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Effects of Seven Dietary Oils on Blood Serum Lipid Patterns in Rats

  • Jin, Young-Hee
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effects of seven dietary oils on the serum lipid patterns of rats. Seventy weanling Wistar Kyoto rats were divided into seven groups of ten rats each. Walnut oil (rich in PUFA), wheat germ oil (rich in PUFA), corn oil (rich in PUFA), canola oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids), fish oil (rich in PUFA), primrose oil (rich in PUFA), and palm oil (rich in saturated fatty acids) were employed for 21 days. Serum total cholesterol concentrations for rats fed palm oil, walnut oil, and wheat germ oil were significantly higher than were concentrations for rats receiving corn oil. fish oil, and primrose oil. The mean serum LDL cholesterol values for rats fed fish oil, primrose oil, and corn oil were significantly lower than those for rats fed walnut oil, wheat germ oil, canola oil, and palm oil. HDL cholesterol concentrations were the highest when wheat germ oil was fed and the lowest when fish oil was fed. The feeding of wheat germ oil and palm oil to rats resulted in considerably higher serum triglyceride levels than did all other treatments. The feeding of wheat germ oil to rats resulted in considerably higher serum phospholipid levels. Serum phospholipid concentrations were significantly lower in rats fed the canola oil, fish oil, ,and primrose oil diets, when compared to concentrations achieved with the feeding of walnut oil, wheat germ oil, corn oil, and palm oil. Palm oil, which has a high ratio of saturated to polyunsaturated fatty acids, resulted in the highest serum total cholesterol and highest LDL cholesterol levels, while fish oil, primrose oil, and corn oil produced the lowest total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Wheat germ oil produced the highest values for HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids. In general, feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids produced more favorable responses than feeding oils containing large amounts of monounsaturated or saturated fatty acids.

Effect of Dietary Perilla Seed Oil on Lipid Metabolism in Rats (들깨유가 흰쥐의 체내 지질대사에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 장순덕;노숙령
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.408-419
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    • 1991
  • The effects of various dietary fats on plasma lipids. liver lipids, and Plasma Peroxide levels were studied in rats fed for 6 wk with diets containing 15 wt% fat, as sesame oil. raw perilla seed oil. roasted perilla seed oil, heated perilla seed oil. mackerel oil or beef tallow. TBA values of these lipids during 4 wk storage, and linolenic acid contents of three kinds of perilla seed oil were also measured. Linolenic acid contents of raw perilla seed oil. roasted perilla seed oil and heated perilla seed oil were 62.3%, 61.6% and 53.1% respectively. Raw perilla seed oil showed the lowest rate of lipid peroxidation after 4 wk storage at 4$^{\circ}C$, and mackerel oil showed the highest peroxidation rate. The plasma cholesterol levels of rats consuming diets in which the carbohydrate was rice were not affected by n-3 PUFA. Rather, the degree of peroxidation seems to have a direct effect on cholesterol levels as shown by the hypocholesterolemic effect of raw perilla seed oil and beer tallow. However. the HDL-cholesterol level was greater in rats fed either roasted perilla seed oil or mackerel oil. Rats fed roasted perilla seed oil and raw perilla seed oil had lower levels of plasma triglycerides than rats fed beef tallow. In rats fed roasted perilla seed oil, the total lipid and cholesterol contents of liver were significantly lower than in those fed the other kinds of perilla seed oil. The plasma lipid peroxide levels were lower in rats fed either roasted perilla seed oil or beef tallow.

