• 제목/요약/키워드: organic pollutants

검색결과 273건 처리시간 0.12초

Estrogenic Activity of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Parabens Based on the Stably Transfected Human Estrogen Receptor-α Transcriptional Activation Assay (OECD TG 455)

  • Kim, Tae-Sung;Kim, Chang-Yeong;Lee, Hae-Kyung;Kang, Il-Hyun;Kim, Mi-Gyeong;Jung, Ki-Kyung;Kwon, Yong-Kwan;Nam, Hye-Seon;Hong, Soon-Keun;Kim, Hyung-Sik;Yoon, Hae-Jung;Rhee, Gyu-Seek
    • Toxicological Research
    • /
    • 제27권3호
    • /
    • pp.181-184
    • /
    • 2011
  • Screening of estrogenic activity on dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), dichloro diphenyl dichloro ethylene (DDE), dieldrin, heptachlor, aldrin, chlordane, lindane, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and parabens was compared using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 455 (TG455). The estrogenic activity of DDT was 58,000-fold ($PC_{50}$, $1.67{\times}10^{-6}$ M) less than $17{\beta}$-estradiol($E_2$) ($PC_{50}$, $2.88{\times}10^{-11}$ M) but DDE, dieldrin, heptachlor, aldrin, chlordane, lindane and PBDE did not show any estrogenic activity in this assay system. In the case of paraben compounds, the rank of relative transcriptional activation (logRTA) was butyl paraben -1.63752 ($PC_{50}$, $1.25{\times}10^{-7}$ M) > isobutyl paraben -2.34008 ($PC_{50}$, $6.3{\times}10^{-7}$ M) > ethyl paraben -2.64016 ($PC_{50}$, $1.26{\times}10^{-6}$ M) > isopropyl paraben -2.73993 ($PC_{50}$, $1.58{\times}10^{-6}$ M) > propyl paraben -2.84164 ($PC_{50}$, $2.0{\times}10^{-6}$ M). Our data suggest that OECD test guideline TG455 may be useful as a screening tool for potential endocrine disruptors.

Intensive land-based production of red and green macroalgae for human consumption in the Pacific Northwest: an evaluation of seasonal growth, yield, nutritional composition, and contaminant levels

  • Gadberry, Bradley A.;Colt, John;Maynard, Desmond;Boratyn, Diane C.;Webb, Ken;Johnson, Ronald B.;Saunders, Gary W.;Boyer, Richard H.
    • ALGAE
    • /
    • 제33권1호
    • /
    • pp.109-125
    • /
    • 2018
  • Turkish towel (Chondracanthus exasperatus), Pacific dulse (Palmaria mollis, also known as Red ribbon seaweed), and sea lettuce (Ulva spp.) were cultivated in a land-based intensive culture system at the Manchester Research Station, USA from August 2013 to September 2014. Macroalgae were grown in tumble-aerated tanks, harvested bimonthly for seasonal growth calculations, and analyzed for protein, lipid, ash, and amino acid content. Growth rate of all three species exhibited a similar pattern, with the highest specific growth rates occurring during the summer months (Turkish towel: 7.8%, Pacific dulse: 8.2%, and sea lettuce: 6.2%). Growth of all three species was lowest around winter solstice; with negative growth only observed in sea lettuce. On a dry weight basis significant differences in protein content existed between the three species with highest values for sea lettuce ($29.5{\pm}1.4%$). Lipid content varied between species (0.95-2.78%) with significantly higher lipid observed in sea lettuce (0.58-4.82%). No significant differences were detected on a seasonal basis among each species. Essential amino acids accounted for $43{\pm}0.9$ to $47{\pm}1.2%$ of total amino acids with Turkish towel having the highest value. Turkish towel had a significantly higher taurine level ($0.82{\pm}0.27$) than the other macroalgae. The levels of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals were low. The estimated annual product of the three species ranged from 50- to $70-mt\;dry\;weight\;ha^{-1}\;y^{-1}$, significantly higher than conventional crops. Land-based culture of these species can produce year-round harvest, consistent product quality, and low contaminant levels.

