• Title/Summary/Keyword: olfactory bulb

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A Case of Kallmann's Syndrome with Hypoplasia of Olfactory Bulb (후각구 형성부전을 동반한 칼만증후군 1례)

  • Nam, Y.S.;Lee, S.H.;Han, S.Y.;Yoon, T.K.;Cha, K.Y.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.281-285
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    • 1999
  • Kallmann's syndrome has both a general and specific connotation in describing general condition of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency or a particular cluster of anomalies associated with primary eunuchoidism. The familial occurrence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with anosmia, color blindness, synkinesia, and mental defect is the classic Kallmann's syndrome. Interestingly, anosmia, or lack of smell, was not found in the absence of gonadal deficiency in the original study of this disorder. This disorder was found on both sexes, but the male to female ratio was 11:1, and Kallmann's syndrome is more often listed under disorders of male hypogonadism for this reason. Gross anatomy has shown disorders of the olfactory bulbs associated with Kallmann's syndrome and it was demonstrated a failure of GnRH-containing cells to migrate from the olfactory placode to the hypothalamus and preoptic area. We have experienced a case of Kallmann's syndrome which showed a hypoplasia of olfactory bulb in MRI during the workup of primary amenorrheic patient. So we report this case with a brief review of literatures.

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Decreased Expression of PTEN in Olfactory Bulb of Rat Pub after Naris Closure

  • Cho, Jae-Young;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Geon-Hee;Chun, Wan-Joo;Park, Yee-Tae;Lim, So-Young;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.17-20
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    • 2004
  • PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is a dual specific phosphatase antagonizing phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity, and has first been cloned as a tumor suppressor for glioma. Although the role of PTEN as a tumor suppressor has been well studied, little is known about signaling mechanisms regulating expression and/or activity of PTEN in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated whether PTEN expression is regulated by sensory deprivation. P5 rat pups were unilaterally naris-closed, and olfactory bulbs were immunohistochemically analyzed with PTEN antibody at the $7^{th}$ day after naris closure. PTEN immunoreactivity was found to be down-regulated in both glomerular, external plexiform and subependymal cell layers, suggesting that odor deprivation signals down-regulate expression of PTEN in the olfactory bulb. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to suggest that PTEN expression is regulated by sensory deprivation signals in neonatal rats.

Aluminum Nanoparticles Induce ERK and p38MAPK Activation in Rat Brain

  • Kwon, Jung-Taek;Seo, Gyun-Baek;Jo, Eunhye;Lee, Mimi;Kim, Hyun-Mi;Shim, Ilseob;Lee, Byung-Woo;Yoon, Byung-Il;Kim, Pilje;Choi, Kyunghee
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.181-185
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    • 2013
  • Aluminum nanoparticles (Al-NPs) are one of the most widely used nanomaterial in cosmetics and medical materials. For this reason, Al-NP exposure is very likely to occur via inhalation in the environment and the workplace. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanism of Al-NP neurotoxicity via inhalation exposure. In this study, we investigated the effect AL-NPs on the brain. Rats were exposed to Al-NPs by nasal instillation at 1 mg/kg body weight (low exposure group), 20 mg/kg body weight (moderate exposure group), and 40 mg/kg body weight (high exposure group), for a total of 3 times, with a 24-hr interval after each exposure. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated that the presence of aluminum was increased in a dose-dependent manner in the olfactory bulb (OFB) and the brain. In microarray analysis, the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activity (GO: 0043405), including Ptprc, P2rx7, Map2k4, Trib3, Trib1, and Fgd4 was significantly over-expressed in the treated mice than in the controls (p = 0.0027). Moreover, Al-NPs induced the activation of ERK1 and p38 MAPK protein expression in the brain, but did not alter the protein expression of JNK, when compared to the control. These data demonstrate that the nasal exposure of Al-NPs can permeate the brain via the olfactory bulb and modulate the gene and protein expression of MAPK and its activity.