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Effects of Consuming Diets Incorporating Soybean Oil , Canola Oil , and Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Fecal Fat Excretion in Humans

  • Jin, Young-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1073-1083
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    • 1997
  • This project was to compare the effects of consuming diets incorporating soybean oil , canola oil, ad palm oil on blood serum lipid patterns and fecal fat excretion in healthy human adults. The project was composed of three studies that were run concurrently . Each study was composed of a 4-day pre-trial period and two , 14-day experimental periods arranged according to a cross-over design. During the pre trial period, subjects were allowed to eat self-selected diets. During the experimental period , subjects were asked to eat constant, laboratory controlled diets in which sources of dietary fat varied . Thirty healthy , young adult subjects were fed a laboratory controlled diet incorporating soybean oil, canola oil, and palm oil. Test oils provided approximately 20% of the total dietary calories form all sources. Total dietary fat from all sources was approximately 30% of consumed calories. The highest serum total cholesterol , LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol , and triglyceride values occurred when pam oil diets were eaten. However, feeding on palm oil diets resulted in the same HDL cholesterol content as with soybean oil or canola oil diets. Soybean oil diets produced numerically lower blood serum total cholesterol , LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and numerically higher HDL cholesterol and VLDL cholesterol than did those with canola oil. Fecal fat excretion was numerically lower with soybean oil diets than with canola diets. The highest fecal fat excretion occurred when palm oil diets were eaten.

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History of edible oils and fats industry in Korea (우리나라 식용유지 산업의 발자취)

  • Shin, Hyo-Sun
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.65-81
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    • 2017
  • In Korea, sesame oil has been used as a flavor source mainly by edible oil since ancient times, and it has been used by domestic screw pressing. In the 1960's, the demand for edible oils and fats increased significantly due to the improvement of national income and changes in food consumption patterns. In the early 1970's, a few edible oil manufacturing companies with modern solvent extraction and refining plants were established. In Korea, edible oil manufacturers account for more than 85% of employees with 50 or fewer employees. In Korea, there is a very shortage of raw materials for edible oils and fats, domestic production of edible oil is decreasing year by year and import volume is continuously increasing. While importing the edible oil bearing ingredients including soybean and extracted oil in the past, recently mainly imports crude oil and refines it in Korea. Soybean oil, palm oil and tallow account for 70~90% of total imported edible oils. Due to the recent well-being trend, the demand for olive, canola and grapeseed oils as household edible oil has increased and the production of blended oil has been greatly increased. Since the late 1980's, people have recognized edible oil and fat as a food instead of seasoning ingredient and have increased their edible oil and fat intake in Korea. Since the early 2000's, refined oil and fat products produced in Korea have been exported and is increasing every year.

The Effect of Hydrated Soybean Oil on Quality of Popped Rice for Preparing Salyeotgangjung (쌀엿강정용 팽화쌀 품질에 대한 대두경화유의 영향)

  • Kim, Myoung-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.679-684
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    • 2006
  • In this experiment, I used three samples of oils. The oils that I used were hydrated soybean oil, pure soybean oil and regular soybean oil. The group of rice was fried in the each sample of oil that had not been used for a few seconds. Rice was used after frying at 230-235$^{\circ}C$ every four hours terms and total frying hours was 12 hours. The hydrated soybean oils was least affected in rancidity. The other two oils were more affected in rancidity than the hydrated soybean oil. However, the trans fatty acid in hydrated soybean oil was 36.5%. The diameter of the poped rice that was fried in pure soybean oil and regular soybean oil that had been used 12 for hours was reduced while the diameter of the popped rice fried in the hydrated soybean oil was not reduced. Also, the groups of rice fried in the pure and the regular soybean oil that had been used for 12 hours reduced the hardness in rice while the group that fried in the hydrated soybean oil at the 12th hour kept the hardness well. In sensory evaluation, rancidity order was found apparently in the pure soybean oil that had been used for 12 hour and in the regular soybean oil that have been used for eight hours and 12 hours. Only the hydrated soybean oil did not have distinctive rancidity order at all. The degree of the crispiness was reduced in the pure soybean oil and in the regular soybean oil at 12th hour frying. However, the hydrated soybean oil preserved the crispiness well until the end of 12 hours of frying. In overall preference test, the pure and regular soybean oil that had been used for 12 hour were not preferable. In conclusion, I found that the group fried in the hydrated soybean oil was better in every evaluation than the groups fried in the pure soybean oil and in regular soybean oil. The hydrated Soybean oil may be better to be used in food manufacturing if the trans fatty acid in the hydrated soybean oil can be reduced.

