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Anticoagulant and Fibrinolytic Activities of Hwanggeumchal Sorghum In Vitro (황금찰수수의 혈액응고저해 및 혈전용해 효과)

  • Kim, Min Soo;Oh, In Taek;Jun, Do Youn;Lee, Ji Young;Sohn, Ho-Yong;Kwak, Do Yeon;Seo, Myung Chul;Woo, Koan Sik;Ko, Jee Yeon;Jung, Tae Wook;Nam, Min Hee;Woo, Mi Hee;Kim, Young Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.1460-1470
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    • 2013
  • To examine whether miscellaneous cereal grains have an antithrombotic effect, we investigated the anticoagulant activity of 80% ethanol extracts from eleven selected miscellaneous cereal grains. The 80% ethanol extract of hwanggeumchal sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) showed the highest anticoagulant activity, followed by that of green foxtail millet grains, in terms of thrombin time (TT). When the ethanol extract of hwanggeumchal sorghum was sequentially fractionated with n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, the majority of the TT-inhibitory activity was detected in the hexane and methylene chloride fractions. Whereas aspirin (final conc. 480 ${\mu}g/ml$) prolonged TT by 2-fold, the ethanol extract, hexane fraction, and methylene chloride fraction in the same dose prolonged TT by 2.2-fold, 2.9-fold, and 2.5-fold, respectively. The ethanol extract of hwanggeumchal sorghum could delay activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) as well as prothrombin time (PT). Although the APTT-inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract was mainly partitioned into the hexane and methylene chloride fractions, the PT-inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract was solely partitioned into the hexane fraction. The APTT- and PT-inhibitory activities of these organic solvent fractions were more potent than those of the control warfarin (final conc. 3.13 mg/ml). The TT-inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract was heat-stable and acid-stable. The ethanol extract, hexane fraction, and methylene chloride fraction of hwanggeumchal sorghum appeared to possess a direct fibrinolytic activity toward fibrin clotting. These results show that hwanggeumchal sorghum can exert anticoagulant and fibrinolytic effects and, thus, have the potential to be applicable as antithrombotic dietary sources.

Composition and emission characteristics of fine particulate matters at the 1100 Site of Mt. Halla during 2011-2012 (한라산 1100고지 대기 미세먼지의 조성 및 배출 특성: 2011~2012년 측정)

  • Song, Jung-Min;Bu, Jun-Oh;Kim, Won-Hyung;Ko, Hee-Jung;Kang, Chang-Hee
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.209-218
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    • 2016
  • PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected at the 1100 site of Mt. Halla in Jeju Island during 2011~2012, and their ionic and elemental species were analyzed, in order to investigate the characteristics of emission sources as well as aerosol compositions. The mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 22.0±13.1 µg/m3 and 11.3±6.1 µg/m3, respectively, showing 2.4~2.6 times lower than those of the capital city area of Korea. The composition ratios of major secondary pollutants (nss-SO42−, NH4+, and NO3) were the highest as 85.5 % for PM10 and 91.3 % for PM2.5, and followed by the order of marine (Na+, Cl, and Mg2+), organic acid (HCOO and CH3COO), and soil (nss-Ca2+) sources. Among the elemental species in PM10, soil-originated components (Al, Fe, and Ca) were consisted of 50.9 %, which was higher proportion than marine and anthropogenic elements. The acidification of the fine particulate matters was found to be influenced mostly by sulfuric and nitric acids, and these acids were mainly neutralized by calcium carbonate in PM10 and by ammonia in PM2.5. The clustered back trajectories showed that 47 % of total air mass inflows was from the China, and the concentrations of NO3 and nss-Ca2+ were especially high corresponding to the inflows.

Combination Effect of Various Freezing and Thawing Techniques on Quality and Nutritional Attributes of Onions (다양한 냉·해동 방법에 따른 양파의 이화학적 특성 및 영양성분 변화)

