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Dietary Behavior Factors for Desirable Nutrient Intakes of the Oldest-old Population in Sunchang County (순창군 장수인의 영양소 섭취수준에 영향을 미치는 식행동 인자)

  • Lee, Mee-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.699-709
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    • 2009
  • In order to identify valuable factors for improving dietary quality of Korean rural elderly, the consumption frequency of food groups, dietary habits and health behaviors related to nutrient intakes of the elderly over 85 of Sunchang County were studied. The 171 subjects (61 males and 110 females) were chosen from Sunchang Province by stratified sampling. Among food groups, the consumption frequency of meat and fish groups influenced significantly on their nutrient intakes than the other groups. The subjects consuming more than 4 times per week of meat or fish had significantly higher nutrient intakes level than the other groups. The group consuming milk and milk products everday was higher in vitamin $B_2$ intake level than the other groups. Among dietary habits, the groups with good appetite and regular mealtime compared with the groups with low appetite and irregular mealtime had significantly higher nutrient intake levels. The family type was the determining factor of nutrient intakes. The subjects living with family members consumed higher nutrient intakes than the subjects living alone. The smoking and the alcohol consumption themselves did not affect nutrient intakes, but the subjects having alcohol consumption frequently more than once a day had lower nutrient intakes than the others. The group with dentures did not differ significantly from the without denture group in nutrient intakes; however, those who had chewing problems showed the lower nutrient intakes compared to those who did not have chewing problems. The subjects with more than two kinds of clinical symptoms had lower nutrient intakes than the subjects with less than two kinds of clinical symptoms. These results indicate that the identifying factors for desirable nutrient intakes of rural elderly were characterized as appropriate consumption frequencies of meat and fish, good appetite, living with family, regular mealtime, chewing without difficulty, and low incidence of chronic disease.

Factors Related to Recommended Nutrient Intakes of Young Children and Their Mothers (유아와 어머니의 적정영양섭취 관련인자)

  • Kim, Jung Mi;Suh, Soon Rim
    • Journal of health informatics and statistics
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    • pp.282-289
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to nutrients intakes among young children aged 1-5 years and their mothers. Methods: The study subjects were 621 young children and their mothers from the data of 2nd year (2014) and 3rd year (2015) of the 6th National Health and Nutrition Survey. To find a difference of Recommended Nutrient Intake in young children and their mothers, independent t-test, ANOVA, and Duncan test as a post-hoc analysis were used. For the factors influencing young children Recommended Nutrient Intakes, hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used. Results: The mean score of Recommended Nutrient Intakes was $6.92{\pm}2.17$ in young children and $4.74{\pm}2.06$ in mothers. The Recommended Nutrient Intakes of young children was increased according to gender (boy) (p=0.001), increasing young children age ($p{\leq}0.001$), young children breakfast frequency (p<0.001), mothers age (p<0.001), education level (p=0.020) and mothers lunch frequency (p=0.002) and family income (p=0.007). The Recommended Nutrient Intakes of mothers was increased according to their age (p=0.005), family income (p=0.020) and having breakfast (p=0.038). The factor that influenced young children Recommended Nutrient Intakes was their mothers Recommended Nutrient Intakes (${\beta}=0.21$, p<0.001). Conclusions: Given the results, it is necessary to establish a plan or nutrition education for young children's menu differently depending on their age and gender. Since mothers' Recommended Nutrient Intakes influence their young children's Recommended Nutrient Intakes, it is necessary to provide mothers' with nutrition education about the importance of mothers' nutrition management and right nutrient intakes, and to make customized nutrition education guidelines in consideration of mothers' characteristics.

The Relation of Body Mass Index to Nutrient Intakes in Rural High-school Students (농촌 고교생의 체질량 지수(BMI)와 영양섭취상태와의 관계)

