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In Vivo Image and Biodistribution of $^{123}I$-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R, S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) in Liposarcoma Bearing Nude Mice (지방육종형성 동물모델에서 $^{123}I$-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R, S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP)의 생체분포와 생체영상)

  • Lee, Tae-Sup;Suh, Yong-Sup;Choi, Chang-Woon;Woo, Kwang-Sun;Chung, Wee-Sup;Lim, Soo-Jung;Lim, Sang-Moo;Awh, Ok-Doo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.324-333
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    • 2001
  • Purpose: $^{123}I$-labeled fatty acids have been used in the evaluation of regional myocardial energy metabolism. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of $^{123}I$-BMIPP as a liposarcoma-imaging agent. Materials and Methods: We compared in vitro uptakes between liposarcoma(SW872) and glioma(9L) cell lines, and examined biodistribution and in vivo images of $^{123}I$-BMIPP in liposarcoma-bearing nude mice. Cold-BMIPP was labeled with $^{123}I\;using\;Cu^{2+}$ as catalyst. After purification by Sep-pak, radiochemical purity was determined by TLC. We compared cellular uptake between glioma and liposarcoma after incubation of 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mins with culture medium containing $^{123}I$-BMIPP. The difference in biodistribution was determined between non-feeding (water only) group for 18 hr and feeding group in normal mice (n=6/group) at 0.5, 2, and 24 hr. In liposarcoma-hearing nude mice model, liposarcoma, SW872, ceil lines were injected subcutaneously into the felt thigh of nude mice. The biodistribution of $^{123}I$-BMIPP was evaluated at 0.5, 2, and 24 hr (n:5 / group) and in vivo Image of $^{123}I$-BMIPP was obtained with gamma camera at 2 and 24 hr in liposarcoma-hearing nude mice. Results: Radiolabeling yield and radiochemical purity were 95% and above 99%, respectively. SW872 cell line showed more increased uptake than 9L with 1.5 times at 180 mins. The clearance of $^{123}I$-BMIPP in various tissues was more delayed in the non-feeding group than in the feeding group, especially at delayed time (24 hr) in normal mice, and the major excreting organ was the gastrointestinal tract. In liposarcoma-bearing nude mice, tumor/blood ratio of $^{123}I$-BMIPP was 0.94, 0.75, and 1.38 and tumor/muscle ratio was 0.66, 1.53, and 1.11 at 0.5, 2, and 24hr, respectively. $^{123}I$-BMIPP was selectively localized in liposarcoma at 24 hr image. Conclusions: These results suggest that $^{123}I$-BMIPP can be used as a liposarcoma-imaging agent.

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Macrophages Promote Coal Tar Pitch Extract-induced Tumorigenesis of BEAS-2B Cells and Tumor Metastasis in Nude Mice Mediated by AP-1

  • Zhang, Peng;Jin, Yue-Fei;Zhang, Qiao;Wu, Yi-Ming;Wu, Wei-Dong;Yao, Wu;Wu, Yong-Jun;Li, Zhi-Tao;Zhao, Yong;Liu, Yu;Feng, Fei-Fei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.4871-4876
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    • 2014
  • Background: We sought to evaluate the role of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) on the promotion of coal tar pitch extract (CTPE)-induced tumorigenesis of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and tumor metastasis in nude mice, and related mechanisms. Materials and Methods: BEAS-2B cells were first treated with 2.4 mg/mL CTPE for 72 hours. After removal of CTPE, the cells were continuously cultured and passaged using trypsin-EDTA. THP-1 cells were used as macrophage-like cells. BEAS-2B cells under different conditions (n=6/group) were injected into the back necks of nude mice, and alterations of tumor xenograft growth, indicative of tumorigenicity, and tumor metastasis were determined. Pathological changes (tumor nests and microvascular lesions) of HE-stained tumor tissues were also evaluated. The expression of AP-1(c-Jun) in xenografts and metastatic tumors was determined using immunohistochemistry. Results: Tumor size and weight in nude mice transplanted with the mixture of CTPE-induced passage 30 BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells (2:1) were increased compared to those from the CTPE-treated BEAS-2B cells at passage 30 alone at different observation time points. Tumor metastasis to lymph nodes and liver was only detected after transplantation of a mixture the two kinds of cells. The numbers of tumor nests and microvascular lesions, and the expression levels of AP-1 (c-Jun) in tumors from the mixture of two kinds of cells were increased apparently in contrast to those in tumor from the CTPE-treated BEAS-2B cells of passage 30 alone. In addition, there was positive correlation between AP-1 (c-Jun) expression level and the number of microvascular lesions, or between AP-1 (c-Jun) expression level and tumor metastasis in these two groups. Conclusions: TAMs not only facilitate tumorigenesis transformation of CTPE-induced BEAS-2B cells, but also promote tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in nude mice in vivo, which may be mediated by AP-1.

