• Title, Summary, Keyword: ohmic heating

Search Result 53, Processing Time 0.034 seconds

Leakage of Cellular Materials from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Ohmic Heating

  • Yoon, Sung-Won;Lee, Chung-Young-J.;Kim, Ki-Myung;Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.12 no.2
    • /
    • pp.183-188
    • /
    • 2002
  • The ohmic heating of foods for sterilization provides a shorter come-up time compared to conventional thermal processes. The electric fields as well as the heat generated by ohmic heating facilitate germicidal effects. In the present study, the effect of ohmic heating on the structure and permeability of the cell membrane of yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisae, isolated from Takju (a traditional Korean rice-beer), was investigated. The ohmic heating was found to translocate intracellular protein materials out of the cell wall, and the amount of exuded protein increased significantly as the electric field increased from 10 to 20 V/cm. As higher frequencies were applied, more materials were exuded. Compared to conventional heating, more amounts of proteins and nucleic acids were exuded when these cells were treated with ohmic heating. The molecular weights of the major exuded proteins ranged from 14 kDa to 18 kDa, as analyzed by Tricine-SDS PAGE. A TEM study also confirmed the leakage of cellular materials, thus indicating irreversible damage to the cell wall by ohmic heating. It was, therefore, concluded that the electric fields generated by ohmic heating induced electroporation, causing irreversible damage to the yeast cell wall and promoting the translocation of intracellular materials.

Effect of Ohmic Heating on Characteristics of Heating Denaturation of Soybean Protein (옴 가열이 대두 단백질의 열변성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Yun-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.24 no.4
    • /
    • pp.740-745
    • /
    • 2011
  • Ohmic heating uses electric resistance heat which occurs equally and rapidly inside food when an electrical current is passed throught. In this study, we observed the physical & chemical characteristics changes which occurs in soybean protein during heating denaturation by using ohmic and conventional heating. After the ohmic heating process, we could not find any change of the primary protein structure in the denaturated soy protein samples. However, the rate of imbibed water(RIW) of the ohmic samples was 2 times faster than that of the conventional samples. Also the ANS-surface hydrophobicity was decreased, which is very closely related to RIW. In the differential scanning calorimeter(DSC) analysis result, all 7S soyprotein fraction samples were completely denaturated by ohmic and conventional heating. However, the 11S samples were completely denatured only by ohmic heating. According to the DSC result, we decided that soyprotein was damaged by temperature and electrical current during ohmic heating. The damage of electrical current was a cause of the characteristic changes.

Effect of Ohmic Heating on Thermal and Water Holding Property of Starches (옴가열이 전분의 열적 특성과 흡수력에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Yun-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.112-119
    • /
    • 2014
  • Ohmic heating uses electric resistance heat which occurs equally and rapidly inside food when the electrical current is transmitted into. Prior to the study, we have researched the potato starch's thermal property changes during ohmic heating. Comparing with conventional heating, the gelatinization temperature and the range of potato starch treated by ohmic heating are increased and narrowed respectively. Herein, we have studied thermal property changes of wheat, corn, potato and sweet potato starch by ohmic heating as well as conventional heating. And then we measure the water holding capacity of starches. Annealing of starch is a heat treatment method heated at 3~4% below the gelatinization point. This treatment changes the starch's thermal property. In the DSC analysis of this study, the $T_o$, $T_p$, $T_c$ of all starch levels have increased, and the $T_c$-$T_o$ narrowed. In the ohmic heating, the treatment sample is extensively changed but not with the conventional heating. From the ohmic treatment, increases from gelatinization temperature are potato ($8.3^{\circ}C$) > wheat ($5.3^{\circ}C$) > corn ($4.9^{\circ}C$) > sweet potato ($4.5^{\circ}C$), and gelatinization ranges are potato ($7.9^{\circ}C$), wheat ($7.5^{\circ}C$), corn ($6.1^{\circ}C$) and sweet potato ($6.8^{\circ}C$). In the case of conventional treatment, water holding capacity is not changed with increasing temperature but the ohmic heating is increased. Water holding capacity is related to the degree of gelatinization for starch. This result show that when treated with below gelatinization temperature, the starches are partly gelatined by ohmic treatment. When viewing the results of the above, ohmic treatment is enhanced by heating and generating electric currents to the starch structure.