Survey Effects of Oil Income on Nonoil Export and Effort for Decline in Dependence to Oil Income

  • Varahrami, Vida
    • East Asian Journal of Business Economics (EAJBE)
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.21-23
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    • 2016
  • There are so much oil and gas reserves in Iran. Therefore extraction from these reserves and sell extracted oil and gas in international markets causes to high oil income for Iran. Especially in some years which oil price increases, our oil income was too high. In this paper, we want to reveal that, high oil income is not cause to rise of nonoil export. For this aim, we use from data of 1971-2013 and with Johansen co-integration test and Error Correction Model (ECM) extract short run and long run relations. Results of estimation reveal that in Iran high oil income is not cause to many non oil exports in long run and short run. Therefore, we should allocate oil income to import industrial machines and reallocate them to agriculture and industrial sectors which causes to raise national production which will cause to high non oil export. Then, in this condition, our needy exchanges are provided from non oil export and our dependence to oil income will be declined.

Performance of a Screw Press to Extract Soybean Oil and Quality of the Oil as a Fuel (스크류 프레스의 대두유(大豆油) 착유(搾油) 성능(性能)과 착유유(搾油油)의 연료(燃料) 성질(性質))

  • Suh, S.R.;Harris, F.D.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.47-54
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    • 1985
  • Performance of a screw press was investigated experimentally with soybeans of various temperatures in order to find out a proper temperature of soybean to extract the oil by the mechanical method. Crude oil extracted by the screw press was chemically analyzed to determine a level of processing the oil for the oil to be used as a fuel for a compression ignition engine. The crude oil was degummed and dried by a plant type laboratory experimental setup to decide whether the processes are effective to improve quality of the oil as a fuel. The degummed oil and the degummed and dried oil were also chemically analyzed and were compared with the crude oil and the commercially degummed and dried soybean oil. The results are as follows: 1. In extraction of soybean oil by a screw press, heating soybeans is effective to increase oil production and to decrease energy consumption of the press. A proper temperature of soybean to extract the oil by the press was determined as about $50^{\circ}C$. 2. Soybean oil production and electric energy consumption of the press are about 83 ml and 58 Wh per 1 kg of soybeans heated to about $50^{\circ}C$, respectively. 3. The quality of crude oil produced by the press is similar to that of the commercially degummed and dried oil. The crude oil does not need to be degummed or dried for use as an engine fuel.

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Evaluation on Nutritional Balance by the Rate of Mixed Oil in Korean Style Broiled Beef and Pork by the Self-Developed Computer Program (한식육류구이용 양념장에 이용된 기름의 혼합율에 따른 지방의 영양균형성 평가)

  • Kim, Kap-Young
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 2007
  • This study was designed to evaluate the balance of fatty acids for the Korean style broiled beef and pork ingredient of the rate of mixture oil with sesame oil, soybean oil and perilla oil, by self-developed computer program. Each 3 kinds of Korean style broiled beef and pork by the rate of mixure oil with sesame oil, soybean oil and perilla oil, were evaluated by using the self-developed computer program. Contents of calories were 415.6kcal in Korean style broiled beef, 656.3 kcal in Korean style broiled pork. The mean of protein were 41.35g, Korean style broiled beef, 32.66g, Korean style broiled pork. The ratio of C/P/F ratio of Korean style broiled beef and pork, 21/ 40/ 39, 10/ 20/ 70. The mean P/ M/ S of fatty acids in Korean style broiled beef and pork ratio was similar $0.4{\sim}0.5/\;1.4{\sim}1.5/\;1$. The ${\omega}6/{\omega}3$ ratio of fatty acids of Korean style broiled beef and pork using sesame oil was 54.3, 56.9 much higher than desirable $level(4{\sim}8)$. But the ${\omega}6/{\omega}3$ ratio of fatty acids of Korean style broiled beef using mixture oil with sesame oil, soybean oil and perilla oil were 4.6, 4.2 desirable $level(4{\sim}8)$, Korean style broiled pork using mixture oil with sesame oil, soybean oil and perilla oil were 3.0, 6.2. It means the ${\omega}6/{\omega}3$ ratio of fatty acids of Korean style broiled beef and pork was improved of desirable level respectively by using the mixture oil with sesame oil, soybean oil and perilla oil, than using sesame oil.