국내 도료 및 제철·제강산업 발생 폐기물 중 잔류성 유기오염물질류의 함량 특성 -PCDD/DFs, PAHs, PCBs- (Content characteristics of persistent organic pollutants waste from paint, iron making and steel making process)

  • 김동운;김우일;강영렬;이동진;정성경;조윤아;연진모;신선경;오길종
    • 분석과학
    • /
    • 제24권5호
    • /
    • pp.395-400
    • /
    • 2011
  • 본 연구는 [지정폐기물 중 신규유해물질 항목설정 및 시험방법 확립에 관한 연구]에 선정된 우선관리대상 미규제 유기물질 3종(PCDD/DFs, PAHs, PCBs)에 대해 효과적인 관리를 위하여 수행하였다. 국립환경과학원에서 제시된 함량시험법에 따라 분석하였으며, 폐유기용제, 폐페인트, 분진이 포함된 도료 및 제철 제강공정에서 발생하는 폐기물을 대상으로 함량을 결정하였다. GC/MSD를 이용한 PAHs 7종을 조사한 결과, 나프탈렌(N.D~1631.33 mg/kg)이 검출되었다. 폐유기용제와 폐페인트의 나프탈렌 결과 값은 해양배출처리기준을 초과하는 것으로 조사되었다. PCB 7종에 대해 함량 분석값은 전부 불검출로 나타났다. PCDD/DFs 분석결과, 바젤협약 기술지침서의 low POP 기준에 부합한 것으로 조사되었다. 10공정(빌렛, 불룸)에서 배출되는 분진 시료에서 PCDD/DFs의 함량 결과는 N.D~5.66 ng I-TEQ/g으로 조사되었다.

Studies on the Production of Artificial Zeolite from Coal Fly Ash and Its Utilization in Agro-Environment

  • Lee, Deog-Bae;Henmi, Teruo;Lee, Kyung-Bo;Kim, Jae-Duk
    • 한국환경농학회지
    • /
    • 제19권5호
    • /
    • pp.401-418
    • /
    • 2000
  • 1. Production of the artificial zeolite from coal ash Coal fly ash is mainly composed of several oxides including $SiO_2$ and $Al_2O_3$ derived from inorganic compounds remained after burning. As minor components, $Fe_2O_3$ and oxides of Mg, Ca, P, Ti (trace) are also contained in the ash. These components are presented as glass form resulting from fusion in the process of the combustion of coal. In other word, coal ash may refer to a kind of aluminosilicate glass that is known to easily change to zeolite-like materials by hydrothermal reaction. Lots of hot seawater is disposing near thermal power plants after cooling turbine generator periodically. Using seawater in the hydrothermal reaction caused to produce low price artificial zeolite by reduction of sodium hydroxide consumption, heating energy and water cost. As coal ash were reacted hydrothermally, peaks of quartz and mullite in the ash were weakened and disappeared, and new Na-Pl peaks were appeared strengthily. Si-O-Si bonding of the bituminous coal ash was changed to Si-O-Al (and $Fe^{3+}$) bonding by the reaction. Therefore the produced Na-Pl type zeolite had high CEC of 276.7 $cmol^+{\cdot}kg^{-1}$ and well developed molecular sieve structure with low concentration of heavy metals. 2. Utilization of the artificial zeolite in agro-environment The artificial zeolite(1g) could remove 123.5 mg of zinc, 164.7 mg copper, 184.4 mg cadmium and 350.6 mg lead in the synthetic wastewater. The removability is higher 2.8 times in zinc, 3.3 times in copper, 4.7 times in cadmium and 4.8 times in lead than natural zeolite and charcoal powder. When the heavy metals were treated at the ratio of 150 $kg{\cdot}ha^{-1}$ to the rice plant, various growth inhibition were observed; brownish discoloration and death of leaf sheath, growth inhibition in culm length, number of panicles and grains, grain ripening and rice yield. But these growth inhibition was greatly alleviated by the application of artificial zeolite, therefore, rice yield increased $1.1{\sim}3.2$ times according to the metal kind. In addition, the concentration of heavy metals in the brown rice also lowered by $27{\sim}75%$. Artificial Granular Zeolites (AGZ) was developed for the purification of wastewater. Canon exchange capacity was 126.8 $cmol^+{\cdot}kg^{-1}$. AGZ had Na-Pl peaks mainly with some minor $C_3S$ peaks in X-ray diffractogram. In addition, AGZs had various pore structure that may be adhere the suspended solid and offer microbiological niche to decompose organic pollutants. AGZ could remove ammonium, orthophosphate and heavy metals simultaneously. Mixing ratio of artificial zeolite in AGZs was related positively with removal efficiency of $NH_4\;^+$ and negatively with that of $PO_4\;^{3-}$. Root growth of rice seedling was inhibited severely in the mine wastewater because of strong acidity and high concentration of heavy metals. As AGZ(1 kg) stayed in the wastewater(100L) for 4days, water quality turned into safely for agricultural usage and rice seedlings grew normally.

