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A Study on Nutrition Composition Labeling and Nutrition Claim Practices for the Processed Foods (시판 가공식품의 영양성분 및 영양강조 표시 실태에 대한 연구)

  • 오세인;장영애
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.100-111
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of current nutrition labeling on the packaging of the processed foods that provide consumers with a reliable and consistent source of information, which has been considered as a useful aid for food selection and a potent educational tool for nutrition in daily life. The 2,160 processed foods purchased at the supermarket on September, 2002, were divided by food category issued from the 2002 food codes and assessed in the terms of the nutrition composition labeling and nutrition claims. Nutrition composition labeling was found on 356 of the 2160 processed foods items. Milk and dairy products had 49.7% of nutrition composition labeling, which was the largest number among the food category. Tables were most frequently used as the type of nutrition composition labeling (79.8%). Nutrition composition including many different ways of expression, such as a table of nutrition composition, indication of nutrition composition, analysis table of nutrition composition and comparative table of nutrition composition, made frequent use of nutrition composition labeling titles (78.7%). The various unit of measures were use in the nutrition labeling of the processed foods, per l00g or 100$m\ell$ was the highest (44.6%) under the currently practiced nutrition labeling. The correct labeling standard with nutrient content and % RDA except energy, was used on 47.8% of labels, and those with only liability indication nutrient and liability indication nutrients plus discretion indication nutrients were 25.3 and 22.5% respectively. The processed foods with nutrition claims were 8.0% (172 items). Nutrition claims were divided in two ways: nutrient content claims and nutrient comparative claims. The most frequently used claims were contained in the former (44.4%) and more or plus in the latter case (16.3%). Ca was the most popular item as a nutrition claim nutrient (50.6%).

Monitoring the Current Nutrition Labeling Practice on the Packaging of Processed Foods (시판 가공식품의 영양표시 실태 모니터링에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ok-Sun;Oh, Se-In;Jang, Young-Ai
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.616-628
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to monitor the current nutrition labeling practice on the packaging of the processed foods providing consumers with reliable nutrition information, which has been considered as a useful aid for food selection and a potent educational tool for nutrition in a daily life. The 2,214 processed foods purchased at the a wholesale market in July, 2003, were divided by food categories issued from the 2003 food codes and assessed in the terms of the nutrition composition labeling and nutrition claims. Nutrition composition labeling was found on 533 out of the 2,214 processed foods items. The findings of this study were as follows : Milk and dairy products had 66.4% of nutrition composition labeling, which was the largest percentage among the food categories. Tables format (71.3%) is the most widely used type of nutrition labeling. The title of nutrition composition labeling used the most widely was nutrition composition (71.3%). Nutrition composition included many different ways of expression, such as a table of nutrition composition, and indication of nutrition composition, etc. The expression unit of the nutrition composition labeling was use per 100g or 100mL (40.5%). The processed foods with nutrition claims were 18.0% (399 items). Nutrition claims were divided into two categories: nutrient content claims and nutrient comparative claims. The most frequently used nutrient content claims were contained (43.9%) and more or plus in the nutrient comparative claims (16.0%). Ca was the most popular item as a nutrition claim nutrient (33.6%).

Effect of Dietary Nutrient Composition on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with Different Feeding Strategy (사료내 영양소가 사료공급전략에 따른 넙치 유어기의 성장과 체조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Sung-Hwoan
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.56-59
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    • 2007
  • Effect of dietary nutrient composition on growth and body composition of juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with different feeding strategy was determined. Twenty-five fish averaging 16 g were randomly distributed into 12, 180 L flow-through tank each. Four treatments in triplicates were prepared: fish were fed to satiation twice daily by the control diet for 8 weeks as the control group (Con) and fish were fed to satiation twice daily by the control and high nutrient diets for 6 weeks after 2-week fasting (2WS-6WFC, 2WS-6WFHN, respectively) and finally, fish were fed to satiation twice daily by the high nutrient diet for the consecutive 3 days after 4-day fasting for 8 weeks (4DS-3DFHN). No significant difference was found in either survival or weight gain of flounder among treatments. Feed efficiency ratio (FER) for fish in the 2WS-6WFHN treatment was significantly higher than that for fish in the Con and 2WS-6WFC treatments. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of fish in the 2WS-6WFHN and 4DS-3DFHN treatments was significantly higher than that of fish in the 2WS-6WFC treatment. In conclusion, manipulation of dietary nutrient composition and/or feeding strategy can effectively improve growth of juvenile olive flounder without growth retardation at restricted feeding regime.

