• Title, Summary, Keyword: nonvolatile organic acid

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Studies on the Nonvolatile Organic Acids in the Extracts of Dried Squid (건오징어 추출물의 유기산 조성에 관한 연구)

  • 김동수;김영명;우상규
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.305-310
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    • 1990
  • The extracts of dried squid(Sepiella maindron) were prepared with water and 70% ethanol at boiling point and the major nonvolatile organic acids in the extracts were investigated. Eight kinds of nonvolatile organic acid were identified as lactic oxalic succinic malic citric pyroglutamic malonic and ${\beta}-ketoglutaric$ acid. Total amount of nonvolatile organic acid in the extracts prepared with water changed from 205.2mg% to 310.1mg% with extraction time while the extracts prepared with 70% ethanol were 272.4 mg% ~ 347.6 mg% The major compo-nents were in the range of 61.7% ~ 70.9% lactic acid 16.4 ~ 22.6% pyroglutamic acid 5.0 ~ 9.9% succinic acid 4.0 ~ 8.2% citric acid and total amount of nonvolatile organic acids in the extracts increased until 2 hour of extraction regardless of extraction solvent and then decreased slowly.

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Studies on the Organic Acids Composition in Shellfishes 1. Nonvolatile Organic Acids Composition of Top Shell, Hard Clam, Abalone and their Boiled-Dried Products (패류의 유기산 조성에 관한 연구 1. 소라, 대합, 전복 및 그 자건품의 비휘발성유기산 조성)

  • JO Kil-Suk;PARK Yeung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.227-234
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    • 1985
  • The present study was carried out for making clear the organic acids composition of some shellfishes and their boiled-dried products. Three species of shellfish such as top shell, hard clam and abalone were chosen as the experimental samples and analysed for their nonvolatile organic acids composition by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Eight kinds of nonvolatile organic acid were identified in raw and boiled-dried top shell, major ones were succinic, malic and pyroglutamic acid. Out of nine kinds of nonvolatile acid was determined in raw and boiled-dried of hard clam, abundant ones were succinic, lactic and malic acid, And seven kinds of nonvolatile organic acid were detected in boiled-dried abalone while eight kinds in raw sample, abundant ones were succinic, lactic and pyroglutamic acid, respectively. In all samples, the total amount of nonvolatile organic acid was the most abundant in hard clam while the least in abalone, and the content of succinic acid was appeared as the most abundant one. In dried samples, the total amount of the nonvolatile organic acid was determined to be about half-decrease after the boiled-dried treatment of the raw samples, of which abalone showed the highest decreasing을 rate whereas hard clam was the lowest. In general, the decreasing rate of each acid was the higher in fumaric, malic and citric acid than in maleic, oxalic and succinic acid.

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A Study on the Flavor Compounds of Dongchimi (동치미의 맛 성분에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Mae-Ry;Lee, Hei-Soo
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1990
  • To study the most optimum condition of Dongchimi, the various Dongchimi distinct from the amount of salt, the temperature of fermentation and the ratio of radish to water were examed by sensory evaluation. Also, the content of volatile organic acids and nonvolatile organic acids were investigated by GC, the content of sulfur compounds by GC/MS. Volatile organic acids were identified with those butyl esters and nonvolatile organic acids were done with those TMS derivatives. Sulfur compounds and those decomposed products were extracted by steam distillation In results, the most optimum conditions ware salt 2.4% fermented temperature $4^{\circ}C$, ratio 1:1.5. Volatile organic acids detected were formic, acetic acid, and the amounts were effected by saltness. Nonvolatile organic acids detected were lactio, malio, fumario, tartario acid. Lactic acid was thought to effect overall eating quality. Sulfur compounds were almost the isothiocyanate groups in raw radish, which little in fermented Dongchimi.