  • Jung, You-Kyoung;Jang, Min-Young;Hwang, In-Guk;Yoo, Seon-Mi;Min, Sang-Gi;Jo, Yeon-Ji;Chun, Ji-Yeon;Choi, Mi-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.1492-1503
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    • 2015
  • This study evaluated the combination effect of various freezing and thawing techniques on the quality and nutritional aspects of onions. Onions were frozen by natural air convection freezing (NCF), air blast freezing (ABF), and liquid nitrogen freezing (LNF). Onions were frozen for 76 min by NCF, 9 min by ABF, and 9 min by LNF. The freezing treatment was stopped when the core temperature reached $-12^{\circ}C$ for NCF and ABF, and $-120^{\circ}C$ for LNF. Frozen samples were thawed through natural air convection thawing, running water thawing, sonication thawing (ST), or microwave thawing. The quality and nutritional aspects of frozen-thawed onions were evaluated by measuring thawing loss, pH, texture, water content, color, and SEM image. ST was found to cause the least loss in onion sample among the tested thawing methods, whereas the freezing methods did not cause any significant loss. In our experiment, thawing is found to be a more critical technique when compared to that of freezing. There were no clear quantifications or trends of pH and water content among different freezing and thawing techniques. The highest total color difference (${\Delta}E$) was observed in the NCF sample. For morphological observation, ABF gave the smallest ice crystal size, as well as minimum cell collapse. Loss of vitamin C, free sugar, and organic acid content was lower in the ABF and ST sample, when compared to other trials. In our study, we found that combination of ABF and ST could preserve the quality and nutritional aspects of frozen-thawed onions better than other methods.

Study of Oil Palm Biomass Resources (Part 5) - Torrefaction of Pellets Made from Oil Palm Biomass - (오일팜 바이오매스의 자원화 연구 V - 오일팜 바이오매스 펠릿의 반탄화 연구 -)

  • Lee, Ji-Young;Kim, Chul-Hwan;Sung, Yong Joo;Nam, Hye-Gyeong;Park, Hyeong-Hun;Kwon, Sol;Park, Dong-Hun;Joo, Su-Yeon;Yim, Hyun-Tek;Lee, Min-Seok;Kim, Se-Bin
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.34-45
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    • 2016
  • Global warming and climate change have been caused by combustion of fossil fuels. The greenhouse gases contributed to the rise of temperature between $0.6^{\circ}C$ and $0.9^{\circ}C$ over the past century. Presently, fossil fuels account for about 88% of the commercial energy sources used. In developing countries, fossil fuels are a very attractive energy source because they are available and relatively inexpensive. The environmental problems with fossil fuels have been aggravating stress from already existing factors including acid deposition, urban air pollution, and climate change. In order to control greenhouse gas emissions, particularly CO2, fossil fuels must be replaced by eco-friendly fuels such as biomass. The use of renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly necessary. The biomass resources are the most common form of renewable energy. The conversion of biomass into energy can be achieved in a number of ways. The most common form of converted biomass is pellet fuels as biofuels made from compressed organic matter or biomass. Pellets from lignocellulosic biomass has compared to conventional fuels with a relatively low bulk and energy density and a low degree of homogeneity. Thermal pretreatment technology like torrefaction is applied to improve fuel efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass, i.e., less moisture and oxygen in the product, preferrable grinding properties, storage properties, etc.. During torrefacton, lignocelluosic biomass such as palm kernell shell (PKS) and empty fruit bunch (EFB) was roasted under an oxygen-depleted enviroment at temperature between 200 and $300^{\circ}C$. Low degree of thermal treatment led to the removal of moisture and low molecular volatile matters with low O/C and H/C elemental ratios. The mechanical characteristics of torrefied biomass have also been altered to a brittle and partly hydrophobic materials. Unfortunately, it was much harder to form pellets from torrefied PKS and EFB due to thermal degradation of lignin as a natural binder during torrefaction compared to non-torrefied ones. For easy pelletization of biomass with torrefaction, pellets from PKS and EFB were manufactured before torrefaction, and thereafter they were torrefied at different temperature. Even after torrefaction of pellets from PKS and EFB, their appearance was well preserved with better fuel efficiency than non-torrefied ones. The physical properties of the torrefied pellets largely depended on the torrefaction condition such as reaction time and reaction temperature. Temperature over $250^{\circ}C$ during torrefaction gave a significant impact on the fuel properties of the pellets. In particular, torrefied EFB pellets displayed much faster development of the fuel properties than did torrefied PKS pellets. During torrefaction, extensive carbonization with the increase of fixed carbons, the behavior of thermal degradation of torrefied biomass became significantly different according to the increase of torrefaction temperature. In conclusion, pelletization of PKS and EFB before torrefaction made it much easier to proceed with torrefaction of pellets from PKS and EFB, leading to excellent eco-friendly fuels.