Effects of the Limited Nutrient Supply at the Pollination Stage on the Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Muskmelon Grown in Rockwool (온실멜론의 암면재배에 있어서 수분기의 양분공급제한이 생육 및 양분흡수에 미치는 영향)

  • 장홍기;정순주
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of limited nutrient supply during 21 days before and after pollination stage on the growth, fruit quality and nutrient uptake of muskmelon in rockwool culture. Muskmelon, cv. Earl's Favorite seeds sowed on rockwool cube and transplanted on rockwool slab($90\times15\times7.5cm$) when 2 to 3 true leaf appeared on Sep. 6, 1991. Three kinds of nutrient composition recommended by Shizuoka university, combinated with the composition of Otsuka house A and composition Shizuoka III. One half of calcium nitrate(Ca(NO$_3$)$_2$.4$H_2O$) for limiting nitrogen supply during 21 days was treated and then fertigated the nutrient composition recommended by Shizuoka university up to harvest time. Trickling nozzles(Netafim Co. Israel) were used for fertigation of nutrient solution and noncirculating system was employed. Temperature was maintained $18^{\circ}C$ in night but 23 to $25^{\circ}C$ for 10 days after pollination for softening the fruit. The drainage ratio of nutrient solution was adjusted 20 to 30 percent. Fertigated and drained amount, and the pH and EC of nutrient solution were recorded. The concentrations of mineral elements including N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were analyzed and compared among treatments. In both autumn and winter cultivation, the limitation of nutrient supply by adjustment of nutrient composition(NO$_3$-N : 8meㆍ$\ell^{-1}$) caused the nutrient deficiency in muskmelon plant due to the limited nutrient supply. After pollination nutrient limitation by the lowering the nitrate retarded the over thickening of upper leaves of muskmelon but plant height and fresh weight of fruit were higher in the plot of nonlimited nutrient supply. The phenomena were attributed to the differences of the amount of nutrient uptake due to the limited time of nutrient solution, duration of nutrient supply and concentration of nutrient solution. These results suggested that increasing nutrient supply in the pollination stage was favorable for better appearance of fruit and improving fruit quality. Further trials would be required for the incre-ment of sugar degree of muskmelon grown in rockwool.

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DIETS OF THE PHILIPPINE INDIGENOUS SHEEP : ITS COMPARISON TO INDIGENOUS GOATS DIETS AND INFLUENCE OF SAMPLING METHODS

  • Serra, A.B.;Serra, S.D.;Serra, F.B.;Domingo, I.J.;Cruz, L.C.;Fujihara, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.163-169
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted 1) to compare the nutrient content and mineral composition of the Philoppine indigenous sheep and goats diets when grazed in common pasture during rainy season, 2) to determine the influence of sampling methods on nutrient content and mineral composition of upland (UP) and lowland (LP) native pastures, and 3) to compare these two pasture types in terms of nutrient and mineral composition. Experiment 1 used sis esophageally fistulated animals, three each for sheep and goats. Weekly extrusa collection was done for a period of three months. Experiment 2 was conducted in UP and LP; these were sampled thrice by three methods, plucking, clipping and use of three esophageally fistulated sheep. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that the diets of sheep were greater in crude protein(CP; p < 0.01) and ether extract(EE; p < 0.05) but lower in crude fiber (CF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL; p < 0.05) than that of goat diets. All other nutrient fractions including mineral composition were not significantly different from each other. Significant findings of Experiment 2 were: CP content of UP was in the order fistulated > plucked > clipped (p < 0.05); CP content of LP was greater (p <0 .05) in fistulated and plucked samples; and ash content was greater (p < 0.05) in fistulated samples of both pastures. The CP of UP was different (p < 0.05) from each sampling method but the CP of LP and ADL of both pastures were greater (p < 0.05) in clipped samples. Most minerals either macro or microminerals were greater in fistulated samples of both pastures. Pooled data of the two pastures showed that LP had better nutrient characteristics and greater mineral composition. Based from this study, there were few differences between the diets of indigenous sheep and goats when grazed in common pasture. Also, sampling methods influenced the nutrient composition of indigenous sheep diets.