Effects of Acupuncture and Electroacupuncture on the Doublecortin, PSA-NCAM and pCREB Expression in the Brain of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (침(鍼) 및 전침(電鍼)이 SHR 대뇌(大腦)에서 Doublecortin, PSA-NCAM, pCREB 양성 신경세포에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jung-hwan;Lee, Jae-dong;Kim, Chang-hwan
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.61-81
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    • 2004
  • Background and Objective : The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acupuncture and electroacupuncture on the DCX, PSA-NCAM, and pCREB expression in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR). Materials and Methods : SHR were divided into five groups: control group, acupuncture group, 2Hz electroacupuncture(EA) group and 100Hz EA group. We evaluated the changes of the DCX, PSA-NCAM, and pCREB positive cells using immunohistochemical method. In the olfactory bulb, we investigate the optical densities of the immunoactive cells. In the dentate gyrus and the piriform cortex, we count the immunoactive cells under the $100{\times}$ visual field optical microscope. Results : 1. The optical densities of DCX-positive cells in the subependymal zone were significantly decreased in all groups, compared to the control group. 2. The counts of DCX-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly increased in all groups, compared to the control group. The counts of DCX-positive cells in the piriform cortex were significantly increased in the acupuncture and 100Hz EA group, compared to the control group. 3. The optical densities of PSA-NCAM-positive cells in the subependymal zone were significantly decreased in the acupuncture and 2Hz EA group, compared to the control group. 4. The counts of PSA-NCAM-positive cells in the dentate gyrus and the piriform cortex were significantly increased in all group, compared to the control group. 5. The counts of pCREB-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly increased in all groups, compared to the control group. The counts of pCREB-positive cells in the piriform cortex were significantly increased in the acupuncture and 100Hz EA group, compared to the control group. Conclusion : We conclude that acupuncture and EA may affect neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation and plasticity in the brain.

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Saturable Disposition of Taurine in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of the Rat

  • Chung, Suk-Jae
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.99-113
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    • 1996
  • Taurine, a ${\beta}$-amino acid, plays an important role as a neuromodulator and is necessary for the normal development of the brain. Since de novo synthesis of taurine in the brain is minimal and in vivo studies suggest that taurine does not cross the blood-brain barrier, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier is likely to play a role in taurine transport between the central nervous system and the systemic circulation. Therefore, we examined in vivo elimination of taurine from the CSF in the rat to characterize in vivo kinetics of elimination for taurine from the CSF is consistent with the in vitro study. Using a stereotaxic device, cannulaes were placed into the lateral ventricle and the cisterna magna of the rat. Radio-labelled taurine and inulin (a marker of CSF flow) were injected into the lateral ventricle, and the concentrations of the labelled compounds in the CSF were monitored for up to 3 hrs in the cisterna magna. The apparent clearance of taurine from CSF was greater than the estimated CSF flow (p<0.005), indicating that there is a clearance process in addition to the CSF flow. Taurine distribution into the choroid plexus was at least 10 fold higher than that found in other brain areas (e.g., cerebellum, olfactory bulb and cortex). When unlabelled taurine was co-administered with radio-labelled taurine, the apparent clearance of the labeled taurine was reduced (p<0.01), suggesting a saturable disposition of taurine from CSF. Distribution of taurine into the choroid plexus, cerebellum, olfactory bulb and cortex was similarly diminished, indicating that the saturable uptake of taurine into these tissues is responsible for the non-linear disposition. A pharmacokinetic model involving first order elimination and saturable distribution described these data adequately. The Michaelis-Menten rate constant estimated from in vivo elimination study is similar to that obtained in the in vitro uptake experiment Collectively, our results demonstrate that taurine is transported in the choroid plexus via a taurine is cleared from the CSF via a saturable process. This process may be functionally relevant to taurine homeostasis in the brain.

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Structure and Tissue Distribution of a Trinucleotide-Repeat-containing Gene (cag-3) Expressed Specifically in the Mouse Brain

  • Ji, Jin Woo;Yang, Hye Lim;Kim, Sun Jung
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.348-353
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    • 2005
  • Using in silico approaches and RACE we cloned a full length trinucleotide (CAG) repeat-containing cDNA (cag-3). The cDNA is 2478 bp long and the deduced polypeptide consists of 140 amino acids of which 73 are glutamines. The genomic sequence spans approximately 79 kb on mouse chromosome 7 and the gene is composed of four exons. Standard and real-time PCR analyses of several mouse tissues showed that the gene is exclusively expressed in the brain and is not detected in embryonic stages. Within the brain, it is expressed throughout the forebrain region with predominant expression in the hypothalamus and olfactory bulb and very low levels in the mid- and hindbrain.

