• Title, Summary, Keyword: nude mice

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Effect of Lymphangiogenic Factors on Survival in a Murine Model of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (구강암 마우스모델에서 림프관형성 인자가 생존율에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Young-Wook;Cho, Ju-Won
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and its tyrosine kinase receptor, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 are recently known to have lymphangiogenic activities in various tumor types. In this study, we determined whether the expression of lymphangiogenic factors correlate with nodal metastasis or survival in a nude mouse model of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: Three OSCC cells (KB, SCC4, SCC9) were xenografted into the right mandibular gland of athymic nude mice. The mice were followed for tumor development and growth, and the mice were sacrificed when they had lost more than 20% of their initial body weight, or the diameter of the induced tumor exceeds 20 mm. After necropsy, the murine tumors were examined histologically and radiologically (micro-positron emission tomography computed tomography) for regional or distant metastasis. We performed immunohistochemical assays with anti-VEGF-C, VEGFR-3, CD105, and D2-40 antibodies. Immunofluorescence double staining for LYVE-1/CD31 was also performed. To quantify the VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 level in the cancer tissue, Western blotting was performed. Finally, we determined the correlation between the degree of expression of VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 and the mean survival time. Results: OSCC tumor cells into the mandibular gland of the nude mice successfully resulted in the formation of recapitulating orthotopic tumor. Tumor cells of the induced tumor did not express VEGF-C. VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 expression was mainly distributed in the endothelial cells of the stromal area. There were no correlation between the degree of expression of VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 and the mean survival time of mice injected with different OSCC cell lines. Conclusion: An recapitulating orthotopic model of OSCC in nude mice was established, which copies the cervical nodal metastasis of human OSCC. Overexpression of lymphangiogenic factors seems to have no effect on survival of hosts in this in vivo experiment.

ANTI-TUMOR AND ANTI-ANGIOGENIC EFFECT OF THALIDOMIDE ON ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA XENOGRAFTS IN NUDE MICE (누드마우스에 이종이식된 구강편평상피세포암종에 대한 thalidomide의 항암효과와 혈관형성억제에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Su-Gon;Myoung, Hoon;Kim, Myung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.330-336
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    • 2001
  • Angiogenesis is an essential process for the growth, invasion and metastasis of cancer. However, it is uncertain that antiangiogenic effects can be a major treatment strategy of oral cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether thalidomide, which is known to be a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis, have inhibitory effect on the growth and antiangiogenic effects of oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) xenografted in nude mice and whether antiangiogenesis of thalidomide can be included as a major treatment strategy of oral cancer. After human oral squamous cell carcinoma strain KB was subcutaneously implanted in 20 nude mice, the volume of tumor was measured every three days. When the tumor mass reached $75{\sim}100mm^3$, thalidomide(200mg/kg/d) was administered into 10 experimental nude mice and the same volume of distilled water was administered into 10 control nude mice and the tumor volume was measured every three days. The excised tumor masses on the 30th day after administration were frozen and processed for immunohistochemistry using vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and CD31. We evaluated microvessel density and VEGF expression. The results were as follows ; 1. Thalidomide retarded the growth of human OSCC as compared with the control group, but it was not statistically significant. 2. A statistically significant lower microvessel density was observed in the thalidomide-treated group than in the control group(p<0.01) and thalidomide significantly reduced VEGF expression (p<0.01). Thalidomide exhibited significantly antiangiogenic effect, but did not inhibit the growth of human OSCC effectively. Antiangiogenic therapy of thalidomide alone is not likely to be effective in the treatment of human OSCC, but might be regarded as adjuvant chemotherapeutic strategy.

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Egg Production of Clonorchis sinensis in Different Strains of Inbred Mice (근교계 마우스에서 간흡충 기생기간과 산란력의 변동)

  • Kim, Jong-In;Jeong, Dong-Il;Choe, Dong-Ik
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 1992
  • In order to compare the intraspecific variation in host-parasite relationship of Clonorchis sinensis, six strains of inbred mice, ICR, DDY, GPC, BALB/c, nude and DS, were infected orally with 20 metacercariae of C. sinensis. The biologic incubation period of C. sinensis was the shortest in DDY mice, 21.2 days in average, followed by GPC 21.4, BALB/c and DS 23.2, ICR and nude 23.4 days, respectively. The fertile period of the cuke was also the longest in the DDY strain, 164 days on average, followed by GPC 132, BALB/c 97, nude 37, DS 32 and ICR 28 days. The egg-laying capacity of the cuke in DDY and GPC was relatively high and stable compared with the other four strains of mice. It was found that there are intraspecific variations in biologic incubation period, fertile period, and fecundity of C. sinensis. The DDY mouse is likely to be the most suitable experimental animal among the six strains of the mice tested. Key words: Mouse strain, Clonorchis sinensis, egg-laying capacity.