Antivascular Therapy via Inhibition of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in an Orthotopic Murine Model of Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  • Park, Young-Wook;Kang, Hye-Jeong;Park, Jung-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.59-70
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: We evaluated the therapeutic effect of AEE788, a dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinases on human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) cells growing in nude mice. Experimental Design: We examined the effects of AEE788 on salivary ACC cell growth and apoptosis. To determine the in vivo effects of AEE788, nude mice with orthotopic parotid tumors were randomized to receive oral AEE788 (50 mg/kg) three times per week, injected paclitaxel ($200{\mu}g$) once per week, AEE788 plus paclitaxel, or placebo. Mechanisms of in vivo AEE788 activity were determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Results: Treatment of salivary ACC cells with AEE788 led to growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis. AEE788 inhibited tumor growth and prevented lung metastasis in nude mice. Furthermore, AEE788 potentiated growth inhibition and apoptosis of ACC tumor cells mediated by paclitaxel. Tumors of mice treated with AEE788 and AEE788 plus paclitaxel exhibited down-regulation of activated EGFR and its downstream mediators (Akt and MAPK), increased tumor and endothelial cell apoptosis, and decreased microvessel den-sity, which correlated with a decrease in the level of MMP-9, MMP-2 and bFGF expression and a decrease in the incidence of vascular metastasis. Conclusions: These data show that tumor-associated endothelial cells are important in the process of tumor-metastasis. And VEGFR can be a molecular target for therapy of metastatic lung lesion of salivary ACC.

Genistein Reinforces the Inhibitory Effect of Cisplatin on Liver Cancer Recurrence and Metastasis after Curative Hepatectomy

  • Chen, Peng;Hu, Ming-Dao;Deng, Xiao-Fan;Li, Bo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.759-764
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    • 2013
  • Background: The high recurrence rate after hepatic resection in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major obstacle to improving prognosis. The objective of the present study was to explore the function of genistein, a soy-derived isoflavone, in enhancing the inhibitory effect of cisplatin on HCC cell proliferation and on tumor recurrence and metastasis in nude mice after curative hepatectomy. Methods: Proliferation of human HCC cells (HCCLM3) was detected by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Synergistic effects of genistein and cisplatin were evaluated with the median-effect formula. Nude mice bearing human HCC xenografts underwent tumour resection (hepatectomy) 10 days post implantation, then received intraperitoneal administration of genistein or cisplatin alone or the combination of the two drugs. 33 days after surgery, recurrent tumours and pulmonary metastasis were evaluated individually. MMP-2 level in recurrent tumours was detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR; MMP-2 expression in HCCLM3 was detected by immunocytochemistry. Results: Genistein and cisplatin both suppressed the growth and proliferation of HCCLM3 cells. The two drugs exhibited synergistic effects even at relatively low concentrations. In vivo, mice in the combined genistein and cisplatin group had a smaller volume of liver recurrent tumors and fewer pulmonary metastatic foci compared with single drug treated groups. Cisplatin upregulated the expression of MMP-2 in both recurrent tumours and HCCLM3, while genistein abolished cisplatin-induced MMP-2 expression. Conclusions: Genistein reinforced the inhibitory effect of cisplatin on HCC cell proliferation and tumour recurrence and metastasis after curative hepatectomy in nude mice, possibly through mitigation of cisplatin-induced MMP-2 upregulation.

Antitumor Activity of Chloroquine in Combination with Cisplatin in Human Gastric Cancer Xenografts

  • Zhang, Hui-Qing;Fang, Nian;Liu, Xiao-Mei;Xiong, Shu-Ping;Liao, Yu-Qian;Jin, Wen-Jian;Song, Rong-Feng;Wan, Yi-Ye
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3907-3912
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To investigate the antitumor activity and mechanism of chloroquine (CQ) in combination with cisplatin (DDP) in nude mice xenografted with gastric cancer SGC7901 cells. Materials and Methods: 35 cases of gastric cancer patients with malignant ascites were enrolled and intraperitoneal cisplatin injection was performed. Ascites were collected before and 5 days after perfusion for assessment of autophagy levels in cancer cells. In addition, 24 tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into control, DDP, CQ and CQ + DDP groups. Results: In 54.3% (19/35) of patients the treatment was therapeutically effective (OR), 5 days after peritoneal chemotherapy, 13 patients had the decreased ascites Beclin-1 mRNA levels. In 16 patients who had NR, only 2 cases had decreased Beclin-1 (P=0.001). Compared with the control group, the xenograft growth in nude mice in the DDP group was low, and the inhibition rate was 47.6%. In combination with chloroquine, the inhibition rate increased to 84.7% (P<0.01). The LC3-II/I ratio, and Beclin1 and MDR1/P-gp expression were decreased, while caspase 3 protein levels increased (P<0.05). Conclusions: Antitumor ability of cisplatin was associated with autophagy activity and chloroquine can enhance chemosensitivity to cisplatin in gastric cancer xenografts nude mice.

