts of the samples also increased slightly during the storage, The former seemed to indicate that extensive browning reactions had taken place in the samples during the long storage, The browning reactions seem to be due to mutual reactions of by-products in the final stage rather than to reactions between free amino acids and free sugars in the initial stage of the maillard browning reactions during the storage. The reducing powers of aqueous and ethanol extracts and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extracts of the Red Ginseng samples increased with increasing storage time, The increase in the reducing power and antioxidant activity appeared to be directly attributable to the increased amounts of nonenzymatic browning reaction products formed progressively during the long storage periods.

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Protein Cross-linking in Freeze Dried Fish Meat (동결건조 어육의 단백질 Cross-linking에 관한 연구)

  • LEE Kang-Ho;JUNG Woo-Jin;SUH Jae-Soo;JEONG In-Hak;KIM Chung-Gon
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.100-108
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    • 1986
  • This study was carried out in order to investigate protein cross-linking in freeze-dried meat of flounder (Limanda herzensteini). Changes in solubility or extractability of proteins and electrophoretic patterns of the extracted proteins were determined to monitor the cross-linking during the storage of freeze-dried meat. Development of nonenzymatic browning and the loss of in vitro protein digestibilily were also measured to assess their influences on the changes of functional and nutritional properties of proteins. In addition, the effects of lysine added, and removal of fat and water extractives were also mentioned. The extractability of protein decreased upon storage time and temperature, and the loss of solubility of myosin was evident. In case of the samples stored at $5^{\circ}C$ for 150 days, the extractability of protein decreased $26.4\%$, while that of the samples stored at $20^{\circ}C$ for 60 days decreased about $39.7\%$. And it was noted that the loss of solubility of myosin was $68.3\%$ and $98.1%$ for the same storage conditions, respectively. It was noteworthy that the samples treated with $L-lysine{\cdot}HCl$ seemed to prevent more or less the loss of protein solubility, in that, even stored at $20^{\circ}C$ for 120 days, revealed only $57.03\%$ decrease. The nonenzymatic browning was proceeded with the increase of storage temperature, especially, in the samples treated with glucose. This suggests that the decrease in extractibility of myosin was accompanied by the extent of browning. But the browning was retarded in defatted samples. The in vitro apparent protein digestibility was also higher in the samples defatted or water extracted. It was suggested from these results that changes in properties of proteins in freeze dried fish meat were led by the protein cross-linking which was attributed to Maillard type of reactions and protein-lipid interactions.

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A Study on the Influence of Drying Methods upon the Chemical Changes in Red Pepper - 2. Changes of Free amino acid, Free sugar - (고추의 건조방법(乾燥方法)에 따른 성분(成分) 변화(變化)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) - 제 2 보 Free amino acid 및 Free sugar의 변화(變化) -)

  • Park, Choon-Ran;Lee, Kang-Ja
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 1975
  • This investigation was designed to determine the influence of drying methods on the free amino acids and free sugars in red pepper and to study the browning mechanism of brown-colored red pepper. Three different drying methods were employed: 1) Sun-drying at $25{\sim}28^{\circ}C$ for 15 days, 2) Drying in oven at $60^{\circ}C$ for 49 hours, and 3) Drying in oven at $90^{\circ}C$ for 8 hours. Dried and ground peels were used for the analysis of free amino acids and free sugars. The results were as follows; 1. Sixteen kinds of amino acids i.e. asparagine, methionine, and cystine etc. were identified. Total amino acid content of the sun-dried sample was not different from that of the fresh sample, but the samples dried at $60^{\circ}C$ and $90^{\circ}C$ in the oven were decreased to 24.9% and 67.4% respectively. Of amino acids identified, methionine, lysine and aspartic acid were decreased in all treatments. Especially, methionine ana aspartic acid were decreased rapidly to 71.8% and 73.3% , respectively. 2. Three kinds of free sugars i.e. glucose, fructose and sucrose were identified. The total content of free sugars was significantly decreased in each treatment. Among the reducing sugars, glucose was rapidly decreased; 65.9% for the glucose of sample dried at $90^{\circ}C$ in the oven. 3. At the higher drying temperature, the darker red color was found. Brown-color appeared at $90^{\circ}C-drying$ showed appreciable losses in carotenoid content, but the major color seems to be due to the large increase in browning compounds. 4. It was assumed that increased browning compounds of red pepper were due to the Maillard reaction which is a nonenzymatic browning process.

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