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INFLUENCE OF TOPPING TIME AND HEIGHT ON THE NONVOLATILE ORGANIC AND HIGHER FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF TOBACCO LEAVES (잎담배의 적심시기와 정도에 따른 엽중 비휘발성유기산 및 지방산의 함량변화)

  • 정기택;강서규
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.169-178
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    • 1984
  • This study was conducted to investigate the influence of the topping time and height on the nonvolatile organic and higher fatty acid contents and the correlation among acid contents of tobacco plants. Within the topping time, the flowering (normal) stage of topping was the lowest in total analyzed acid (TAA), total nonvolatile organic acid (TNOA) and magic acid contents of NC2326, however, the highest in those of Burley 21 on 30 days after budding. Total higher fatty acid (THFA) and linoleic acid contents tended to be low with normal stage of topping. The lower the topping height, the lower the TAA, THFA and linoleic acid contents in middle and upper leaves (or NC2326 and Burley 21 were observed. On the other hand, the lower the topping height, the lower the TNOA and malic acid contents in middle and upper leaves for Burley 21 and upper leaves for NC2326 were found. There was a significant positive correlation between magic acid and TNOA contents. Similarly, TAA content showed a significant positive correlation with TNOA, oxalic acid and citric acid contents. But there was a negative correlation between malic acid and THFA contents. There were highly positive correlations among oleic acid, linoleic acid and THFA contents, respectively.

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A Study on the Compositions of Free Sugars, Lipids, and Nonvolatile Organic Acids in Parts of Omija (Schizandra Chinensis Baillon) (오미자의 부위별 유리당, 지질과 비휘발성 유기산 조성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Joung-Sook;Lee, Sung-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.177-179
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    • 1989
  • This study was carried out to investigate the compositions of free sugars, lipids, and nonvolatile organic acids in parts of omija. The major components of free sugars in each part of omija were fructose and glucose. The contents of those were similar in fruits and endocarps, however, the content of glucose was 1.5 times as much as that of fructose in seeds. The content of lipids in endocarps was 2.4 times as much as that in seeds, and major composition of lipids was neutral lipid. In the contents of nonvolatile organic acids, the content of citric acid that content was 61 to 68% depend on each part of sample was highest among other components, and that of malic acid being 25 to 30% was followed. The contents of nonvolatile organic acids of water extract were 74.5, 55.9, and 69.2% as high as those of original sample in fruits, endocarps, and seeds, respectively. The content of oxalic acid in seeds was lower than that of it in original sample.

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Studies on the Change of Nonvolatile Organic acids and Higher Fatty acids during the curing of Flue-cured tobaccos (황색종 잎담배의 건조과정중 비휘발성 유기산과 지방산의 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Rhee, Moon-Soo;Lee, Un-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 1982
  • During the process of curing of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. ) leaves the concentration change of Nonvolatile organic acids and Higher fatty acids of the flue-cured tobacco leaves was observed. The contents of Nonvolatile organic acids in flue-cured tobacco leaves were as follows, malic> oxalic>malonic>citric>succinic acid. Higher fatty acids was linolenic>Palmitic>oleic >stearic$\geqq$linoleic acid, Citric acid content of last curing time was increased about 4~5 times in compare to before curing tobacco. It was concluded that significant changes of three variety flue-cured tobacco but a significant difference was observed in the composition of Daegu gold variety.

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Organic Acids and Volatile Flavor Compounds in Traditional Andong Sikhe (전통 안동식혜의 유기산 및 향기성분)

  • Woo, Hi-Seob;Choi, Cheong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.208-213
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    • 1995
  • Andong Sikhe in Korea was prepared and fermented at 5$^{\circ}C$ and the taste and flavor compounds were evaluated. Major flavor components were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer as camphene, sabinene, 1-(1, 5-dimethyl-4-hexyl)-4-methyl-benzene, alpha-zingibirene, farnesene, 2, 6-bis(1, 1-dimethylethyl)-4-metethyl-phenol, beta-sesquiphellandrene, calalene, tetradecanoic acid, and 9, 12-octadecanoic acid. The concentration of nonvolatile organic acid such as lactic acid, oxalic acid and citric acid were 18.10mg/100g, 1.04mg/100g and 1.37mg/100g, respectively, and those of other nonvolatile organic acid were a little. The pH and acidity of Andong Sikhe were 4.06 and 0.32 during fermentation and storage.