Effect of Ohmic Heating on External and Internal Structure of Starches (옴가열이 전분의 외부와 내부 구조에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Yun-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.28 no.1
    • /
    • pp.126-133
    • /
    • 2015
  • Ohmic heating uses electric resistance heat which occurs equally and rapidly inside food when the electrical current is transmitted into. Prior to the study, we have researched the potato starch's thermal property changes during ohmic heating. Comparing with conventional heating, the gelatinization temperature and the range of potato starch treated by ohmic heating are increased and narrowed respectively. This result is appeared equally at wheat, corn and sweet potato starch. At this study, we treated potato, wheat, corn and sweet potato starch by ohmic/conventional method and observed change of external structure by microscope and internal structure by X-ray diffractometer. Conventional heated at $55^{\circ}C$ potato starch was not external structural changes. But ohmic heated potato starch is showed largely change. Some small size starch particle were broken or small particles are made of larger particle together or small particles caught up in the large particle. Changes in ohmic heated potato starch at $60^{\circ}C$ was greater. The inner matter came to an external particle burst inside and only the husk has been observed. The same change was observed in the rest of the starch. The change of internal structure of potato starch was measured using X-ray diffraction patterns. There was no significant difference between ohmic and conventional heating at $55^{\circ}C$. But almost every peak has disappeared ohmic at $60^{\circ}C$. Especially $5.4^{\circ}$ peak to represent the type B was completely gone. When viewed from the above results, external changes with change in the internal crystal structure of the starch particles were largely unknown to appear. In conclusion, during ohmic heating changes of starch due to the electric field with a change in temperature by the heating was found to have progressed at the same time.

Effect of Ohmic Heating on Pasting Property of Starches (옴가열이 전분의 Pasting 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Yun-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.30 no.4
    • /
    • pp.689-695
    • /
    • 2017
  • Ohmic heating is an internal heating method based on the principle that when an electrical current passes through food, electric resistance heat is uniformly generated internally by food resistance. Previous studies indicate that the thermal properties, external structure, internal structure, and swelling power of ohmic heat treated starch of various starches, such as potato, wheat, corn, and sweet potato, differed from those of conventional heating at the same temperature. In this study, the pasting property of starch, treated with ohmic and conventional heating, were measured by RVA (Rapid Visco-Analyzer). Our results show that as the ohmic heating temperature increased, the PV (Paste Viscosity) of the starch decreased significantly, and the PT (Pasting Temperature) increased. Changes in PV and PT indicate that the swelling of starch remains unchanged by ohm heating. The HPV (Hot Paste Viscosity), CPV (Cold Paste Viscosity) and SV (Setback Viscosity) of ohmic heated starch also differed from the conventional heated starch. The pasting property is similar to the viscosity curve of common cross-linked modified starch. In this experiment, we further confirm the similarity with modified starch and its usability.

Effect of Ohmic Heating on Rheological Property of Starches (옴가열이 전분의 레올로지 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Yun-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.32 no.4
    • /
    • pp.304-311
    • /
    • 2019
  • Ohmic heating is a heating method based on the principle when an electrical current passes through food. Since this method is internal, electrical current damage occurred during heating treatment. The results of ohmic heated starch's external structure, X-ray diffraction, DSC analysis and RVA were differed from those of conventional heating at the same temperature. Several starches changed more rigid by structure re-aggregation. This change in starch was caused by change of physical, chemical, rheological property. The rheology of ohmic heated potato and corn starch of different heated methods were compared with chemically modified starch. After gelatinization, sample starch suspension (2%, 3%) measured flow curves by rheometer. Cross-linked chemically modified starch's shear stress was decreased with degree of substitution reversibly. Ohmic heated more dramatic, at $60^{\circ}C$. Potato starch's shear stress was less than commercial high cross-linked modified starch. Flow curves of potato starches measured at $4^{\circ}C$, $10^{\circ}C$, $20^{\circ}C$. Showed that Ohmic heated potato starch's shear stress ranging between $4^{\circ}C$ and $20^{\circ}C$ was narrower than modified starch. According to this study, ohmic heated potato starch can be used by decreasing viscosity agent like cross-linked modified starch.

