• Title/Summary/Keyword: organic pollutants

Search Result 272, Processing Time 0.096 seconds

Intensive land-based production of red and green macroalgae for human consumption in the Pacific Northwest: an evaluation of seasonal growth, yield, nutritional composition, and contaminant levels

  • Gadberry, Bradley A.;Colt, John;Maynard, Desmond;Boratyn, Diane C.;Webb, Ken;Johnson, Ronald B.;Saunders, Gary W.;Boyer, Richard H.
    • ALGAE
    • /
    • v.33 no.1
    • /
    • pp.109-125
    • /
    • 2018
  • Turkish towel (Chondracanthus exasperatus), Pacific dulse (Palmaria mollis, also known as Red ribbon seaweed), and sea lettuce (Ulva spp.) were cultivated in a land-based intensive culture system at the Manchester Research Station, USA from August 2013 to September 2014. Macroalgae were grown in tumble-aerated tanks, harvested bimonthly for seasonal growth calculations, and analyzed for protein, lipid, ash, and amino acid content. Growth rate of all three species exhibited a similar pattern, with the highest specific growth rates occurring during the summer months (Turkish towel: 7.8%, Pacific dulse: 8.2%, and sea lettuce: 6.2%). Growth of all three species was lowest around winter solstice; with negative growth only observed in sea lettuce. On a dry weight basis significant differences in protein content existed between the three species with highest values for sea lettuce ($29.5{\pm}1.4%$). Lipid content varied between species (0.95-2.78%) with significantly higher lipid observed in sea lettuce (0.58-4.82%). No significant differences were detected on a seasonal basis among each species. Essential amino acids accounted for $43{\pm}0.9$ to $47{\pm}1.2%$ of total amino acids with Turkish towel having the highest value. Turkish towel had a significantly higher taurine level ($0.82{\pm}0.27$) than the other macroalgae. The levels of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals were low. The estimated annual product of the three species ranged from 50- to $70-mt\;dry\;weight\;ha^{-1}\;y^{-1}$, significantly higher than conventional crops. Land-based culture of these species can produce year-round harvest, consistent product quality, and low contaminant levels.

Content characteristics of persistent organic pollutants waste from paint, iron making and steel making process (국내 도료 및 제철·제강산업 발생 폐기물 중 잔류성 유기오염물질류의 함량 특성 -PCDD/DFs, PAHs, PCBs-)

  • Kim, Dong-Un;Kim, Woo-Il;Kang, Young-Yeul;Lee, Dong-Jin;Jeong, Seong-Kyeong;Cho, Yoon-A;Yeon, Jin-Mo;Shin, Sun-Kyoung;Oh, Gil-Jong
    • Analytical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.24 no.5
    • /
    • pp.395-400
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study has been carried out in order to effectively manage three groups of unregulated hazardous organic substances (PCDD/DFs, PAHs, PCBs) in South Korea. The investigated substances have been analyzed according to the test methods for hazardous substances in specified wastes provided by the National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea. Total contents of the organic compounds have been determined for hazardous wastes from three major industrial categories (paint, iron removal, steelmaking), such as waste organic solvent, waste paint or dust. By investigating the waste samples for 7 PAHs using GC/MSD, Naphthalene has been detected (N.D~1631.33 mg/kg). The highest Naphthalene concentration, which exceeded the korean marine dumping waste standard, was found in waste organic solvents and waste paints. Although a content analysis of 7 PCB isomers has been conducted, none of these compounds was detected. The analysis of PCDD/DFs has revealed that all samples meet the criterion for low POP content defined in the technical guidelines developed under the Basel Convention. The PCDD/DFs content in dust samples deriving from 10 manufacturing processes (billet, bloom) was determined to be in the range of N.D~5.66 ng I-TEQ/g waste.

Studies on the Production of Artificial Zeolite from Coal Fly Ash and Its Utilization in Agro-Environment