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Supplementation of French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) Prevents Lung Injury and Lipid Peroxidation in Nude Mice Exposed to Side-Stream Cigarette Smoke (SSCS)

  • Lee, Jeong-Min;Hwang, Kwon-Taek;Lee, Jong-Moon;Kim, Sun-Ho;Watson, Ronald R.;Park, Kun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 2004
  • Side-stream cigarette smoke (SSCS) is a major component of environmental tobacco smoke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of lung injury and lipid peroxidation in the lung and liver of immunodeficient (Nude) mice exposed to acute SSCS (a total 5 hours of exposure). The effects of French maritime bark extract (Pycnogeno $l^{ⓡ}$) supplementation of the mice were also determined. SSCS increased pulmonary resistance and lipid peroxidation in these mice. Pycnogeno $l^{ⓡ}$ supplementation increased vitamin E levels in lung and liver. In addition, Pycnogeno $l^{ⓡ}$ attenuated SSCS-mediated lung injury and lipid peroxidation. It appears that the enhanced resistance against SSCS-induced lung injury and lipid peroxidation may be primarily due to the antioxidant property of Pycnogeno $l^{ⓡ}$ in supplemented mice.

Absorption of ${\alpha}-Interferon$ from Ointment after Topical Application to Nude Mice and Rats (연고제로부터 ${\alpha}$-인터페론의 흡수)

  • Shim, Chang-Koo;Kim, Dae-Duk;Jung, In-Whoan;Kim, Hyun-Su;Yoon, Moo-Yung
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.118-123
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    • 1986
  • Time-concentration curves of recombinant human interferon alpha$(rIFN-{\alpha}A)$ in the skin and serum of nude mice or rats were studied after topical application of IFN ointment. IFN appeared in the skin and serum in less than 30 minutes and lasted for more than 10-12 hours at high concentration level after the application to nude mice at a dose of $9.0{\times}10^5\;IU/g$ mouse. But in the rats, IFN was not detected in the serum even 7 hours after the application at a dose of $6.0{\times}10^5\;IU/g$ rat. Topical application of IFN might be useful for the topical and systemic treatment if the human skin resembles that of nude mouse in respect to transport characteristics.

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Microscopic Feature, Protein Marker Expression, and Osteoinductivity of Human Demineralized Dentin Matrix

  • Park, Sung-Min;Hwang, Jung-Kook;Kim, Young-Kyun;Um, In-Woong;Lee, Geun-Ho;Kim, Kyung-Wook
    • Journal of Korean Dental Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.77-87
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: This study examined the scanning electron microscopic feature, protein marker expression and osteoinductive activity of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) from human for nude mice. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy nude mice, weighing about 20 g were used for study. DDM from Human was prepared and implanted into the dorsal portion of nude mouse. Before implantation, DDM was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nude mice were sacrificed at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after DDM grafting and evaluated histologically by H-E, MT staining. And also immunohistochemistry analysis (ostecalcin, osteopontin) was performed. Result: Dentinal tubules and collagen fibers were observed by SEM of dentin surface of DDM. The DDM induced bone and cartilage independently in soft tissues. And, the histological findings showed bone forming cells like osteoblasts, fibroblasts at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. On immunohistochemistry analysis, osteocalcin and osteopontin positive bone forming cells were observed. Conclusion: This results showed that the DDM from human has osteoinductive ability and is a good alternative to autogenous bone graft materials.

Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody and DNA topoisomerase inhibitor reduce growth of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma in a murine model (항-표피성장인자수용체 단클론항체와 DNA 토포이소머라제 억제제에 의한 마우스 모델에서의 타액선 선낭암종 성장 억제)

  • Park, Young-Wook;Lee, Hee-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.177-185
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    • 2010
  • Introduction: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is expressed in human epithelial tumors including salivary cancers, and known to be correlated with tumor progression and poor clinical courses in some epithelial tumors. In this study, we determined the therapeutic effect of the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody Erbitux (C225, cetuximab) in combination with the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan (CPT-11) on human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) cells growing in nude mice. Materials and Methods: At first, immunocytochemical analysis for the expression of EGFR and phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) on a human salivary ACC cell line (ACC3). To determine the in vivo effects of Erbitux and CPT-11, nude mice with orthotopic parotid tumors were randomized to receive intraperitoneal Erbitux (1 mg) two times per week, intraperitoneal Irinotecan (50 mg/kg) once per week, Erbitux plus CPT-11, or placebo. (control) Tumor volume and weight were measured. And mechanisms of in vivo activity of Erbitux and/or CPT-11 were determined by immunohistochemical/ immunofluorescent analyses. Results: Immunocytochemical staining of ACC3 demonstrated that EGFR was expressed and phosphorylated. CPT-11 inhibited ACC tumor growth in nude mice. Tumors of mice treated with CPT-11 and CPT-11 plus Erbitux exhibited increased tumor cell apoptosis and decreased microvessel density, which correlated with a decrease in the tumor volume in nude mice. But, CPT-11 seems not to be synergistic with Erbitux in our ACC3 model system. Conclusion: These results suggest that anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody and the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor will be effective in the treatment of recurred or metastatic lesions of salivary ACC.