Association between Nutrients Intake and Nutritional Status in Young Men

  • Kim, Bo-Young;Cho, Youn-Ok
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2000
  • The association between nutrient intake and nutritional status was investigated with anthropometric measurements, body composition and blood biochemical indices in 56 healthy young men fed balanced diet for two years. Compared with Korean recommended dietary allowances (Korean RDA), all nutrient intakes were adequate. Height and body weight were significantly (p < .01 - p < .05) positively correlated to the intakes of energy, protein, sodium, potassium vitamin A and vitamin $B_1$. The lean weight was significantly (p < .001 - p < .05) correlated to the intake of energy, protein, sodium, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin B$_1$. niacin and vitamin C. The skinfold thickness of triceps and suprailiac was significantly (p < .01 - p < .05) correlated to the intake of energy, sodium, potassium, but that of thigh was not correlated. The significant correlations neither between nutrient intake and blood biochemical indices nor between nutrient intake and blood pressure were shown. These results suggest that nutritional status as anthropometric indices and body composition is associated with nutrient intake in young healthy adults on balanced diet, however, the nutritional status as blood biochemical indices of active people is neither endangered nor improved in comparison with less active ones.

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Nutritional Labeling Practices for Processed Foods According to Food Category (식품유형별 시판 가공식품의 영양표시 실태조사)

  • O, Se-In;Kim, Ok-Seon;Jang, Yeong-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.123-137
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the current nutritional labeling practices in the processed foods industry. Package labels provide consumers with reliable nutritional information, which has been considered a useful aid for food selection and a potent educational tool for nutrition in a daily life. To assess the nutritional composition labeling and nutritional claims on the food package labels in the Korean market, 2,691 processed foods were purchased from a wholesale market in August, 2004, under the food categories specified in the 2004 Food Code. Nutritional composition labels were found on 674 out of the 2,691 processed foods items. The study findings were as follows. Milk and dairy products showed the highest percentage(56.6%) of nutritional composition labeling among the food categories, while 86.2% of processed foods carried inappropriate types of nutrition labels. The title of nutritional composition labeling was ordered according to the nutritional composition presented on the top part of the box. The regulations method which it indicates was 77.8%. The expression unit of the nutritional composition labeling was per 100g(32.8%) or per OOg (29.4%). Of total processed foods, 83(3.1%) offered nutritional claims in their labels. These claims were divided into two ways: nutrient content claims and nutrient comparative claims. The most frequently used term in nutrient content claims was "contained"(67.2%). "More" or "Plus" were frequently used term in nutrient comparative claims(11.2%). Calcium was the most popular among nutrients claimed by processed foods(34.3%).

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A Study of the Nutritional Composition of the Dandelion by Part (Taraxacum officinale) (민들레의 부위별 영양성분 함량 비교)