Growth Promotion in Red Pepper and Tomato Seedlings by Fermented Liquid Fertilizers and Elution of Mineral Nutrients by Extraction Methods (발효액비별 고추와 토마토 육묘 생육 촉진 및 추출방법별 무기양분 용출)

  • Jang, Se Ji;Kuk, Yong In
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.2
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    • pp.130-141
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to determine which fermented liquid fertilizer and application method yields the greatest amount of growth in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL.) plants. Additionally, we investigated which extraction methods produce the most effective fertilizer with the highest levels of mineral nutrients. The liquid fertilizers used in this study were made from fish, bone and fish meal, red pepper leaves, and oil cake, and were extracted using fermentation or water and boiled water. In tomato plants, foliar-application of fermented fertilizer is known to promote more growth than application by drenching, regardless of the number of treatments (once or twice). In our studies, however, drenching with fertilizer promoted growth more effectively than foliar-application in red pepper plants. Studies in both tomato and red pepper have shown that the number of treatments does not significantly alter growth. Liquid fertilizers produced by a fermentation-extraction method promoted greater levels of growth in tomato compared to red pepper, and growth was greater when fertilizers were applied 20 (rather than 40) days post-sowing. Red pepper and tomato shoot fresh weight were affected more by fermented fertilizers than plant height 20 days post-sowing. In red pepper, we observed increased shoot fresh weight when using fermented liquid fertilizers with concentrations of 0.1% or greater. Tomato shoot fresh weight increased similarly in response to fermented fertilizer treatments at the same concentration levels, except those derived from fish. Fermented fish liquid fertilizer was only effective in increasing tomato shoot fresh weight in concentrations exceeding 1%. Red pepper and tomato shoot fresh weight also increased more than plant height in our studies using fermentation liquid fertilizers at 40 days after sowing. Red pepper fresh weight increased with application of bone + fish meal, red pepper leaf, and oil cake fertilizers at concentrations of 0.1%, but not with fish liquid fertilizer in concentrations under 0.5%. Shoot fresh weight in tomato increased with all liquid fertilizers. Growth in red pepper and tomato may be influenced by different kinds of fertilizers due to combinations of macro- and micro-nutrients, or specific macro-nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium. The mineral nutrients found in fish, bone and fish meal, red pepper leaves, and oil cake were not easily extracted by fermentation; thus, liquid fertilizers made using water and boiled water methods more effectively promoted growth in red pepper and tomato due to the larger amounts of macronutrients eluted.

Growth Conditions and Maintenance of Natural Monument Old Big Trees in Gangwondo (강원도 내 천연기념물 노거수의 생육환경 및 관리현황)

  • Heo, Bok Soo;Kim, Hyo Jeong;Lee, Won Ho;Kang, Hee Jin
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.182-195
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    • 2011
  • Old big tree transcends the simple meaning of trees as they are the natural monuments that embody the people's history and culture of this land. The Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea (CHA) defines and protects old big tree based not only on the size of the tree but also on its definitive cultural and natural factors such as value, implications, and originality. This research aims to identify and analyze the habitation and measurements, the soil conditions, as well as the protective facilities of 14 old big tree spread throughout the Gangwondo. The research examined the soundness of the arboreal form, the degree of damage on the bark, as well as the quantity of leafs levels to evaluate the overall condition of growth and development. Then, the tree height, the eastwest and south-north width of the crown, the sternum circumference, and the root circumference were recorded to identify the measurements of the selected old big tree. Also, the research analyzed 9 elements such as soil texture, pH levels, and organic contents in order to determine the scientific characteristics of soil upon which the trees draw nutrition. Finally, the research evaluated supporting pillars, lightning rods, iron pulling-facilities, as well as notice boards to study the protective facilities of old big tree. The research procedures revealed that 78.57% of the old big tree identified as natural monuments in the Gangwondo have average to above average habitation conditions. Also, the average tree height reaches 18.80m above ground while the average root circumference measures 7.34m. Moreover, the results of the scientific analyses conducted on the soil elements determined that most chemical values were within the defined levels, with the exception of phosphoric acid levels falling within the hyper-nutritious range. Finally, although most of the protective facilities did support the habitation of the Old big tree, there were some supporting pillars and iron pulling-facilities that actually damaged the trees. This research means to provide foundational reference data for the analysis of the habitation and management conditions of natural monument old big tree within the Gangwondo. A follow-up topic led by the results of this research is the identification and analysis of correlating environmental elements that affect the habitation of the old big tree.

