• Title, Summary, Keyword: organic additives

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Synthesis of IZTO(Indium Zinc Tin Oxide) particle by spray pyrolysis and post-heat treatment and characterization of deposited IZTO film

  • Lim, Seong Taek;Kim, Sang Hern
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.734-740
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    • 2016
  • The micron-sized indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) particles were prepared by spray pyrolysis from aqueous precursor solution for indium, zinc, and tin and organic additives such as citric acid (CA) and ethylene glycol (EG) were added to aqueous precursor solution for indium, zinc, and tin. The obtained IZTO particles prepared by spray pyrolysis from the aqueous solution without organic additives had spherical and filled morphologies, whereas the IZTO particles obtained with organic additives had more hollow and porous morphologies. The micron-sized IZTO particles with organic additives were changed fully to nano-sized IZTO particles, whereas the micron-sized IZTO particles without organic additives were not changed fully to nano-sized IZTO particle after post-treatment at $700^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours and wet-ball milling for 24 hours. Surface resistances of micron-sized IZTO's before post-heat treatment and wet-ball milling were much higher than those of nano-sized IZTO's after post-heat treatment and wet-ball milling. From IZTO with composition of 80 wt. % $In_2O_3$, 10 wt. % ZnO, and 10 wt. % $SnO_2$ which showed a smallest surface resistance IZTO after post-heat treatment and wet-ball milling, thin films were deposited on glass substrates by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering, and the electrical and optical properties were investigated.

Extraction Methods of Organic Components from Rubber Composites and Analysis of the Extract Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

  • Chae, Eunji;Choi, Sung-Seen
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.188-200
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    • 2019
  • Rubber articles contain various organic additives such as antidegradants, curing agents, and processing aids. It is important to extract and analyze these organic additives. In this paper, various extraction methods of organic additives present in rubber composites were introduced (solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, headspace extraction, and solid-phase microextraction), and the extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Solvent and Soxhlet extractions are easy-to-perform and commonly used methods. Efficiency of solvent extraction varies according to the type of solvent used and the extraction conditions. Soxhlet extraction requires a large volume of solvent. Headspace sampling is suitable for extracting volatile organic compounds, while solid-phase extraction is suitable for extracting specific chemicals. GC/MS is generally used for characterizing the extract of a rubber composite because most components of the extract are volatile and have low molecular weights. Identification methods of chemical structures of the components separated by GC column were also introduced.

The antiwear performance of several organic phosphates from the aspect of interaction between polyolester base oil and additive (Polyolester base oils과의 상호작용에 의한 Organic Phosphates계 내하중첨가제의 마모방지 성능)

  • ;Masabumi Masuko
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Conference
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    • pp.189-194
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    • 1999
  • The antiwear performance of several organic phosphates ,such as tricrecylphosphate(TCP), tributylphosphate(TBP), diphenylhydrogenphosphate(DPHP) ,dissolved in polyol ester based oils is studied. These organic phosphates are well known for antiwear additive for lubricating oil that produce reacted surface protective film. These antiwear additives can drastically reduce wear with their concentration increasing, because the amount of additive adsorbed on metal sur(ace increases. But in the higher concentration region, the wear is increased by excessive and corrosive reaction of the metal surface with these additives. That is to say, there is an optimum concentration for minimum wear. The optimum concentration was different with the kinds of base oils and additives. Different polyolesters showed different optimum concentrations of the additive. The order of optimum concentration among the polyolesters was different with different phosphates. The order of the optimum concentration is shown that the effect of the concentration of additives on the antiwear performance. It can be explained by the interaction between additives and base oils using the solubility parameter.

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A Study on the Wear Properties by EP(Extreme Pressure) Additive Composition in a Lubricated Concentrated Contact (윤활시스템에서 극압첨가제 조성에 따른 마모특성 연구)

  • 김용석;류재환
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 2003
  • This research for replacement of chlorine or sulfur based EP(extreme pressure) -additives which is restricted materials by environmental regulation. The subject of this study is as follows, 4-ball test and friction coefficient test were experimented in accordance with temperature and velocity, compounding with several organic or inorganic metallic elements. After 4-ball test, wear area of steel ball was analysed by SEM-EDX. As the analysis, organic and inorganic elements make a effect for extreme pressure lubricity. It is shown that the friction coefficient of lubricant which includes chlorine or sulfur additives, the scoring phenomenon is found accord-ing to temperature and the scuffing phenomenon at 200$^{\circ}C$. Applying to Na, P, S, Zn, Ca based on inorganic and organic elements, the result showed that friction coefficient is decreased more and more, as increasing temperature of lubricant. The additive based on S, Cl, P elements is effect far extreme pressure in the sample#1 and Na, P, S, Zn, Ca in sample #2. These elements are environmental contaminants and S, Cl based on EP additives which are very popular in domestic industry, when they are properly composed with non-chlorine based on additives and Na, P, S, Zn, Ca organic or inorganic elements. It is showed that lubricity and excellent anti-wear properties.

Property Change by Organic Additives in Electroplated Nickel-copper Thin Films (유기첨가제에 의한 전기도금 니켈-구리 박막의 물성변화)

  • Lee, Jung-Ju;Hong, Ki-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.198-201
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    • 2005
  • We investigated the effects of organic additives on the properties of nickel-copper thin films prepared by electroplating. Compared with thin films fabricated by pure electrolyte only, the films utilizing organic additives show different crystalline orientations. With no alteration of plating conditions simply adding the organic materials changed the composition of copper and nickel. The concentration of nickel could be varied to $65-95\%$ depending on the species and concentration of the additives. The change of material property has contributed to the increase or decrease of the magnetoresistance.