  • PDF

주거지역별, 연령별 및 성별 인체 혈장중의 PFOS, PFOA 함유량 조사 (The survey of exposure level for PFOS and PFOA in human plasma from several residential areas in Korea)

  • 정재연;윤혜승;류희영;원종욱;팽기정;김연제
    • 분석과학
    • /
    • 제21권3호
    • /
    • pp.183-190
    • /
    • 2008
  • PFOS (Perfluorooctane sulfonate)와 PFOA (Perfluorooctanoic acid)는 POPs 물질로 환경호르몬 중의 하나이다. 이 물질들은 포장재, 일회용품 등 널리 사용되어지고 있는 소비상품에 함유되어 있기 때문에 사람에게 쉽게 노출될 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 노출경로에 대해 연구하기 위해 대도시, 중소도시 및 시골의 주거지역과 산업지역에서의 PFOS, PFOA에 대한 인체 혈장 중에 함유된 수준을 조사하였으며, 성별과 연령별도 조사하였다. 고령일수록 PFOS의 농도는 높아졌으며, PFOS와 PFOA의 평균농도는 남자(4.74 ng/mL, 2.20 ng/mL)가 여자 (3.53 ng/mL, 1.17 ng/mL)보다 높게 조사되었다. 거주지역을 비교해보면, PFOS와 PFOA의 평균농도는 대도시 거주자(2.47 ng/mL, 0.79 ng/mL) 의 경우 가장 낮았으며, 산업지역 거주자(6.57 ng/mL, 2.19 ng/mL)의 경우가 가장 높게 조사되었다.

인증표준물질(Certified reference materials, CRM)을 이용한 이옥신류(PCDDs/PCDFs) 측정의 정확도 평가 (Evaluation of accuracy for measurement of Dioxins (PCDDs/PCDFs) by using certified reference material (CRM))

  • 윤여영;박덕희;임영희;조혜성
    • 분석과학
    • /
    • 제22권5호
    • /
    • pp.376-385
    • /
    • 2009
  • 본 연구에서는 고농도 PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls)로 오염된 토양류 인증표준물질(Certified reference materials, CRM) 내에 존재하는 17종의 PCDDs/PCDFs를 분석하여 측정의 정확도를 평가하였다. 분석 방법은 2007년 환경부에서 고시한 비의도적 잔류성유기오염물질 공정시험방법을 토대로 하였으나 다층 실리카겔 컬럼과 알루미나 컬럼으로만 정제 시 방해 물질들이 충분히 제거되지 않아 활성탄 컬럼을 추가하여 정제하였다. 정확도의 평가 지표로서는 한국표준과학연구원(KRISS)에서 제시한 |En| 값을 사용하였으며 |En|값이 1이하인 경우 정량 결과를 '만족'으로 판정한다. 본 실험에서 DB-5MS컬럼과 SP-2331 컬럼을 병용하여 CRM을 분석한 결과 17종 2,3,7,8-치환이성체 모두 1 이하의 |En| 값을 얻었다. 또한 DB-5MS 컬럼에서 분리되지 않는 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD와 3,3',4,4',5,5'-HxCB는 선택 이온비를 EPA1613 방법에서 제시한 M+2/M+4 대신 M/M+2로 변경하여 HRGC/HRMS 분석에서 구분이 가능하도록 하였다.