Comparison of Soil Physicochemical Properties According to the Sensitivity of Forest Soil to Acidification in the Republic of Korea (우리나라 산림토양의 산성화 민감도평가와 그에 따른 토양 이화학적 특성 비교분석)

  • Lee, Ah Lim;Koo, Namin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.109 no.2
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    • pp.157-168
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    • 2020
  • The sensitivity of forest soil to acidification in the Republic of Korea (ROK) was evaluated based on pHH2O, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and base saturation (BS). Sensitivity to acidification was categorized into three grades: adequate level (AL, pH ≧ 4.2, CEC ≧ 15cmol/kg, BS ≧ 15%), caution level (CL, at least one indicator is below AL), and severe Level (SL, all three indicators are below AL). Soil samples were collected from the 65 stationary monitoring plots (40 × 40 ㎢), distributed throughout ROK. Only 19% of soil samples were classified as AL, while 66% and 15% were CL and SL, respectively. The median of pHH2O, CEC, BS, and Ca/Al indicator in AL soils was pH 4.64, 20.7cmol/kg, 29%, and 6.3, respectively. Moreover, BCex (K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) and available phosphorus (AP) concentration compared with a threshold value and molar ratio of BCex and AP to total nitrogen (TN) was high. This indicates that AL soils have a good nutrient condition. The molar Ca/Al ratio, an indicator for toxicity of exchangeable aluminum (Alex), was more than 1, indicating no negative impact of Alex on plant growth. On the contrary, the median of pHH2O, CEC, and BS in SL soils was pH 4.02, 13.2cmol/kg, and 10%, respectively. The Ca/Al index was less than 0.6, which indicates that negative impacts of Alex on plants were high. Furthermore, both the concentration of BCex in SL soils and the BCex/TN ratio were the lowest among the three acidity degrees. This shows that SLsoils can be degraded by soil acidification compared with less acidic soils.

Soil Classification of Paddy Soils by Soil Taxonomy (미국신분류법(美國新分類法)에 의(依)한 답토양의 분류(分類)에 관한 연구)

  • Joo, Yeong-Hee;Shin, Yong-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 1979
  • According to Soil Taxonomy which has been developed over the past 20 years in the soil conservation service of the U. S. D. A, Soils in Korea are classified. This system is well suited for the classification of the most of soils. But paddy field soils have some difficulties in classification because Soil Taxonomy states no proposals have yet been developed for classifying artificially irrigated soils. This paper discusses some problems in the application of Taxonomy and suggestes the classification of paddy field soils in Korea. Following is the summary of the paper. 1. Anthro aquic, Aquic Udipsamments : The top soils of these soils are saturated with irrigated water at some time of year and have mottles of low chroma(2 or less) more than 50cm of the soil surface. (Ex. Sadu, Geumcheon series) 2. Anthroaquic Udipsamments : These sails are like Anthroaquic, Aquic Udipsamments except for the mottles of low chroma within 50cm of the soil surface. (Ex. Baegsu series) 3. Halic Psammaquents : These soils contain enough salts as distributed in the profile that they interfere with the growth of most crop plants and located on the coastal dunes. The water table fluctuates with the tides. (Ex. Nagcheon series) 4. Anthroaquic, Aquic Udifluvents : They have some mottles that have chroma of 2 or less in more than 50cm of the surface. The upper horizon is saturated with irrigated water at sometime. (Ex. Maryeong series) 5. Anthro aquic Udifluvents : These soils are saturated with irrigated water at some time of year and have mottles of low chroma(2 or less) within 50cm of the surface soils. (Ex. Haenggog series) 6. Fluventic Haplaquepts : These soils have a content of organic carbon that decreases irregularly with depth and do not have an argillic horizon in any part of the pedon. Since ground water occur on the surface or near the surface, they are dominantly gray soils in a thick mineral regolith. (Ex Baeggu, Hagseong series) 7. Fluventic Thapto-Histic Haplaquepts : These soils have a buried organic matter layer and the upper boundary is within 1m of the surface. Other properties are same as Fluventic Haplaquepts. (Ex. Gongdeog, Seotan series) 8. Fluventic Aeric Haplaquepts : These soils have a horizon that has chroma too high for Fluventic Haplaquepts. The higher chroma is thought to indicate either a shorter period of saturation of the whole soils with water or some what deeper ground water than in the Fluventic Haplaquepts. The correlation of color with soil drainage classes is imperfect. (Ex. Mangyeong, Jeonbug series) 9. Fluventic Thapto-Histic Aeric Haplaquepts : These soils are similar to Fluventic Thapto Histic Haplaquepts except for the deeper ground water. (Ex. Bongnam series) 10. Fluventic Aeric Sulfic Haplaquepts : These soils are similar to Fluventic Aeric Haplaquepts except for the yellow mottles and low pH (<4.0) in some part between 50 and 150cm of the surface. (Ex. Deunggu series) 11. Fluventic Sulfaquepts : These soils are extremely acid and toxic to most plant. Their horizons are mostly dark gray and have yellow mottles of iron sulfate with in 50cm of the soil surface. They occur mainly in coastal marshes near the mouth of rivers. (Ex. Bongrim, Haecheog series) 12. Fluventic Aeric Sulfaquepts : They have a horizon that has chroma too high for Fluventic Sulfaquepts. Other properties are same as Fluventic Sulfaquepts. (Ex. Gimhae series) 13. Anthroaquic Fluvaquentic Eutrochrepts : These soils have mottles of low chroma in more than 50cm of the surface due to irrigated water. The base saturation is 60 percent or more in some subhroizon that is between depth of 25 and 75cm below the surface. (Ex. Jangyu, Chilgog series) 14. Anthroaquic Dystric Fluventic Eutrochrepts : These soils are similar to Anthroaquic Fluvaquentic Eutrochrepts except for the low chroma within 50cm of the surface. (Ex. Weolgog, Gyeongsan series) 15. Anthroaquic Fluventic Dystrochrepts : These soils have mottles that have chroma of 2 or less within 50cm of the soil surface due to artificial irrigation. They have lower base saturation (<60 percert) in all subhorizons between depths of 25 and 75cm below the soil surface. (Ex. Gocheon, Bigog series) 16. Anthro aquic Eutrandepts : These soils are similar to Anthroaquic Dystric Fluventic Eutrochrepts except for lower bulk density in the horizon. (Ex. Daejeong series) 17. Anthroaquic Hapludalfs : These soils' have a surface that is saturated with irrigated water at some time and have chroma of 2 or less in the matrix and higher chroma of mottles within 50cm of the surface. (Ex. Hwadong, Yongsu series) 18. Anthro aquic, Aquic Hapludalfs : These soils are similar to Anthro aquic Hapludalfs except for the matrix that has chroma 2 or less and higher chroma of mottles in more than 50cm of the surface. (Ex. Geugrag, Deogpyeong se ries)