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Studies on the Changes of Taste Compounds during Soy Paste Fermentation(II) (된장 숙성중 정미성분의 변화에 관한 연구 (II) -유리당과 휘발성, 비휘발성 유기산)

  • 김미정;이혜수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.257-260
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    • 1993
  • For the purpose of supplying the information to improve the acceptability of soy paste as the condi-ment, we investigated the changes of free sugar, volatile and nonvolatile organic acids during improved soypaste fermentation. The results were as follows; Free sugars were increased in order of glc> xyl>ara>gal. Acetic, formic, butyric, and propionic acid in volatile organic acids were detected. And total contents were increased until 60 day. In 180 day, contents of volatile organic acids were high in order of acetic>propionic> butyric> formic. The contents of succinic and glutaric acid in nonvolatile organic acids were predominent and increased in order of succinic>glutaric>lactic. Tartaric>citric>malic acid were produced in the next order.

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Effect of Fermentation Temperature on Free Sugar, Organic Acid and Volatile Compounds of Kakdugi (깍두기의 발효숙성온도가 유리당, 유기산 및 향기성분에 미치는 영향)

  • 장명숙;김성단;허우덕
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.16-23
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    • 1998
  • Effect of Fermentation temperature on the changes of chemical components in Kakudgi during fermentation was investigated by measuring free sugar, organic acid and volatile compounds up to 57 days at several temperatures. The mannitol was increased in palatable period in contrast with those of other free sugars. The higher the initial fermentation temperature was and the longer the initial fermentation time at 2$0^{\circ}C$ was, the faster the second increasing period was and the less the initial contents was. Lactic acid was increased 6~31 times from a little amount at the initial period. The higher the initial fermentation temperature was and the more the increasing content was. But malic acid which was abundant(55.1% of total nonvolatile organic acid) in the initial fermentation period was remarkably decreased in the palatable period. The change of the sulfides among the volatile compounds was remarkable. Methyl allyl sulfide which was a little in the initial fermentation period was remarkably increased in the final fermentation period, and the correlation coefficients between the content of methyl allyl sulfide and aroma in sensory evaluation were high. It could be suggested that the fermentation temperature should be set to 4$^{\circ}C$ after fermentating at 2$0^{\circ}C$ for 36 hours in the view point of keeping the Kakdugi taste and quality well because of high content of free sugar and nonvolatile organic acids.

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Analysis of Significant Factors in the Flavor of Traditional Korean Soy Sauce (I) - Analysis of General Characteristics, Sugars and Organic Acids Contents - (한국전통간장의 맛과 향에 관여하는 주요 향미인자의 분석(I) - 일반특성 및 당류와 유기산 분석 -)

  • Park, Hyun-Kyung;Sohn, Kyung-Hee;Park, Ok-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out in order to investigate general characteristics, sugars and organic acids contents of Korean traditional soy sauce, and to find out possibility of high quality soy sauce production in a short period through high concentration soy sauce making. In this study, we prepared three different types of soy sauce, low concentration soy sauce (Chungjang), high concentration soy sauce and Kyupjang, high quality traditional Korean soy sauce. pH of soy sauce were $4.46{\sim}4.90$ and did not show difference among three samples. Titratable acidity, buffering power and total free acid content were the highest value in Kyupjang. Kyupjang showed the highest contents of salt and pure extract. As the ripening period increased, the salt content increased in Chungjang samples, but decreased in Kyupjang. Reducing sugar contents of Kyupjang, high concentration soy sauce and low concentration soy sauce were 1.13%, 0.76% and 0.53%, respectively. Free sugar in soy sauce were analyzed maltose, glucose, galactose and fructose. Total free sugar content was highest in high concentration soy sauce, however, contents of glucose and fructose were higher in Kyupjang than in Chungjang samples. Galactose was the main free sugar in Chungjang, but glucose was in Kyupjang. Among identified volatile organic acid, acetic acid was present in the highest concentration, and volatile organic acid content was highest in the high concentration soy sauce at 150 days. 20 nonvolatile organic acids were detected in Korean traditional soy sauce. Succinic acid, lactic acid and 2,5-pyridine dicarboxylic acid were the main nonvolatile organic acid in soy sauce.

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