  • 이건순;이승교
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.315-324
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to evaluate high-school students' nutrient intakes according to the status of body mass index, and to analyze the Physical health status. The volunteers were 560 high school students in 8 provinces, but 511 students were analyzed. It was used questionnaire method as an instrument tool. The questions were composed with socio-demographic characteristics, physical health condition by CMI. and the evaluation of food consumption by 24 hours recall method. Anthrophometric measurement of height and weight was used the data of health chart of each school-class. The family situation of the subjects was mostly nuclear family(73%), agricultural work(53%), and normal living situation(75%). The students of the BMI range of 18-23 were 71%. but those of the overweight(over 23) were 15%. The individual characteristics were different in BMI. Female and third grade students were more of BMI scores. The overall nutrient intakes of students were low compared with Korean RDA of adolescent. especially iron. calcium. vitamin A, and riboflavin. The mean adequacy ratio(MAR) of nutrient intakes was 0.45$\pm$0.23 only. The energy nutrients, ash, and vitamin A intakes were significantly different according to the different BMI groups. But the other mineral and vitamin intakes were not different according to BMI. By the correlation of individual characters with BMI, height was negatively and weight and school grade were positively correlated, but sleeping time and study accomplishment were not correlated. By the correlation of nutrient intakes with BMI, there were negative correlation with the intakes of energy, carbohydrates, potassium, and thiamin. According to this results, We concluded that Korean high-school students living in rural were lower intake of nutrients(iron, vitamin A, and riboflavin) and unbalanced nutrient intakes(MAR of 0.45$\pm$0.23). The state of lower intakes of energy nutrients and vitamin A intakes in higher BMI group mean the students spend their effort to reduce BMI for avoiding obesity. But they need to balanced diet. and good nutrient intakes. These situations would be necessary for students to ameliorate quality of living in rural.

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Within-and between-person Variation in Nutrient Intakes by the Korean Elderly (한국 노인의 영양소 섭취량에서의 개인내 변이와 개인간 변이)

  • 홍명희;오세영
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.423-429
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    • 1998
  • This study examined within- and between-person variation in nutrient intakes in order to estimate the degree of precision in dietary assessment among 37 males and 46females whose mean age was 70.4 years old. To collect dietary data, each subject was interviewed 5 or 6 times using a 24-hour recall method during a 3 month period. Within- person variation ranged from 23.5% to 101.2%. Lower values of within-person variation were observed in energy, carbohydrated, protein and phosphorous while higher value was observed in vitamin A. Between person variations of nutrient intakes ranged 12.6-23.5% in most nutrients. With 1 day dietary data, observed nutrient intakes were estimated to within 6-25% of the group's usual9true) intakes and 52-198% of the individuals' usual intakes. The values of these maximum percentage deviations became smaller when the number of dietary recalls increased. The results of this study suggest that the Korean elderly subjects appear to have a slightly less diverse diet compared to young Korean women. Within persons, intakes of nutrients largely from animal sources were more variable for the Korean elderly than for their counterparts in Western countries. This study also implies that commonly used 1 day dietary study may be appropriate for assessing group means of nutrient intakes, but clearly not appropriate for assessing individual's nutrient intakes.

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A Survey on Nutrient Intakes by Infant Formula and Supplemental Foods of Formula-Fed Infants in Seoul Area (서울 일부지역의 조제유수유 영유아에서 조제유 및 이유보충식에 의한 영양소섭취 실태조사)

  • 장수정;신지혜;이연숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.251-262
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    • 2004
  • The aim of this study was to assess the nutrient intakes from infant formula and supplemental foods of 246 healthy infants fed infant formula, aged from 5 to 18 months. Subjects were devided into two groups depending on supplemental food type for weaning, Domestic supplemental foods (mainly home-made, n = 129) and Delivery supplemental foods (mainly commercially-delivered, n = 117). Four subgroups were assigned to 5-6 months, 7-8 months, 9-11 months, and 12-18 months by ages, respectively. Dietary assessment was carried out using 24-hour-recall method. Formula intakes in the delivery group tended to decrease accordingly with the ages. However, in the domestic group, formula intakes up to 8 months were similar and decreased after 9 month. Energy, protein, calcium and iron intakes from infant formula and supplemental foods were assessed. Energy intake at 12-18 months were lower than the RDA in both groups. Daily intake of protein and calcium at all ages were much higher than the RDA in both groups. Therefore, protein and calcium overnutrition were elucidated. Especially, protein intake at 5-6 months, calcium intake at all ages from infant formula was higher than the RDA in both groups. Iron intake at 5-6 months from infant formula were higher than the RDA. Consequently, as for infant formula, it was suggested that not only formula intakes but also nutrient content in formula should be reconsidered. On the other hand, nutrient intakes from supplemental foods in the domestic group tended to be higher than that of the delivery group. Especially at 9-11 months, significant differences between the two groups were observed. This may be due to high dependency on commercial powdered baby food in the domestic group. This study revealed that daily nutrient intakes of formula-fed infants are desirable but nutrient intakes from infant formula are too high. Conclusively, this study suggests that as the age of infants increases, formula intakes should be controlled and various supplemental foods besides commercially powdered baby food should be appropriately provided.

