• Title/Summary/Keyword: organic pollutants

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Distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants(POPs) in Sediment and Organism Collected from Various Culturing Grounds, Korea (국내 양식어장 퇴적물과 생물 중 잔류성유기오염물질 분포)

  • baek, Seung-Hong;Lee, In-Seok;Kim, Hye-Seon;Choi, Minkyu;Hwang, Dong-Woon;Kim, Sook-Yang;Choi, Hee-Gu
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.262-269
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    • 2012
  • We investigated the concentration levels and evaluated the distributions of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans(PCDD/Fs), 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls(DLPCBs) and 24 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment and organism from various culturing grounds in Korean coast. The levels of PCDD/Fs, DLPCBs, and PBDEs in sediment samples ranged from 0.03 to 2.9(Mean${\pm}$SD, $1.2{\pm}0.89$) pg $WHO_{2005}$-TEQ $g^{-1}$ dry weight(dw), ND(not detected) to 1.1($0.09{\pm}0.19$) pg $WHO_{2005}$-TEQ $g^{-1}$ dw, and ND to 16.6($2.96{\pm}3.53$) ng $g^{-1}$ dw, respectively. Also, the levels of PCDD/Fs, DLPCBs, and PBDEs in culturing organisms ranged from ND to 0.24($0.07{\pm}0.06$) pg $WHO_{2005}$-TEQ $g^{-1}$ wet weight(ww), ND to 0.11($0.04{\pm}0.04$) pg $WHO_{2005}$-TEQ $g^{-1}$ ww, and 0.05 to 0.29($0.13{\pm}0.06$) ng $g^{-1}$ ww, respectively. The levels of total dioxins(PCDD/Fs+DLPCBs) and PBDEs in sediments from East and South sea were four to seven times higher than those from West sea. PCDD/Fs had dominant contribution(mean, 94%) for TEQ concentration in sediment, whereas relatively higher contribution of DLPCBs(33%) were shown in culturing organism than sediment. BDE209 was a dominant congener in both matrix. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DLPCBs and PBDEs were in decreasing trends in Korea coasts compared to previous results.

A Study on Coagulation and Ozone Treatment of Nonbiodegradable Substances in Landfill Leachate (생물학적 난분해성물질을 함유한 매립장 침출수의 응집 및 오존처리에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong Shik;Choi, Joon Ho
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.330-335
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    • 1998
  • The objectives of this study are summarized with two. The one is to remove of $COD_{Cr}$, color and turbidity with coagulation and ozonation in nonbiodegradable landfill leachate, the other is to compare of water qualities with pre-ozonation and post-ozonation. The results are summarized as follows ; 1) 90 minutes ozonation with $75mgO_3/min$($4.5gO_3/hr$) was conducted at pH 4,7, 10 to remove $COD_{Cr}$. Removal efficiencies were investigated with 48.2%, 52.6%, and 62.3% respectively. As increasing pH, $COD_{Cr}$ removal efficiencies were increased, it was considered that hydroxyl radical($OH{\cdot}$) which strongly oxdize and nonselectively react with organic compounds, was rapidly produced by ozone self-decomposition at high pH. 2) Alum, ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate were used for coagulation as inorganic coagulant. Ferric chloride was investigated with optimal coagulant, and it removed $COD_{Cr}$ about 12.0% at pH5 and dosage of $2,000m{\ell}/{\ell}$. Cation(C-101P), anion(A-601P) and nonion(SC-050) were tested to remove organic pollutants in landfill leachate. Cation(C-101P) was investigated with the most effective organic coagulant, and removal efficiency of $COD_{Cr}$ was 19.8% at pH5 and dosage of $100m{\ell}/{\ell}$. 3) Color and turbidity were removed up to 88.6%, 97.0% at pH10, when contacted 90 minutes with ozone, respectively. These removal efficiencies were much higher than those of $COD_{Cr}$ and $COD_{Mn}$. It was considered that ozone could oxdize the triggering materials of color and turbidity selectively and preferentially. 4) $COD_{Cr}$, color and turbidity were more effectively removed with pre-ozonation than post-ozonation about 8%, 3.5% and 1% respectively. These results were well corresponed with other's studies that pre-ozonation will increase the effect of coagulation.

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Biodegradation test of the alternatives of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and PFOS salts (PFOS salts 및 PFOS 대체물질에 대한 미생물분해시험)

  • Choi, Bong-In;Na, Suk-Hyun;Son, Jun-hyo;Shin, Dong-Soo;Ryu, Byung-taek;Chung, Seon-yong
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.112-117
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: In this study, we investigated the biodegradation rates of 8 perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) alternatives synthesized at the at Changwon National University in comparison to those of PFOS potassium salt and PFOS sodium salt. Methods: A biodegradability test was performed for 28 days with microorganisms cultured in the good laboratory practice laboratory at the Korea Environment Corporation following the OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals, Test No. 301 C Results: While $C_5H_8F_3SO_3K$, $C_8F_{17}SO_3K$ and $C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$ were not degraded after 28 days, the 3 alternatives were biodegraded at the rates of 31.4% for $C_8H_8F_9SO_3K$, 25.6% for $C_{10}H_8F_{13}SO_3K$, 23.6% for $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$, 20.9% for $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, 15.5% for $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$, 8.5% for $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$ and 4.8% for $C_6H_8F_5SO_3K$. When the concentration was the same(500 mg/L), $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ had the lowest tension with 20.94 mN/m, which was followed by $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$ (23.36 mN/m), $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$ (27.31 mN/m), $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$ (28.17 mN/m), $C_{10}H_8F_{13}SO_3K$ (29.77 mN/m) and $C_8H_8F_9SO_3K$ (33.89 mN/m). Having higher surface tension of 57.64 mN/m and 67.57 mN/m, respectively, than those of the two types of PFOS salts, $C_6H_8F_5SO_3K$ and $C_5H_8F_3SO_3K$ were found valueless as substitute for PFOS. Conclusion: The biodegradation test suggest that 6 compounds could be used as substitutes for PFOS. $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ and $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$ were found to be the best substitutes based on biodegradation rate and surface tension, followed by $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$, $C_8H_8F_9SO_3K$ and $C_{10}H_8F_{13}SO_3K$. $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$ was found to have relatively low value as an alternative but it still had a potential to substitute the conventional PFOS.