  • Lee, Deog-Bae;Henmi, Teruo;Lee, Kyung-Bo;Kim, Jae-Duk
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.19 no.5
    • /
    • pp.401-418
    • /
    • 2000
  • 1. Production of the artificial zeolite from coal ash Coal fly ash is mainly composed of several oxides including $SiO_2$ and $Al_2O_3$ derived from inorganic compounds remained after burning. As minor components, $Fe_2O_3$ and oxides of Mg, Ca, P, Ti (trace) are also contained in the ash. These components are presented as glass form resulting from fusion in the process of the combustion of coal. In other word, coal ash may refer to a kind of aluminosilicate glass that is known to easily change to zeolite-like materials by hydrothermal reaction. Lots of hot seawater is disposing near thermal power plants after cooling turbine generator periodically. Using seawater in the hydrothermal reaction caused to produce low price artificial zeolite by reduction of sodium hydroxide consumption, heating energy and water cost. As coal ash were reacted hydrothermally, peaks of quartz and mullite in the ash were weakened and disappeared, and new Na-Pl peaks were appeared strengthily. Si-O-Si bonding of the bituminous coal ash was changed to Si-O-Al (and $Fe^{3+}$) bonding by the reaction. Therefore the produced Na-Pl type zeolite had high CEC of 276.7 $cmol^+{\cdot}kg^{-1}$ and well developed molecular sieve structure with low concentration of heavy metals. 2. Utilization of the artificial zeolite in agro-environment The artificial zeolite(1g) could remove 123.5 mg of zinc, 164.7 mg copper, 184.4 mg cadmium and 350.6 mg lead in the synthetic wastewater. The removability is higher 2.8 times in zinc, 3.3 times in copper, 4.7 times in cadmium and 4.8 times in lead than natural zeolite and charcoal powder. When the heavy metals were treated at the ratio of 150 $kg{\cdot}ha^{-1}$ to the rice plant, various growth inhibition were observed; brownish discoloration and death of leaf sheath, growth inhibition in culm length, number of panicles and grains, grain ripening and rice yield. But these growth inhibition was greatly alleviated by the application of artificial zeolite, therefore, rice yield increased $1.1{\sim}3.2$ times according to the metal kind. In addition, the concentration of heavy metals in the brown rice also lowered by $27{\sim}75%$. Artificial Granular Zeolites (AGZ) was developed for the purification of wastewater. Canon exchange capacity was 126.8 $cmol^+{\cdot}kg^{-1}$. AGZ had Na-Pl peaks mainly with some minor $C_3S$ peaks in X-ray diffractogram. In addition, AGZs had various pore structure that may be adhere the suspended solid and offer microbiological niche to decompose organic pollutants. AGZ could remove ammonium, orthophosphate and heavy metals simultaneously. Mixing ratio of artificial zeolite in AGZs was related positively with removal efficiency of $NH_4\;^+$ and negatively with that of $PO_4\;^{3-}$. Root growth of rice seedling was inhibited severely in the mine wastewater because of strong acidity and high concentration of heavy metals. As AGZ(1 kg) stayed in the wastewater(100L) for 4days, water quality turned into safely for agricultural usage and rice seedlings grew normally.

  • PDF

The survey of exposure level for PFOS and PFOA in human plasma from several residential areas in Korea (주거지역별, 연령별 및 성별 인체 혈장중의 PFOS, PFOA 함유량 조사)

  • Chung, Jaeyeon;Yoon, Hae-Seong;Ryu, Hee-Young;Won, Jong Uk;Paeng, Ki-Jung;Kim, Yunje
    • Analytical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.21 no.3
    • /
    • pp.183-190
    • /
    • 2008
  • PFOS (Perfluorooctane sulfonate) and PFOA (Perfluorooctanoic acid) are environmental hormones which belong to potential future persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and it is easy to exposure to human because they are used in a wide variety of consumer products. We studied exposure route and the relativity through determining and monitoring of PFOS and PFOA in Korean plasma of metropolis, small town, rural area and industrial area. And we monitored the concentration of PFOS and PFOA regarding the gender and age. The older age is, the higher concentration of PFOS is. The mean concentration of PFOS and PFOA in men (4.74 ng/mL, 2.20 ng/mL) was higher than that in women (3.53 ng/mL, 1.17 ng/mL). In the comparison of residential areas, the mean concentration of PFOS and PFOA was the lowest in metropolitan plasma (2.47 ng/mL, 0.79 ng/mL) whereas it was the highest in the industrial area (6.57 ng/mL, 2.19 ng/mL).

Evaluation of accuracy for measurement of Dioxins (PCDDs/PCDFs) by using certified reference material (CRM) (인증표준물질(Certified reference materials, CRM)을 이용한 이옥신류(PCDDs/PCDFs) 측정의 정확도 평가)

  • Youn, Yeu Young;Park, Deok Hie;Lim, Young Hee;Cho, Hye Sung
    • Analytical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.22 no.5
    • /
    • pp.376-385
    • /
    • 2009
  • In our study, the accuracy for measurement of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs in certified reference material (CRM) which is the sample of homogeneous sediment matrix taken from an area known to have significant chemical contamination, particularly PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), was evaluated. Though the methodology in this study followed the official method of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UPOPs) announced by the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Korea in 2007, there were slight changes using additional purification step by activated carbon column because the interferences of sample were not sufficiently removed when only multi-silica column and alumina column have been used for purification. The |En| number proposed by the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science was used for a valuation basis of the accuracy. The |En| numbers of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs have been indicated as 1 and below, they were decided "Pass" in this test, when DB-5MS column and SP-2331 column were used together. Because 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and #169-HxCB were not separated on DB-5MS column, the ions of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD were selected at M/M+2 instead of M+2/M+4 suggested by EPA 1613. It is possible to distinguish them in HRGC/HRMS analysis.