The Studies on synthesis of $SnO_2$ doped $In_2O_3$ (ITO: Indium Tin Oxide) powder by spray pyrolysis (분무열분해법(Spray Pyrolysis)에 의한 주석산화물이 도핑된 $In_2O_3$(ITO: Indium Tin Oxide)의 분말 제조에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Sang Hern
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.694-702
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    • 2014
  • The micron-sized ITO(indium tin oxide) particles were prepared by spray pyrolysis from aqueous precursor solutions for indium, and tin and organic additives solution. Organic additives solution with citric acid(CA) and ethylene glycol(EG) were added to aqueous precursor solution for Indium and Tin. The obtained ITO particles prepared by spray pyrolysis from the aqueous solution without organic additives solution had spherical and filled morphologies whereas the obtained ITO particles with organic additives solution had more hollow and porous morphologies with increasing mole of organic additives. The micron-sized ITO particle with organic additives was changed fully to nano-sized ITO particle whereas the micron-sized ITO particle without organic additives was not changed fully to nano-sized ITO particle after post-treatment at $700^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours and wet-ball milling for 24 hours. The size of primary ITO particle by Debye-Scherrer formula and surface resistance of ITO pellet were measured.

Inhibition of Browning and Preference Improvements of Dioscorea batatas through the Addition of Sugar Alcohols and Organic Acids

  • Lee, Myung-Ki;Yang, Hye-Jung;Kim, Byoung-Mok;Jo, Ae-Ri;Park, Young-Min
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.220-225
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    • 2009
  • In this study, the color value, water solubility, swelling power and sensory evaluation of Dioscorea batatas was examined with the addition of functional additives such as sugar alcohols and organic acids to investigate the browning inhibition and preference of these additives. Treatment with erythritol and citric acid were found to result in the highest hunter L-value, solubility and swelling power relative to the other functional additives. Therefore, erythritol and citric acid were selected as additives for Dioscorea batatas. The Dioscorea batatas containing the mixed additives (erythritol and citric acid) showed higher brightness, water solubility and swelling power than those containing only a single additive. In addition, the color and taste preference determined in the sensory evaluation had higher values when the mixed additives were used.

Polymeric Interactions of Dispersant and Binder in Aqueous Silicon Nitride Suspensions (질화규소 현탁액에서 분산제와 결합제의 상호작용연구)

  • Kim, Bong-Ho;Kim, Myong-Ho;Lee, Soo;Paik, Un-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.901-908
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    • 1995
  • In aqueous slurry processing of silicon nitride, the interaction of dispersant and binder used as polymeric processing additives on the silicon nitride particle surface was studied to identify the effect of these processing polymeric additives on the ceramic powder processing. The adsoprtion isotherm study of anionic organic molecule as dispersant and nonionic organic molecules as binder of silicon nitricde was studied to investigate the effect of these processing organic additives on the physicochemical properties of silicon nitride particles. As anionic molecule adsorbed onto silicon nitrice surface, the IEP of silicon nitride shifted toward acidic pH and changed the stability of silicon nitride particle. However, the adsorption of binder as nonionic organic molecule onto silicon nitride surface did not changed the IEP but caused the decrease of electrostatic potentials of silicon nitride. These distinctive adsorption behaviors of organic additives on silicon nitride particles can be closely correlated to the stability of silicon nitride particles suspended in aqueous media.

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Removal of Semi-volatile Soil Organic Contaminants with Microwave and Additives (극초단파(마이크로파)와 첨가제를 이용한 오염토양 내 준휘발성 유기오염물질 제거)

  • Jeong, Sangjo;Choi, Hyungjin
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.67-77
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    • 2013
  • To improve the energy efficiency of conventional thermal treatment, soil remediation with microwave has been studied. In this study, the remediation efficiency of contaminated soil with semi-volatile organic contaminants were evaluated with microwave oven and several additives such as water, formic acid, iron powder, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, and activated carbon. For the experiment, loamy sand and sandy loam collected from Imjin river flood plain were intentionally contaminated with hexachlorobenzene and phenanthrene, respectively. The contaminated soils were treated with microwave facility and the mass removals of organic contaminants from soils were evaluated. Among additives that were added to increase the remediation efficiency, activated carbon and NaOH solution were more effective than water, iron powder, and formic acid. When 10 g of hexachlorobenzene (142.4 mg/kg-soil) or phenanthrene (2,138.8 mg/kg-soil) contaminated soil that mixed with 0.5 g iron powder, 0.5 g activated carbon and 1 ml 6.25 M NaOH solution were treated with microwave for 3 minutes, more than 95% of contaminants were removed. The degradation of hexachlorobenzene during microwave treatments with additives was confirmed by the detection of pentachlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene. Naphthalene and phenol were also detected as degradation products of phenanthrene during microwave treatment with additives. The results showed that adding a suitable amount of additives for microwave treatments fairly increased the efficiency of removing semi-volatile soil organic contaminants.

Organic additive effects in physical and electrical properties of electroplated Cu thin film

  • Lee, Yeon-Seung;Lee, Yong-Hyeok;Gang, Seong-Gyu;Ju, Hyeon-Jin;Na, Sa-Gyun
    • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.48.1-48.1
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    • 2010
  • Cu has been used for metallic interconnects in ULSI applications because of its lower resistivity according to the scaling down of semiconductor devices. The resistivity of Cu lines will affect the RC delay and will limit signal propagation in integrated circuits. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of electroplated Cu films according to the variation of concentration of organic additives. The plating electrolyte composed of $CuSO_4{\cdot}5H_2O$, $H_2SO_4$ and HCl, was fixed. The sheet resistance was measured with a four-point probe and the material properties were investigated with XRD (X-ray Diffraction), AFM (Atomic Force Microscope), FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) and XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). From these experimental results, we found that the organic additives play an important role in formation of Cu film with lower resistivity by EPD.

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