Anticancer effect of mountain ginseng Pharmacopuncture to the nude mouse of lung carcinoma induced by NCI-H460 human non-small cell lung cancer cells

  • Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.5-14
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : This study was performed to examine the anticancer effect of mountain ginseng Pharmacopuncture(MGP) to the nude mouse of lung carcinoma induced by NCI-H460 human nonsmall lung cancer cells. Methods : Human lung cancer (NCI-H460) cells were cultured and applied to evaluate anti-tumor activity in nude mice. After confirmed tumor growth in mice, MGP was treated per 0.1ml/kg dose to intraperitoneal and intravenous injection everyday for four weeks. And checked the changes in body weights, tumor volume, mean survival time and percent, increase in life span, histo-pathological findings, organ weights, and blood chemistry levels. Results : The results of in vivo study showed that MGP may have potential as growth inhibitor of solid tumor induced NCI-H460 without marked side effects. MGP inhibited dosage-dependently the growth of NCI-H460 cell-transplanted solid tumor compared with the control group. And mean survival time of MGP treated group was prolonged comparing with control group. Generally the group of intravenous injection is more effective than intraperitoneal injection. Conclusion : These results were suggested that MGP may be a useful anticancer agent for therapy of human lung cancer. And follow study need for the certain evidence.

Effect of the combined use of bone morphogenetic protein and platelet-derived growth factor on bone formation in nude mouse (누드마우스에서 골 형성에 대한 BMP와 PDGF 복합사용의 효과)

  • Lee, Seoung-Ho;Choi, Byung-Ho;Zhu, Shi-Jiang;Huh, Jin-Young;Jung, Jae-Hyung;Kim, Byung-Yong
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.263-269
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    • 2005
  • Bone morphogenetic protein(BMP) and platelet-derived growth factor(PDGF) have been demonstrated tostimulate bone formation when applied locally in vivo. To explore whether or not the combined use of BMP and PDGF could have promotive effect and synergic interaction on bone formation in vivo, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were treated with BMP-2, PDGF-BB, or BMP-2 plus PDGF-BB, and then these cells were injected into the subcutaneous space on the dorsum of nude mice. The bone formation was evaluated after 12 weeks. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the subcutaneous nodules formed in nude mice contained 25.3% newly formed bone in the BMP-2 treated cells, 14.4% newly formed bone in the PDGF-BB treated cells, and 8.9% newly formed bone in the RMP-2 plus PDGF-BB treated cells. The results showed that the combination of BMP-2 and PDGF-BB had neither a promotive effect nor synergic interact on bone formation in vivo.

Anticancer Effect of Persimmon Leaf Extracts on Korean Gastric Cancer Cell (감잎의 물 및 에탄올 추출물이 한국인 위암 세포주에 미치는 항암효과)

  • Kim, Ho-Jung;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.133-146
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of persimmon leaf extracts on human gastric cancer cells. In vitro anticancer effects of persimmon leaf extracts (water extract at 8$0^{\circ}C$ for 3 hours, water extract at room temperature for 48 hours, 50% ethanol extract at 8$0^{\circ}C$ for 3 hours, 50% ethanol extract at room temperature for 48 hours, 75% ethanol extract at 8$0^{\circ}C$ for 3 hours and 75% ethanol extract at room temperature for 48 hours) on SNU16 (Korean gastric cancer cell) were investigated by MTT assay. Persimmon leaf extracts exhibited strong in vitro anticancer effects. We found that the higher the ethanol content of the solvent, the stronger the in vitro anticancer effects. Extraction yields, contents of flavonoids, vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E were measured. We found that the higher the ethanol content of the solvent, the higher the extraction yields and the contents of flavonoids, vitamin A and vitamin E. Among persimmon leaf extracts, 75% ethanol 8$0^{\circ}C$ extract showed the highest extraction yield, the highest contents of flavonoids, vitamin A and vitamin E and exhibitied the strongest in vitro anticancer effect on SNU16. Therefore, 75% ethanol 8$0^{\circ}C$ extract was chosen as the material to investigate in vivo anticancer effects. In vivo anticancer effect of persimmon leaf 75% ethanol 8$0^{\circ}C$ extract was investigated in SNU16 transplanted nude mice. Twenty five female nude mice (BALB/c) were blocked into five groups according to body weight and raised for 4 weeks with diets containing 4% (w/w), 8% (w/w) persimmon leaf 75% ethanol 8$0^{\circ}C$ extract, with IT (intratumoral) injection treatment with 1.65 mg/100 $\mu$1, 3.3 mg/100 $\mu$1 concentration every other day 3 weeks after SNU16 was transplanted. Persimmon 75% ethanol 8$0^{\circ}C$ extract significantly lowered tumor weight and tumor volume in SNU16 transplanted nude mice. Tumor weight and tumor volume in all experimental groups were significantly lower than those in the control group. Helper T cell (CD4) levels of mice injected with 3.3 mg/100 $\mu$1 extract significantly increased. Cytotoxic T cell (CD8) levels in all experimental groups significantly increased and helper/cytotoxic T cell ratios in all experimental groups significantly decreased. Natural killer cell and MHC class II molecule in all experimental groups significantly increased. In conclusion, persimmon leaf 75% ethanol 8$0^{\circ}C$ extract exhibited strong in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects against SNU16 cells and it increased cytotoxic T cell, natural killer cell and MHC classII molecule in experimental groups in SNU16 transplanted nude mice.