Efficacy of Multiple Low-dose Photodynamic TMPYP4 Therapy on Cervical Cancer Tumour Growth in Nude Mice

  • Liu, Ai-Hong;Sun, Xuan;Wei, Xiao-Qiang;Zhang, You-Zhong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.5371-5374
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    • 2013
  • Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging therapeutic procedure suitable for the treatment of cervical cancer. However, the side effects of PDT are severe, including skin ulceration, so we designed an experiment to examine the effects of multiple low-dose photodynamic therapy of 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin (Tmpyp4) on tumour growth by utilizing a model in nude mice implanted with Hela cervical cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Female BALB/c nude mice (aged 5-6 weeks, weighing 18-20 g) were used. Hela cervical cancer cells were injected subcutaneously ($1{\times}10^7cells/200{\mu}L$). Ten days after injection, the mice were divided into three groups (n=6), the A group of controls without any treatment, the B group receiving a single-treatment with Tmpyp4 (10 mg/kg, intratumor injection) and irradiation (blue laser, $108J/cm^2$), and the C group given three-treatments with Tmpyp4 (10 mg/kg, intratumor injection) and irradiation at intervals of two days. After starting treatment, tumours were measured every two days, to assess growth. At 2 weeks after the last treatment of C group, tumour tissue and organs were collected from each mouse to evaluate tumor histology and organ damage. Results: Tumour growth in C group was significantly inhibited compared with A and B groups (P<0.05), without any injury to the skin and internal organs. Conclusion: Our novel findings demonstrated that multiple low-dose photodynamic therapy of Tmpyp4 could inhibit cervical cancer growth significantly with no apparent side effects.

TARGETED MOLECULAR THERAPY IN A MURINE MODEL OF ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA WITH AN EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR INHIBITOR (구강 편평상피세포암 마우스 모델에서 상피성장인자 수용체 억제제를 적용한 분자표적치료)

  • Park, Young-Wook
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.8-17
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: We determined the therapeutic effect of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), cetuximab (Erbitux) on the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) xenografted in athymic nude mice. Experimental Design: We induced subcutaneous tumors by inoculating human tumor cell suspension into the right flank of nude mice. Nude mice with subcutaneous tumors were randomized to receive cetuximab alone, paclitaxel alone, cetuximab plus paclitaxel, or a placebo (control). Antitumor mechanisms of cetuximab were determined by immunohistochemical and apoptosis assays. Results: Cetuximab, paclitaxel, and cetuximab/paclitaxel combined therapy resulted in 50%, 52%, 67% in vivo inhibition of tumor proliferation, respectively. Tumors of mice treated with cetuximab plus paclitaxel demonstrated decreased PCNA-positive tumor cells and increased apoptotic tumor cells, which slowed growth of the murine tumors. Conclusion: These data show that EGFR can be a molecular target for the treatment of OSCC. And combination therapy with cetuximab and paclitaxel warrants further clinical study.

Tumorigenesis after Injection of Lung Cancer Cell Line (SW-900 G IV) into the Pleural Cavity of Nude Mice (누드마우스의 흉강에 폐암세포주의 주입에 의한 종양형성과 HER2/neu와 TGF-${\beta}_1$의 발현)

  • Park, Eok-Sung;Kim, Song-Myung;Kim, Jong-In
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.588-595
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    • 2010
  • Background: Base on types of tumor, the types of expressed tumor is diverse and the difference in its expression rate is even more various. Due to such reasons an animal model is absolutely needed for a clinical research of lung cancer. The author attempted oncogenesis by cultivating a cell line of non-small cell carcinoma and then injecting it inside thoracic cavities of nude mice. The author conducted quantitative analyses of HER2/neu tumor gene - an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) related to lung cancer, and TGF-${\beta}_1$, which acts as a resistance to cell growth inhibition and malignant degeneration. In order to investigate achievability of the oncogenesis, histological changes and the expression of cancer gene in case of orthotopic lung cancer is necessary. Material and Method: Among 20 immunity-free male BALB/c, five nude mice were selected as the control group and rest as the experimental group. Their weights ranged from 20 to 25 gm (Orient, Japan). After injection of lung cancer line (SW900 G IV) into the pleural cavity of nude mice, They were raised at aseptic room for 8 weeks. HER2/neu was quantitatively analyzed by separating serum from gathered blood via chemiluminiscent immunoassay (CLIA), and immunosandwitch method was applied to quantitatively analyze TGF-${\beta}_1$. SPSS statistical program (SPSS Version 10.0, USA) was implemented for statistical analysis. Student T test was done, and cases in which p-value is less than 0.05 were considered significant. Result: Even after lung cancer was formed in the normal control group or after intentionally injected lung cancer cell line, no amplification of HER2/neu gene showed reaction. However, the exact quantity of TGF-${\beta}_1$ was $28,490{\pm}8,549pg/mL$, and the quantity in the group injected with lung cancer cell was $42,362{\pm}14,449pg/mL$, meaning 1.48 times highly Significant (p<0.483). It proved that HER2/neu gene TGF-${\beta}_1$ had no meaningful interconnection. Conclusion: TGF-${\beta}_1$ gene expressed approximately 1.48 times amplification in comparison to the control group. The amplification of TGF-${\beta}_1$ meant somatic recuperation inhibition mechanism due to carcinogenesis in nude mice was definitely working. It may be implemented as a quantitative analysis that allows early detection of lung cancer in human body.