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The Standing Crops and Soil-borne Microfungal Flora of Phyllostachys reticulata in Korea (한국산(韓國産) 왕대나무의 현존량(現存量)과 토양(土壤) 미세균류상(微細菌類相))

  • Kim, Kwan-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.91-116
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    • 1979
  • This paper is to investigate the standing crops and microfungal flora in soil in Phyllostachys reticulata forests in both the Yesan area (A) and the Kwangsan area (B). The stand density of the bamboo revealed 17,250 shoots per ha in area A, and in area B 14,780 shoots which were 16.1% less in number than area A. In respect to the environmental factors between the two areas, the mean temperature during the growth period was $1.5{\sim}2^{\circ}C$ higher in area B than in area A, soil tempeature also was $1{\sim}2^{\circ}C$ higher in area B, and the total quantities of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and organic compounds contained in the soil of area B were also slightly higher than those of area A. In area B the quantities of dried leaf matter, humus, and vegetation in the bamboo forest were also larger than in area A. In addition, five more species of microfungi which playa role in the decomposition of the various organic materials in the bamboo forests were identified in area B: Mortierella elongata, Mucor circinelloides, Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium waksmani and Trichoderma lignorum. The atmospheric temperature in the inner portions of the bamboo forests was lower than the outside temperature, but the humidity was higher. The rates of relative illuminance were measured in area A at 4.19%, and in area B at 2.7%. These values revealed that the photosynthetic acitivity in the lower part of the bamboo was lost but it was considered that lower illuminance increased the microfungal activities in the vicinity of the surface soil. Since the productive structure of the bamboo showed that the maximum amount of photosynthesis was located in the upper portion of the bamboo in area B, it was considered to be an effective structure in maintaining the high productivity of the bamboo. The allometric relation between $D^2H$ and dry weight of stems(Ws), branches(Wb) and leaves(Wl) of the bamboo in area A were appoximated by log Ws=0.5262 log $D^2H$+1.9546; log Wb=0.6288 log $D^2H$+1.5723; log Wl=0.5181 log $D^2H$+1.8732, and those of the bamboo in area B were approximated by log Ws=0.5433 log $D^2H$+1.8610; log Wb=0.1630 log $D^2H$+2.3475; log Wl=0.4509 log $D^2H$+2.0041. From the above, the standing crops in area A were measured thus: Ws was 1,128. 83kg; Wb, 689.05kg; Wl, 926.69kg and Wl, 2,744.57kg per 10a. In area B, Ws was 1,206. 66kg; Wb, 679.92kg; Wl, 1,112.51kg and Wt, 2.999kg per l0a. Significant differences from the result of t-test were for $D^2H$ Ws, Wl and Wt between areas A and B. But no significant difference was found for Wb. In order to record as completely as possible the microfungal flora of the areas, every possible means was tried, and 158 strains of fungi were isolated, and of these, the microfungi of 55 species were identified. The dominant species were Trichoderma viride, Penicillium janthinellum, P. commune, Aspergillus oryzae, A. niger, A. gigantus, A. fumigatus, Mortierella ramaniana, var. anguliFPora, Mucor hiemalis and Zygorhynchus moelleri. According to the above results, it was revealed that optimum soil, the increases of soil materials, more species of soil microfungi, and the atmospheric temperature during the growth period have made the bamboo flourish and bring more species and larger quantities of vegetation in the bamboo forests. The correlation between the standing crops and environmental factors in the bamboo forest is considered to be a complicated relationship of all the factors, but the stand density is thought to be the most important factor involved.