Investigation of Resiudal Organochlorine Pesticides in Green Perilla (Perilla frutescens var. japonica Hara) Greenhouse Soil and Its Leaves (들깨 생산단지 시설재배지 중 잔류성유기염소계 농약류 잔류량 조사)

  • Lim, Sung-Jin;Oh, Young-Tak;Ro, Jin-Ho;Yang, Ji-Yeon;Choi, Geun-Hyoung;Ryu, Song-Hee;Moon, Byeong-Chul;Park, Byung-Jun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.221-227
    • /
    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate residual organochlorine pesticides in green house soil and green perilla leaves. Extraction and clean-up method were developed using the modified QuEChERS method for residual organochlorine pesticides (ROCPs) in soil and green perilla leaves. Recovery and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of ROCPs in greenhouse soil and green perilla leaves were 76.3-113.4 and 79.4-107.3%, 0.03-0.24 and $0.33-0.50{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. Detected ROCPs in greenhouse soil were dieldrin and endosulfan sulfate, the residue were 1.6-9.2 and $22.0-87.8{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. But two pesticides in all green perilla leaf samples were not detected. These results showed that ROCPs residue in greenhouse soil was lower than the level of bioaccumulation occurring.

Comparison of the Sonodegradation of Naphthalene and Phenol by the Change of Frequencies and Addition of Oxidants or Catalysts (주파수 변화 및 보조제 첨가에 따른 나프탈렌 및 페놀의 초음파 분해효율 비교)

  • Park, Jong-Sung;Her, Nam-Guk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.32 no.7
    • /
    • pp.706-713
    • /
    • 2010
  • The research seeks to find the optimal conditions for sonodegradation of naphthalene and phenol as exemplary organic pollutants to be subjected to ultrasound in varying frequencies (28 kHz, 580 kHz, and 1,000 kHz) and in the presence of different kinds of additive (T$TiO_2$, $H_2O_2$, $FeSO_4$, Zeolite, and Cu). In cases of both naphthalene and phenol, 580 kHz of ultrasound has proven to be the most effective among others at sonodegradation. Based on the observation that OH radicals are also produced in maximum under exposure of 580 kHz of ultrasound, we concluded that this frequency of ultrasound creates hospitable condition for the combined process of degradation by pyrolysis and oxidization. $FeSO_4's$ degradation rate and k1 value have increased by approximately 1.8 times compared with the results of the solutions without any additives. This seems to be the result of ultrasound reaction which, accompanied by Fenton's reaction, increased the oxidative degradation and the production of OH radicals. However, application of ultrasound and Fenton's reaction is limited to the batch type conditions, as its use in continuous system can cause loss of iron or decay of the cistern, thereby creating additional pollutants. When the additive is replaced with $TiO_2$, on the contrary, the rate of sonodegradation has increased up to 20% compared to when there was no additive. We therefore conclude that $TiO_2$ could prove to be an effective additive for ultrasound degradation in continuous treatment system.

Optimization of Manufacturing Method for a Fiber Type of Biosorbent from Sludge Waste (폐슬러지로부터 섬유형 생체흡착제 제조방법의 최적화)

  • Seo, Ji Hae;Kim, Namgyu;Park, Munsik;Lee, Sunkyung;Park, Donghee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.36 no.9
    • /
    • pp.641-647
    • /
    • 2014
  • In this study, sludge waste which has a difficulty in treating it was used to manufacture a fiber type of biosorbent. To solve the problems such as the release of organic pollutants and the difficulty in separating solid from treated water, entrapment method using Ca-alginate was used to immobilize sludge waste. Considering ease of manufacture as well as improvement of adsorptive ability, the biosorbent was manufactured in the form of fiber type. Optimum immobilization condition for minimizing the amount of alginate used and maximizing the performance of biosorbent was determined to be 10 g/L alginate concentration, 40 g/L sludge concentration, and 0.3-0.4 mm fiber diameter. The maximum Cd(II) uptake of the biosorbent was 60.73 mg/g. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model adequately described the dynamic and equilibrium behaviors of Cd(II) biosorption onto the biosorbent, respectively. In conclusion, sludge waste generated from wastewater treatment process is a cheap raw material for the manufacture of biosorbent which can be used to remove toxic heavy metals from industrial wastewaters efficiently.