들깨 생산단지 시설재배지 중 잔류성유기염소계 농약류 잔류량 조사 (Investigation of Resiudal Organochlorine Pesticides in Green Perilla (Perilla frutescens var. japonica Hara) Greenhouse Soil and Its Leaves)

  • 임성진;오영탁;노진호;양지연;최근형;류송희;문병철;박병준
    • 농약과학회지
    • /
    • 제20권3호
    • /
    • pp.221-227
    • /
    • 2016
  • 본 연구에서는 들깨 시설재배지 토양 및 작물 중 잔류성유기염소계 농약의 잔류량을 조사하였다. 토양 및 작물 중 잔류성유기염소계 농약 분석을 위한 추출 및 정제는 QuEChERS 방법을 다소 개선한 방법으로 수행되었다. 들깨 시설재배지 토양 및 농산물 중 잔류성유기염소계 농약의 회수율은 각각 76.3-113.4 및 79.4-107.3%, 정량한계는 각각 0.03-0.24와 $0.33-0.50{\mu}g/kg$ 수준이었다. 들깨 시설재배지 토양에서 dieldirn 및 endosulfan sulfate 2 성분만이 각각 1.6-9.2 및 $22.0-87.8{\mu}g/kg$ 수준으로 검출되었으나 들깻잎의 모든 시료에서는 검출되지 않았다. 이러한 결과는 들깨 시설재배지 토양이 농산물 안전성을 위협할 정도로 잔류성유기염소계 농약으로 오염되지 않았음을 나타냈다.

주파수 변화 및 보조제 첨가에 따른 나프탈렌 및 페놀의 초음파 분해효율 비교 (Comparison of the Sonodegradation of Naphthalene and Phenol by the Change of Frequencies and Addition of Oxidants or Catalysts)

  • 박종성;허남국
    • 대한환경공학회지
    • /
    • 제32권7호
    • /
    • pp.706-713
    • /
    • 2010
  • 최근 초음파를 이용한 유기오염물질의 분해 연구가 진행 중이며, 보다 향상된 초음파 조건을 찾는 연구가 주목을 받고 있다. 본 연구에서는 초음파에 의한 분해 대상물질로 나프탈렌 및 페놀을 선정하여 다양한 주파수(28 kHz, 580 kHz, 1,000 kHz) 및 보조제($TiO_2$, $H_2O_2$, $FeSO_4$, Zeolite, Cu) 첨가 효과를 비교 분석하여 초음파 처리 시스템의 최적 분해효율 조건을 확인하였다. 주파수 변화에 따른 초음파 분해효율은 나프탈렌과 페놀 모두에서 580 kHz가 가장 우수한 효율을 보였으며, OH 라디칼 역시 동일 주파수에서 가장 많이 발생한 점을 미루어 볼 때, 580 kHz 근처의 초음파 영역에서 최적의 열분해 및 산화분해를 일으킬 수 있는 공동현상 조건이 형성된다는 것을 확인하였다. 100 mg/L의 다양한 보조제를 첨가하여 초음파 분해효율을 비교한 결과 $FeSO_4$의 분해효율 및 $k_1$값이 무첨가 초음파 반응에 비해 약 1.8배씩 우수하게 조사되었으며, 이것은 초음파와 펜톤 반응이 연계되어 OH 라디칼 생성을 촉진시켜 대상물질의 산화분해를 향상시킨 것으로 판단된다. 그러나 초음파와 펜톤 연계시스템은 배치식 조건에서만 제한적으로 적용 가능할 것이며, 연속식 초음파 시스템에서는 철의 손실, 반응조의 부식 및 새로운 오염물질을 발생시키는 문제를 야기할 수 있다. 이에 반해 $TiO_2$를 첨가한 초음파 분해속도가 무첨가 반응보다 약 20% 이상 향상된 점을 감안할 때, 초음파와 연계된 연속식 처리 공정에서는 $TiO_2$가 효과적인 보조제로 사용될 수 있을 것이다.