The Evaluation of the Dietary Diversity and Nutrient Intakes of Korean Child-bearing Women (한국인 가임기 여성의 영양소 섭취량 및 식사 다양성 평가)

  • 임현숙;이정아;진현옥
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2000
  • This study was performed to assess the extent of dietary diversity and nutrient intakes of Korean child-bearing women and to investigate the relationships between dietary diversity indices and nutrient intakes. A total of 91 women aged 18 to 48 years old participated. They were divided into four groups by age 15 subjects in teens, 20 in twenties. 32 in thirties and 24 in forties. Mean energy intake was 1638${\pm}$471㎉/day and it was low as 81.4% of the Korean RDA for energy. Mean intakes of folate, calcium and iron were also low as 81.7%. 72.6% and 57.2% of the RDAs. On the other hand, protein, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin C were consumed close to or above the RDAs. It was obvious that the subjects in teens and twenties took less all of the nutrients as well as energy than those In thirties and forties. Mean nutrient adequacy ratio( MNAR) was 0.77 and showed a trend to raise with increasing age. Thus MNAR of the teens was the lowest and that of the forties was the highest among the age groups. The results in this study support the previous findings that nutrient intakes of women in teens and twenties were poorer compared to those in thirties and forties. Mean dietary diversity score( DDS) . dietary variety score(DVS) and dietary frequency score( DFS) were 4.1. 11.6 and 14.7. respectively. DVS and DFS of the teens and twenties were lower than those in thirties and forties. DDS significantly correlated to the intakes of energy and calcium only, however, DVS and DFS had significant relationships to the intakes of all nutrients. The MNAR significantly related to DVS and DFS. but not DDS. In conclusion, the intakes of energy, folate. calcium and iron of child-bearing women were not sufficient and their nutrient adequacy highly correlated with dietary diversity. It indicates that to consume various foods helps to enhance the nutritional status.

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The Dietary Behavior, Nutrient Intakes, and Different Stresses Between University Students and Teachers in Kyunggi-do (중등교사와 대학생의 스트레스와 식행동 및 영양 섭취 상태 비교 - 경기지역을 중심으로 -)

  • 이영희;이승교
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.37-51
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed to investigate the degree of different stresses and to search the influence of food habit and nutrient intakes at stress situation in university students and secondary school teachers. The data was collected by questionnaire method and searched nutrient intakes by 24 hours recall. The subjects were 282 students and 152 high school teacher in Kyunggi do. Physical status was no difference with two groups. Energy intake of teachers was lower than that of students, but the intakes of vitamin A and C were high in teachers' group. The university students had more stress situation than teachers in almost kind of stresses except overload stress. Self-diagnosed dietary habits were better in the group of teacher. Especially smoke and alcohol drink behavior were correlated with nutrient intakes in male teachers and students. The quantity of nutrient of nutrient intakes was correlated with different kind of stress. The stress of life event was correlated with the intakes of carbohydrate, minerals, thiamin and riboflavin, and the deprivation was with iron and vitamin A in teachers' group. The intake of almost nutrients was correlated with the stress of noise in students' group. By the analysis of stepwise multiple regression, although the $R^2$ values were very low, vitamin C intake was influenced in the factor at the stress of life events($R^2$=0.025), self-efface($R^2$=0.030) and noise($R^2$=0.020), thiamin was at food induced stress ($R^2$=0.021) and vitamin A was at the stress of type A behavior($R^2$=0.022) and anxiety response($R^2$=0.014). Therefore, we could concluded that different kind of stresses were influenced in dietary behavior and nutrient intakes. More research would be needed at the aspects of health promotion in the stressful situation of modern society.