Determination of Catecholamines and Their Metabolites in Rat Brain by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detector (HPLC-ECD에 의한 흰쥐 뇌 부위별 Catecholamine 및 대사산물의 신속정량법)

  • Ro, Ihl-Hyeob
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.50-54
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    • 1988
  • A simple and sensitive method was studied for the simultaneous determination of catecholamine, indoleamine and their related metabolites by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector. Norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, 5-indoleacetic acid were resolved from rat brain tissue homogenates by separation on reversed phase $C_{18}$ column with mobile phase consisting of monochloroacetate buffer (pH2.47), 1.42mM sodium octyl sulfonate and 7% acetonitrile. Both catechols and indoles can be eluted in 15min. The sensitivities of this method are sufficient for determination of at least 100 pg of neurochemical amines in brain samples, for example, frontal cortex, olfactory bulb, striatum, septum, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, medulla & pons and cerebellum. The highest level of dopamine was observed in striatum whereas norepinephrine and serotonin were in hypothalamus.

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Prenatal Development of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neurons in the Rat Brain (흰쥐 태아 뇌에서 GnRH 신경세포의 초기발생과정)

  • 이영기;최완성
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.491-499
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    • 1991
  • The present experiment was carried out 1) to study the developmental topography of GnRH neuronal system and 2) to characterize the cellular localization of GnRH neurons in the prenatal brain development of the rat. At embryonic day (I) 14.5, immunoreactive cell bodies of GnRH were first seen in the nasal septum and in the ganglion terminate located in the ventral protion of the caudal olfactory bulb. Two days later (E 16.5), GnRH-containing neurons were observed at the level of olfactory tubercle and diagonal band of Broca, which is the first appearance in the intracerebral region. From 118.5, the topographic pattern of immunoreactive GnRH perikarya was similar to that of adult rats. The present data suggest that GnRH neurons were originated from the nasal septum and gradually extended to the hvpothalamic regions with increasing fetal age.

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PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CADMIUM POISONING IN OLFACTORY BULB OF RATS (카드뮴 중독이 흰쥐의 후구에 미치는 영향)

  • 여상원;김병우
    • Proceedings of the KOR-BRONCHOESO Conference
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    • pp.17-17
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    • 1991
  • 산업의 발전과 함께 최근 카드뮴 중독이 사회적 문제가 되고 있다. 카드뮴 중독은 특히 건전지 제조공장, 카드뮴 광산 등에서 잘 발생하며 카드뮴 분진의 흡입, 음식물내 카드뮴 복합물의 섭취 등에 의해 유발된다. 중독증상으로는 폐부종 및 섬유화, 신부전증, 폐부전증, 고혈압, 생식선 위축, 골연화증, 무취증, itai-itati 질환등을 일으키는 것으로 알려져 있으나 무취증에 대한 정확한 발생기전은 밝혀져 있지 않다. 이에 저자들은 카드뮴 중독을 유발시키기 위하여 흰쥐에 $CaCl_2$ 11.2 mg/kg을 3주일간 매일 피하주사한 후 3주 후에 두개골을 제거하고 후구를 절취한 후 투과전자현미경으로 관찰하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 사구체 주위 부위에 있는 사구체 주위 세포의 세포돌기와 신경축삭에 퇴행성 변화가 발생하였다. 2. 외상망 부위와 승모세포, 과랍세포 등에서는 뚜렷한 변화를 발견할 수 없었다.

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Olfactory Schwannoma-Case Report-

  • Choi, Yu-Seok;Sung, Kyung-Su;Song, Young-Jin;Kim, Hyung-Dong
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.103-106
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    • 2009
  • Intracranial schwannomas preferentially arise from the vestibular branch of the eighth nerve, and rarely from the trigeminal nerve, facial nerve, and lower cranial nerves. Anterior cranial fossa schwannomas are extremely uncommon and few details about them have been reported. The patient was a 39-year-old woman whose chief complaints were anosmia and frontal headache for 2 years. The gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an extra-axial mass from ethmoid sinus to right frontal base region near the midline, with solid enhancement in lower portion and multicystic formation in upper portion. The tumor was totally resected via basal subfrontal approach. At operation, the tumor had cystic portion with marginal calcification and the anterior skull base was destructed by the tumor. The olfactory bulb was involved, and the tumor capsule did not contain neoplastic cells. The histopathological diagnosis was schwannoma. We report a rare case of anterior cranial fossa schwannoma with literature review.