Effect of Ohmic Heating at Subgelatinization Temperatures on Thermal-property of Potato Starch (호화점 이하에서 옴가열이 감자 전분의 열적특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Yun-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.25 no.4
    • /
    • pp.1068-1074
    • /
    • 2012
  • Ohmic heating uses electric resistance heat which occurs equally and rapidly inside of food when electrical current is flown into. In other study, we researched about soybean protein's characteristic changes by ohmic heating. Nevertheless treated same temperature, denaturation of soybean protein were accelerated by ohmic heating than conventional heating. In this time, we studied thermal property change of potato starch by ohmic heating besides conventional heating. For this purpose, potato starch was heated at same subgelatinization temperature by ohmic and conventional heating. And thermal properties were tested using DSC. Annealing of starch is heat treatment method that heated at 3~4% below the gelatinization point. DSC analysis results of this study, the $T_o$, $T_p$, $T_c$ of potato starch levels were increased, whereas $T_c{\sim}T_o$ was narrowed. This thermal property changes appear similar to annealing's result. It is thought the results shown in this study, because the heating from below the gelatinization point. 6, 12, 24, 72, and 120 hours heating at $55^{\circ}C$ for potato starch, $T_o$, $T_p$, $T_c$ values continue to increased with heating time increase. The gelatinization temperature of raw potato starch was $65.9^{\circ}C$ and the treated starch by conventional heating at $55^{\circ}C$ for 120 hr was $72^{\circ}C$, ohmic was $76^{\circ}C$. The gelatinization range of conventional (72 hr) was $10^{\circ}C$, ohmic was $8^{\circ}C$. In case of 24 hours heating at 45, 50, 55, 60, $65^{\circ}C$ for potato starch, the result was similar to before. $T_o$, $T_p$, $T_c$ values continue to increased and gelatinization range narrowed with heating temperature increase. In case of conventional heating at $60^{\circ}C$, the results of gelatinization temperature and range were $70.1^{\circ}C$ and $9.1^{\circ}C$. And ohmic were $74.4^{\circ}C$ and $7.5^{\circ}C$. When viewed through the results of the above, the internal structure of starch heated by ohmic heating was found that the shift to a more stable form and to increase the homology of the starch internal structure.

Ohmic Heating Characteristics of Fermented Soybean Paste and Kochujang (된장 및 고추장의 Ohmic heating 특성)

  • Cho, Won-Il;Kim, Do-Un;Kim, Young-Suk;Pyun, Yu-Ryang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.26 no.6
    • /
    • pp.791-798
    • /
    • 1994
  • Ohmic heating is a food processing operation in which heat is internally generated within foods by the passage of alternating electric current. The process enables highly viscous paste foods such as Kochujang, and fermented soybean paste to be heated very fast. In order to develope the novel pasteurization process of paste foods, static Ohmic heating system was built, and heating characteristic during Ohmic heating under various conditions were studied. Electric conductivities of Kochujang and fermented soybean paste at room temperature were 1.865 S/m and 2.510 S/m, respectively and increased linearly with increasing temperature. Specific heating rate was highly dependent on the frequency. The highest heating rate was achieved at 5 KHz for Kochujang and 20 KHz for fermented soybean paste. Uniform heating throughout the sample was achieved during Ohmic heating with low frequency electrical currents, however above 5 KHz frequency, surface temperature was several degrees higher than the bulk.

  • PDF

Sterilization of Gochujang Sauce with Continuous Ohmic Hea (연속 옴가열 장치를 이용한 고추장 소스의 살균)

  • Choi, Jun-Bong;Cho, Won-Il;Jung, Jung-Yoon;Chung, Myong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.47 no.4
    • /
    • pp.474-479
    • /
    • 2015
  • In this study, five different Gochujang (a traditional Korean sauce prepared using fermented red pepper paste) sauces were heated at $100^{\circ}C$ for 5 min using a continuous ohmic heating system. Ohmic heating yielded greater reduction in microbial counts (90-95% reduction) than did conventional heating (65-75% reduction). The sterilization effect of the continuous ohmic heater increased with increasing sample flow rate and decreasing Reynolds number inside the pipe. Low-viscosity samples had higher electrical conductivity and were better suited for ohmic heating than were high-viscosity samples. The color and texture were also satisfactorily maintained after ohmic heating. Compared with conventional heating, ohmic heating provided rapid and uniform heating, which is more suitable for aseptic thermal processing of viscous foods.

Changes in Heating Profiles of Apple Juice by Ohmic Heating (통전가열(Ohmic Heating) 처리조건에 따른 사과주스의 가열속도 변화)

  • Kim, Kyung-Tack;Choi, Hee-Don;Kim, Sung-Soo;Hong, Hee-Do
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
    • /
    • v.41 no.6
    • /
    • pp.431-436
    • /
    • 1998
  • The optimum ohmic heating condition of apple juice was investigated with model solution. The temperature rise of model solution was found to be $7.8,\;21.0,\;47.4^{\circ}C/min$ when the distances between electrodes were 29, 22, and 17mm, respectively. The heating rate increased proportionally with the numbers of electrode pairs, 1 to 3 and highly dependent on applied voltage. The heating rate was not affected by the frequencies ranged from 60 Hz to 60 KHz and the wave form of applied alternating electric current. The apple juices prepared by ohmic heating sterilization revealed similar physicochemical properties to that by commercial sterilization.

  • PDF