• Title/Summary/Keyword: olfactory bulb

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Immunohistochemical Localization of Nerve Growth Factor, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein and Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor in the Forebrain of the Developing Mongolian Gerbil (발생중인 Mongolian gerbil의 전뇌에서 NGF, GFAP 및 CNTF의 분포)

  • Park, Il-Kwon;Lee, Kyoug-Youl;Song, Chi-Won;Kwon, Hyo-Jung;Park, Mi-Sun;Lee, Mi-Young;Jeong, Young-Gil;Lee, Chul-Ho;Ha, Kwon-Soo;Lee, Kang-Yi;Kim, Moo-Kang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 2002
  • The immunohistochemical localization of the nerve growth factor (NGF), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNIF) in the developing Mongolian gerbil forebrain was investigated by the immunohistochemical and electron microscopy methods. Generally, the NGF specifically recognizes the neurons, the GFAP does the glia, and the CNIF does the motor neurons. This study demonstrates the location of the NGF, GFAP and CNTF in the developing Mongolian gerbil from the embryonic days 17 (E17) to the postnatal weeks 3 (PNW 3). The NGF was localized at E19 in the olfactocy bulb and the cerebral cortex, expanded to the hippocampus, and the diagonal bond from the late prenatal period to PNW 3. GFAP was observed in the lateral ventricle and the third ventricle at E17, projected into the cerebral cortex at E19. The GFAP was observed to have the largest numbers in several parts of the forebrain at the postnatal days 2 (PND2), while the most numerous CNTF was observed at PNW 2. The CNTF-IR cells were observed only in the postnatal days and were found in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex both neuron and neuroglia at PND3. Electron microscopy showed that the NGF, GFAP and CNTF were not related to any connections with any particular subcellular structure. These results suggest that NGF, GFAP and CNTF be related to the neuron and neuroglia at the prenatal and postnatal stages in the developing Mongolian gerbil.

Antiglycemic Effect of Carnosine in Diabetic Mice (당뇨 마우스에서 카르노신의 혈당강하 효과)

  • Hue, Jin-Joo;Kim, Jong-Soo;Kim, Jun-Hyeong;Nam, Sang-Yoon;Yun, Young-Won;Jeong, Jae-Hwang;Lee, Beom-Jun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.391-397
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    • 2009
  • Carnosine is a dipeptide ($\beta$-alanyl-L-histidine) found in mammalian brain, eye, olfactory bulb and skeletal muscle at high concentrations. Its biological functions include antioxidant and anti-glycation activities. The objectives of this study were to investigate anti-diabetic effects of carnosine as determined by blood glucose levels in glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT), insulin level and serum biochemical and lipid levels in male C57BL/6J db/db mice. There were five experimental groups including normal (C57BL/6J), control (vehicle), and three groups of carnosine at doses of 6, 30, and 150 mg/kg b.w. Carnosine was orally administered to the diabetic mice everyday for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in body weight changes in carnosine-treated groups compared to the control. The treatments of carnosine significantly decreased the blood glucose level in the diabetic mice compared with the control (p < 0.05) after 5 weeks. The treatments of carnosine also significantly decreased the blood glucose levels in GTT and ITT and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), compared with the control (p < 0.05). Carnosine at the dose of 6 mg/kg significantly decreased the serum insulin level compared to the control (p < 0.05). Carnosine significantly increased total proteins but significantly decreased lactate dehydrogenase and blood urea nitrogen compared with the control (p < 0.05). Carnosine also significantly decreased glucose, LDL, and triglyceride in the serum of diabetic mice compared to the control (p < 0.05). These results suggest that carnosine has a hypoglycermic effect resulting from reduction of glucose and lipid levels and that high carnosine-containing diets or drugs may give a benefit for controlling diabetes mellitus in humans.