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The Effect of Stage of Maturity on the Composition and Feeding Value of Silage (생육시기가 Silage의 사용가치에 미치는 영향)

  • 신정남;윤익석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.41-60
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    • 1983
  • Experiments were conducted to study the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on the quality of silage. Herbage samples taken from the barley plant, rye plant, wheat plant, oat plant, Orchardgrass, Italian ryegrass, a mixed grass sward of Orchardgrass and Italian ryegrass and corn plant at different stages of maturity and ensiled in order to evaluate the effect of maturity on the chemical composition and feeding value as well as digestibility using sheep. Forage material were ensiled in small concrete silo. 1. The dry matter yield per 10a increased with advancing the maturity. Yield of brarley plant was 404, 635 and 900 kg at heading, milk and milk dough stage, respectively. Rye plant yield was 279, 589, 708, 10,000, 1,265, 1,376 and 1,492 kg at booting, before heading, early heading, late heading, early flowering, late flowering and after flowering stage, respectively. Italian ryegrass yield was 355, 613, 844 and 1,109 kg at vegetative, booting, heading and flowering, respectively. Orchardgrass/Italian ryegrass production was 477, 696, 891 and 1,027 kg at before was 458, 1,252, 1,534, 1,986 and 2,053 kg at tassel, early milk, yellow ripe and ripe stage, respectively. 2. Dry matter content increased with advancing maturity, but crude protein declined markedly. The NFE content decreased with advancing maturity of all the herbages except corn plant where NFE content increased, but corn plant increased. The content of crude fiber increased with advancing maturity except corn plant. The content of crude ash decreased with advancing maturity. In the rye plant, the content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and cellulose increased with advancing maturity. 3. In vitro dry matter digestibilities of the rye plant was 53.6, 54.1, 50.7, 47.1, 44.9, 40.1 and 38.9% booting, before hcading, early heading, late heading, early flowering, late flowering and after flowering stage, respectively. The regression equation was $Y=56.22-0.74X+0.009X^2$ (X=cutting date from the first cut, Y=dry matter digestibilities). 4. In vitro digestible dry matter yield (kg/10a) of rye plant increased with advancing maturity, but declined from the flowering stage. The regression equation was $Y=168.88+26.09X-0.41X^2$ (X=cutting date from the first cut). 5. In vitro digestibility of dry matter in the corn plant was 69.2, 71.5, 69.8 and 69.9% at tassel, early milk, milk and yellow ripe stage, respectively. 6. The digestibility of crude protein and crude fiber of all plants decreased with advancing matuity, but NFE of the barley and corn generally increased. 7. The TDN contents on the dry matter basis decreased, but those of barley and corn silage were not different. TDN content of barley was 57.8, 57.1 and 57.9% at heading, milk and milk dough stage, respectively. That of rye silage was 50.0, 27.2 and 43.7% at early flowering, after flowering and milk stage, respectively. Italian ryegrass silage was 67.9, 63.7, and 54.9% at before heading, early heading and after heading, respectively. In case of Orchardgrass silage the TDN was 54.8, 52.9 and 46.1% at after heading, after flowering and milk, respectively. Corn shows TDN value of 59.5, 62.8 and 61.6% at milk, yellow ripe and ripe, respectively. 8. The pH value increased slightly by advancing maturity. 9. the content of organic acid decreased by advancing maturity and also increasing the DM content.

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