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The Effect of Docosahexanoic Acid-Rich Fish oil Added to Different Dietary Fats on Lipid Metabolism in Rat (종류가 다른 식용유지에 첨가된 고DHA(Docosahexaenoic Acid) 어유가 흰쥐의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 이경애
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.268-281
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    • 1995
  • This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of DHA-rich fish oil (DHA-rich oil) added to different dietary fats on lipid metabolism. Rats were fed perilla oil, sesame oil and beef tallow with or without DHA-rich oil for 12 weeks. The weight gain was higher in groups with DHA-rich oil than that of groups without DHA-rich oil, with DHA-rich oil, while weight of epididymal fat pad was lower in perilla oil and beef tallow groups with DHA-rich oil. The contents of total lipid and triglyceride in plasma were not affected by dietary fat types, but that of total and HDL cholesterol in plasma were higher in sesame oil group than perilla oil and beef tallow groups without DHA-rich oil. The contents of total lipid, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholestrol and LDL cholesterol in plasma were decreased by DHL-rich oil addition. The contents of total lipid, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the liver were not affected by dietary fat type. The contents of total cholesterol and triglyceride in the liver were not affected by dietary fat type. The contents of total lipid and TG in liver were not affected by DHA-rich oil addition while hepatic cholesterol increased by DHA-rich oil addition. The activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme were highest in beef tallow group without DHA-rich oil and decreased by DHA-rich oil addition. Peroxisomal ${\beta}$-oxidation had an inverse relationship against the activities of lipogenic enzymes. In conclusion, dietary DHA-rich oil decreased fat accumulation and had hypolipidemic effect, especially in beef tallow group. Also groups with DHA-rich oil showed more hypolipidemic effect than perilla oil group. And DHA-rich oil addition to diets resulted in increasing dietary n-3/n-6 ratio. Therefore increase in n-3/n-6 ratio as well as dietary DHA were considered to be responsible for the hypolipidemic effect resulted from DHA-rich oil addition.

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Effects of Perilla Oil and Tuna Oil on Lipid Metabolism and Eicosanoids Production in Rats (들기름과 참치유의 섭취가 흰쥐의 지방대사에 Eicosanoids 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김우경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.703-712
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    • 1996
  • This study planned to compare the effects of source and amount of dietary n-3 fatty acid, tuna oil and perilla oil, on lipid metabolism and eicosanoids production in Spargue-Dawley strain male rats. Weaning rats were fed 5 different experimantal diets for 4 weeks. (S : beef tallow 50%+sesame oil 50%, T1 : beef tallow 50%+sesame oil 40%+tuna oil 10%, T2 : beef tallow 50%+sesame oil 25%+tuna oil 25%, P1 : beef tallow 50%+sesame oil 40%+perilla oil 10%, P2 : beef tallow 50%+sesame oil 25%+perilla oil 25%) Food intake was higher in T2 group than in other groups, but body weight gain and food efficiency tate were not different among groups. Plasma total lipid and triglyceride were significantly lower in groups fed perilla oil as much as groups fed tuna oil than in S. But tuna oil reduced plasma cholesterol level more than perilla oil. Liver total lipid per unit, cholesterol and triglyceride were not affected by dietary fat sources. Peroxisomal $\beta$-oxidation was higher in T1 and T2 than in P1 and P2. Activities of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme were lower in T1 and T2 than in group fed sesame oil only. Plasma TXB2 was affected by n-3 fatty acid consumption, and it was lower in perilla oil groups as much as tuna oil groups than in S. But 6-keto PGF1$\alpha$ was not different among experimental groups. The results of this study indicated that tuna oil and perilla oil both decreased plasma lipids, however, the mechanism may be different. And tuna oil and perilla oil had a similar effects on eicosanoids production.

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