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The Correlation of Anthropometric Measurements, Physical Performance and Biochemical Measurements with Nutrient Intakes in Male College Students

  • Cho, Youn-Ok;Kim, Bo-Young
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.113-117
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    • 2003
  • Possible correlations between nutrient intake add health status-as assessed by anthropometric measurements, physical performance and biochemical measurements-were investigated, using 514 healthy young men aged 20 years old who had no apparent health problems. The intakes of nutrients were estimated using a three-day dietary recall method. Height and body weight were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Physical performance was tested using sit-ups, push-ups, a loom sprint and a 1,500m run. When compared with the Korean recommended dietary allowances (Korean RDA), the subjects nutrient intakes were adequate except for calcium. The intake of calcium was 516.66$\pm$293.43mg/day, which is 73.80 % of the Korean RDA. The subjects averaged 174.51$\pm$7.07cm in height, 68.17$\pm$9.25 kg in body weight and 22.23$\pm$2.16 in BMI. The associations between nutrient intakes and anthropometric measurements, and between nutrient intakes and physical performance, were weak. The intake of vegetable fat was positively correlated to body weight, whereas the intake of carbohydrate was negatively correlated to BMI. The intake of carbohydrate was positively correlated to the level of performance in the loom sprint, and the intake of vegetable Int was positively correlated to the level of performance of sit-ups. No correlation was found between nutrient intakes and the following biochemical measurements of the blood: the levels of glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, hemoglobin and hematocrit. These results suggest that anthropometric measurements and level of physical performance can be associated with energy nutrient intakes, even in moderately active, well-nourished, young men. No correlation was found between nutrient intake and biochemical measurements, probably because all subjects had a reasonably well-balanced diet.

Survey on Nutritional Status of Pre-school Children in Asan Measured by Anthropometric and Nutrient Intake Analysis (아산시 거주 미취학 아동들의 신체계측 및 영양상태 조사)

  • Kim, Hui-Seon;Lee, Hyeon-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.114-124
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    • 2005
  • The nutritional status of pre-school children is important for both physical growth and functional development. This study investigated the anthropometric, nutrient intakes and dietary quality of the pre-school children living in Asan for planning nutritional education program. The dietary intakes were measured by 2-day 24 hr recall recorded by children's mothers and the anthropometric data were collected by measuring children's weights, heights, and percent body fat at Asan Public Health Center. The children were 161 boys and 129 girls aged 5 and 6 years. When children's nutritional status was determined by their anthropometric status (underweight, normal weight and overweight) determined by z-score (normal range between -1.00 and 1.00), only 1.4% of the children belonged to underweight group while 55.7% and 42.9% belonged to normal and overweight groups, respectively. Significantly higher number of children belonged to overweight group for 5 year-olds. No differences were observed in nutrient intakes, nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) and index of nutritional quality (INQ) values among nutritional status groups. Intakes of the most nutrients were adequate, but NAR and INQ of calcium and zinc were low. When nutrient intakes, NAR and INQ were compared by sex or age, all nutrient intakes were appropriate except calcium and zinc intakes of 6 year-olds. Nutrient intakes of 5 years were higher than those of 6 years. The mean of nutrient adequacy ratio (MAR) was 0.85 and mean INQ was 1.51 for all participants. The nutritional management program for pre-school children in Asan would be directed differently by age groups and education material should contain contents educating to consume moderate amount of food for 5 year-olds and to increase intake of foods with mineral nutrients such as calcium and zinc for 6 year-olds.

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The Comparison of Growth and Nutrient Intakes in Children with and without Atopic Dermatitis (아토피피부염 유병여부에 따른 영유아의 영양섭취와 성장 비교 연구)

  • Park, Seung-Joo;Lee, Jae-Sun;Ahn, Kang-Mo;Chung, Sang-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.271-279
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    • 2012
  • The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has increased recently all over the world. Several studies worldwide reported growth retardation associated with AD, but few studies were reported in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identity the differences in growth and nutrient intakes between Korean children with and without AD. The participants were 71 AD children and age, gender-matched 81 control children aged 10 to 36 months. Demographic information was gathered by questionnaires. Height and weight were measured at clinic and health centers. Height and weight for age, and weight for height were converted as deviation in Z scores using World Health Organization Standard. A 24 hour dietary recall method was performed to estimate nutrient intakes. A higher percentage of AD children had insufficient energy and intakes of calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and vitamin B2, defined as intakes lower than 75% of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Korean, compared to the control group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.001, P = 0.014, P = 0.001, respectively). The percentages of children with height and weight for age Z score below than-1 (stunted) were significantly higher in the AD group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Multiple food restriction, defined as ${\geq}$ 3 food elimination, was associated with insufficient energy and intakes of calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, vitamins A and B2. In conclusion, children with AD need regular nutrient assessment and education about alternative food choices to avoid r food elimination in order to prevent growth retardation or inadequate nutrient intakes. Further longitudinal studies for growth and nutrient intakes should be performed to understand the patterns of growth in children with AD.