Persistent Organic Pollution and Arsenic Contamination in Asia Pacific Water: Case Study of Emerging Environmental Problems in Vietnam

  • Pham, Viet.H.
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.79-89
    • /
    • 2007
  • This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the present status of several environmental problems caused by emerging toxic substances such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and arsenic in various environmental media in Vietnam. Monitoring data reported during the 1990s demonstrated elevated contamination of DDTs in most of these compartments in Vietnam. Studies in frame of the Asia-Pacific Mussel Watch Program revealed that fish, mussels and resident birds from Vietnam contained higher concentrations of DDTs as compared to other countries in region, suggesting the role of Vietnamese environment as a significant emission source of DDT in the Southeast Asian region. The estimated dietary intakes of PCBs and DDTs for Vietnamese were relatively high among Asian developing countries, suggesting potential risk for humans posed by thesechemicals. Widespread contamination of some endocrine active compounds such as alkylphenols and phthalates was observed at various sites along the coasts of northern and middle Vietnam. The presence of significant source of bisphenol-A along Red River estuary was revealed with the concentrations comparable to those reported for developed nations. A case study on seasonal variation of alkylphenols and phthalates in surface water of river delta and estuary of north and middle Vietnam indicated the differences in distribution of these compounds between dry and rainy seasons. Higher concentrations of alkylphenols and phthalates were found in dry season in estuary; while the contrasting pattern was observed in the river delta, showing elevated residues in rainy season. This result suggests the different behavior of alkylphenols and phthalates in river delta and coastal environment. From ecotoxicological perspectives, concentrations of bis-phenol A and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalates [DEHP] in surface water from some locations in Vietnam exceeded the guideline values for Ecotoxicological Effects and the Environmental Risk Limit, respectively, suggesting potential for toxic implications on aquatic wildlife. Widespread and elevated arsenic contamination was discovered inour recent surveys in groundwater in a large area of suburban areas of Hanoi city, the capital of Vietnam. The most recent investigation in 4 villages showed about more than 50 % of groundwater samples contained As concentrations exceeding 50 g/L (the WHO and Vietnamese standard). In particular, in Son Dong villages, 58 % of samples analyzed contained As concentrations higher than 200 g/L. Good correlations were found in As concentrations in water and hair and urine of peoples in corresponding families, suggesting the chronic exposure to As by people living in As-contaminated ground water areas. In Son Dong village, As levels in hair (mean: 1.7 mg/kg dry wt) and urine (g/g creatinine) exceeding the reference values recommended by WHO, suggesting potential for human risk posed by long term accumulation of As in human body. Future studies should be focused on the time trends of POPs and EDCs in biota in Vietnam in order to predict future trend of contamination and to reveal new clues for understanding possible toxic impacts on aquatic organisms. The issues of arsenic contamination in groundwater and their chronic toxic implications on human health should be systematically investigated in the future.

  • PDF

Environmental Characteristics of the Seawater and Surface Sediment in the vicinity of Pusan Harbor Area in Winter (겨울철 부산항 주변해역의 수질과 표층퇴적물 환경특성)

  • PARK Young-Chul;YANG Han-Soeb;LEE Pil-Yong;KIM Pyoung-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.28 no.5
    • /
    • pp.577-588
    • /
    • 1995
  • The chemical constituents for the seawater and sediment were measured to evaluate pollution in the sea around Pusan Harbor in winter, n992. The average value of trophic state index (TSI) was 19.4 at the outside of Buk Harbor, 50,4 at the inside of Buk Harbor, 56,3 at the Nam Harbor and 5,0 at the Kamchun Harbor. The high correlation found in salinity-nutrients diagram with AOU suggested that the enrichment of nutrients in Pusan Harbor during winter was mainly due to the influx of terrestrial effluents and partially by regenerated nutrients from suspended organic matters in the water column. The mean values of total ignition loss (TIL), COD and total sulfide in the surface sediments were$12.1\%$, 17.5 mg/g.dry wt. and 1.18 mg/g.dry wt. respectively. The highest level of those parameters was shown mostly at the inside of Buk Harbor. The mean concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), total organic nitrogen (TON), and total phosphorus were 24.9 mg/g.dry wt., 1.3mg/g.dry wt. and 0.69 mg/g. dry wt., respectively, Both of the highest level for TOC and total phosphorus have found at the Nam Harbor. On the other hand, the Highest level for TON was found at the inside of Buk Harbor. The TOC/TON atomic ratio with a range of 10.2-60.2 (mean value of 22.5) strongly indicated the active role of the input from the terrestrial organic pollutants.

  • PDF