  • 이성현;박홍주;한귀정;조수묵;이승교
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.57-61
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    • 2004
  • Many studies have presented results about the antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of Dandelions (Taraxacum officinale). There has yet to be a study which makes comparisons of nutrients based on the parts of the Dandelion. To identify the nutrient composition by part of dandelion, nutrient contents were analyzed. Dandelions were taken from Songpa-gu in Seoul and the nutrient composition of the flower, leaf and root were measured. The nutrient content of each part was analysed by using the method developed by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). The proximate components(moisture, protein, fat, fiber, ash, and carbohydrates), minerals and vitamins of the dandelion were analysed. The nutrient composition of the dandelions showed many significant differences among the parts when the differences were determined by using Duncan's multiple range test. The leaf contains more protein, ash, Ca, K, Mg, Zn, vitamin A, B$_1$, B$_2$, and C than the other parts. The root has much more fiber, carbohydrate, P and Fe content. The results demonstrate that dandelions could be used as a food source supplement for fiber, Ca, Fe and vitamin B$_2$ which are common nutritional deficiencies in Korea. It is recommended that more research for other bio-functional factors besides nutrients composition is needed to enhance the utilization of the dandelion.

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Selection of key foods for the systematic management of a food and nutrient composition database

  • Shim, Jee-Seon;Lee, Jung-Sug;Kim, Ki Nam;Lee, Hyun Sook;Kim, Hye Young;Chang, Moon-Jeong
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.500-506
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Food composition databases are necessary for assessing dietary intakes. Developing and maintaining a high quality database is difficult because of the high cost of analyzing nutrient profiles and the recent fast-changing food marketplace. Thus, priorities have to be set for developing and updating the database. We aimed to identify key foods in the Korean diet to set priorities for future analysis of foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The food consumption data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2013-2014 were used. We modified the US Department of Agriculture's key food approach. First, major foods were analyzed, contributing to 75%, 80%, 85%, or 90% of each nutrient intake. Second, the cumulative contributions to nutrient intakes were compared before and after excluding the foods least commonly consumed by individuals. Third, total nutrient score for each food was calculated by summing all percent contributions times 100 for nutrients. To set priorities among the foods in the list, we sorted the score in descending order and then compared total percent contributions of foods, within the 100, 90, 85, 80, and 75 percentiles of the list. Finally, we selected the minimum list of foods contributing to at least 90% of the key nutrient intake as key items for analysis. RESULTS: Among the 1,575 foods consumed by individuals, 456 were selected as key foods. Those foods were chosen as items above the 80 percentile of the total nutrient score, among the foods contributing at least 85% of any nutrient intake. On an average, the selected key foods contributed to more than 90% of key nutrient intake. CONCLUSIONS: In total, 456 foods, contributing at least 90% of the key nutrient intake, were selected as key foods. This approach to select a minimum list of key foods will be helpful for systematically updating and revising food composition databases.

The Effect of Combined Training at Different Times of Day on Body Composition, Plasma Lipids, Stress Hormones and Nutrient Intakes (하루 중 다른 시간대에 실시한 복합 트레이닝이 신체조성, 혈중지질, 스트레스 호르몬 및 영양소 섭취량에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kyoung-Young;Kim, Si-Young;Jun, Tae-Won
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2006
  • Regular exercise training improves body composition, blood lipid profiles and exercise adaptation. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of exercise training at different times of day on body composition, blood lipids, stress hormones and nutrient intakes. Twenty four male graduate students carried out this experiment. The subjects were divided into three groups; morning exercise group, evening exercise group and control group. Two exercise groups performed running and muscular resistance training at mid intensity for 12 week periods. Body composition, blood lipid profiles, blood cortisol, ACTH and nutrient intakes were analyzed prior to, midway and after training. There were significant differences about interaction between different exercise times and training periods in plasma TG and HDL-C of the evening exercise training (p < 0.05). Also the evening exercise group was showed the decreasing of TC after training (p < 0.05). No significant differences about interaction between different exercise times and training periods were shown in body composition, stress hormones and nutrient intakes in the three groups. But evening exercise training decreased body fat ($\%$) and blood ACTH (p < 0.05). Also the increasing of carbohydrate intakes was shown by the evening exercise training (p < 0.05). In contrast, morning exercise group indicated a decrease of body fat ($\%$) after 6 week training (p < 0.05), but this effect was not maintained after 12 weeks of training. These results suggested that regular evening exercise is more effect than morning exercise from the viewpoint of improving body composition, blood lipids, nutrient intakes and exercise adaptation.