폐슬러지로부터 섬유형 생체흡착제 제조방법의 최적화 (Optimization of Manufacturing Method for a Fiber Type of Biosorbent from Sludge Waste)

  • 서지혜;김남규;박문식;이선경;박동희
    • 대한환경공학회지
    • /
    • 제36권9호
    • /
    • pp.641-647
    • /
    • 2014
  • 연구에서는 폐기물 처리에 어려움을 겪고 있는 폐슬러지를 원료로 사용하여 섬유(fiber) 형태의 생체흡착제를 제조하였다. 유기성 오염물의 용출 문제 및 처리수의 고액분리 문제를 해결하기 위하여 Ca-alginate를 이용해 폐슬러지를 고정화하였으며, 제조의 용이성 및 흡착제로써의 성능을 향상시키기 위하여 섬유 형태로 생체흡착제를 제조하였다. Alginate 사용량을 최소화 하면서 제조한 생체흡착제의 성능을 최대화 하기 위한 고정화 조건은 alginate 농도 10 g/L, 폐슬러지 농도 40 g/L, 생체흡착제 직경 0.3~0.4 mm로 결정하였다. 제조한 섬유형 생체흡착제는 2가 양이온 중금속인 Cd(II)에 대해 60.73 mg/g의 최대흡착량을 보였으며, Cd(II) 흡착 거동은 Psuedo-second-order 속도모델과 Langmuir 등온흡착모델로 잘 설명되었다. 결론적으로, 하폐수 처리공정에서 발생하는 폐슬러지는 생체흡착제를 제조하는데 사용될 수 있는 저렴한 원료이며, 이렇게 제조한 생체흡착제는 산업폐수에 함유된 유독성 중금속을 효율적으로 제거하는데 사용될 수 있다.

Persistent Organic Pollution and Arsenic Contamination in Asia Pacific Water: Case Study of Emerging Environmental Problems in Vietnam

  • Pham, Viet.H.
    • 한국습지학회지
    • /
    • 제9권1호
    • /
    • pp.79-89
    • /
    • 2007
  • This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the present status of several environmental problems caused by emerging toxic substances such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and arsenic in various environmental media in Vietnam. Monitoring data reported during the 1990s demonstrated elevated contamination of DDTs in most of these compartments in Vietnam. Studies in frame of the Asia-Pacific Mussel Watch Program revealed that fish, mussels and resident birds from Vietnam contained higher concentrations of DDTs as compared to other countries in region, suggesting the role of Vietnamese environment as a significant emission source of DDT in the Southeast Asian region. The estimated dietary intakes of PCBs and DDTs for Vietnamese were relatively high among Asian developing countries, suggesting potential risk for humans posed by thesechemicals. Widespread contamination of some endocrine active compounds such as alkylphenols and phthalates was observed at various sites along the coasts of northern and middle Vietnam. The presence of significant source of bisphenol-A along Red River estuary was revealed with the concentrations comparable to those reported for developed nations. A case study on seasonal variation of alkylphenols and phthalates in surface water of river delta and estuary of north and middle Vietnam indicated the differences in distribution of these compounds between dry and rainy seasons. Higher concentrations of alkylphenols and phthalates were found in dry season in estuary; while the contrasting pattern was observed in the river delta, showing elevated residues in rainy season. This result suggests the different behavior of alkylphenols and phthalates in river delta and coastal environment. From ecotoxicological perspectives, concentrations of bis-phenol A and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalates [DEHP] in surface water from some locations in Vietnam exceeded the guideline values for Ecotoxicological Effects and the Environmental Risk Limit, respectively, suggesting potential for toxic implications on aquatic wildlife. Widespread and elevated arsenic contamination was discovered inour recent surveys in groundwater in a large area of suburban areas of Hanoi city, the capital of Vietnam. The most recent investigation in 4 villages showed about more than 50 % of groundwater samples contained As concentrations exceeding 50 g/L (the WHO and Vietnamese standard). In particular, in Son Dong villages, 58 % of samples analyzed contained As concentrations higher than 200 g/L. Good correlations were found in As concentrations in water and hair and urine of peoples in corresponding families, suggesting the chronic exposure to As by people living in As-contaminated ground water areas. In Son Dong village, As levels in hair (mean: 1.7 mg/kg dry wt) and urine (g/g creatinine) exceeding the reference values recommended by WHO, suggesting potential for human risk posed by long term accumulation of As in human body. Future studies should be focused on the time trends of POPs and EDCs in biota in Vietnam in order to predict future trend of contamination and to reveal new clues for understanding possible toxic impacts on aquatic organisms. The issues of arsenic contamination in groundwater and their chronic toxic implications on human health should be systematically investigated in the future.

  • PDF