Global DNA Methylation Patterns and Gene Expression Associated with Obesity-Susceptibility in Offspring of Pregnant Sprague-Dawley Rats Exposed to BDE-47 and BDE-209 (임신 중 BDE-47 및 BDE-209에 노출된 어미와 새끼 Sprague-Dawley 랫드의 Global DNA 메틸화 양상과 비만 감수성과 연관된 유전자 발현)

  • Park, Byeong-Min;Yoon, Ok-Jin;Lee, Do-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.28-39
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    • 2017
  • Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can affect epigenetic mechanisms and obesity development. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)-widely used to make flames-are one of the important POPs. Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as POPs, may affect global DNA methylation in long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1), increasing the risk of obesity later in life. Therefore, pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to elucidate whether BDE-47 and BDE-209 transferred through placenta and breast milk cause epigenetic changes in LINE-1 and increase genetic susceptibility to obesity as obesogen during the developmental periods. Global DNA methylation in LINE-1 and gene expression related to obesity were measured in dams and offspring, using a methylation-sensitive high resolution melting analysis (MS-HRM) and direct bisulfite sequencing and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), respectively. The results of MS-HRM showed global DNA hypomethylation patterns in LINE-1 of exposed offspring (2 of total 4) at PND 4, but bisulfite sequencing showed no difference in both the exposed and non-exposed groups. Gene expression in dams related to ${\beta}$-oxidation pathway and those related to adipokines showed different patterns between the two groups. On the contrary, gene expressions of offspring showed a similar pattern. Gene expressions related to ${\beta}$-oxidation pathway and obesity were significantly increased when compared with 'at birth', but not $PPAR-{\alpha}$. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the possibility that co-exposure to BDE-47 and BDE-209-via the placenta and breast milk-may affect epigenetic changes and modulate gene expression levels related to obesity.

Field Bioassays On Shellfish To Assess Environmental Pollution Levels Of The Masan Bay (마산만(馬山灣)의 환경오염(環境汚染) 평가(評價)를 위한 야외(野外) 생물(生物) 오염(汚染) 시험(試驗) 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Joo-Surk
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 1979
  • A study on field bioassay test using four species of commercially important shellfish was carried out to assess the effect of pollutants and determine the extent of marine environmental pollution of the Masan Bay from 9 to 15 August 1978. Water quality analysis and planktological examination of sea water were made during the experiment and the examination gave the following results. The water temperature was so high at 31.7$^{\circ}C$ in maximum and rather subject to change on weather condition of the land than on the effect of the water mass from outer bay. The range of DO,COD and SS at the stations were 0.3-7.08cc/l, 0.07-3.31ppm and 5.5-117ppm, respectively with the high values of COD and SS at the stations 7 and 1. The concentrations of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen in sea water, NH$\sub$4/-N, NO$\sub$2/-N, NO$\sub$3/-N, and PO$\sub$4/-P were 18.90-99.80, 2.48- 19.60, 13.00-39.00 and 1.04-14.0$\mu\textrm{g}$ at/l, respectively with decrease of their values in the outer part of the Bay. The high values mentioned above were caused by the sewage and industrial activities. The effects of organic waste are increased oxygen demand, nutrient concentration, turbidity and a higher input of pathogens, leading to structural changes in the marine ecosystems and to a considerable hazard to public health. The percentage composition of phytoplankton standing crop between diatom and dinoflagellate was characterized by making a difference between the two groups in respect of location: a decrease of diatom and a increase of dinoflagellate in numerical abundance toward inner part from outer part of the bay. Namely phytoplankton organisms were composed of 80% of diatom and 20% of dinoflagellate in outer bay, on the contrary, only 4% of diatom and 96% of dinoflagellate occupied by 94% of prorocentrum micans known as tolerant species to polluted reaas in the inner bay. On the occurrence and composition of zooplankton, there are two significant communities in the bay:one is characterized by the predominance of Oithona nana and the other by Favella sp They were composed of a range from 84% to 90% of the total organisms and monotonously constituted of themselves only at most inner station 3 even small numbers. From the results mentioned above, Oithona nana, Favella and prorocentrum micans recommed themselves as valuable indicators for judging the extent of the marine pollution.During the period of the biossays Mytilus edulis showed the highest mortality and Tapes japonica the lowest one between the four test species. The highest death rate by stations was found at most inner stations 3'and 4near Masan Free Export Zone with the most sensitive response and the lowest one occured at outer station 13 where no death specimen of oyster and arkshell was found during the whole test period.As for mussel,85 percent death rate appeared after 72 hours and 100percent rate after 120hours at station 4. It was found that the significant high mortality of the test shellfish mentioned above was caused by severe pollution with mainly organic pollutants from domestic sewage and industrial wastes from the results of too much higher concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen especially ammonia-N,COD,SS and lack of dissolved oxygen,and furthermore occurrence and abundance composition of Prorcentrum,Favella and Oithona nana by stations, valuable indicator species of coastal pollution by orgnic and boilogical pollutants.

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The effects of microplastics on marine ecosystem and future research directions (미세플라스틱의 해양 생태계에 대한 영향과 향후 연구 방향)

  • Kim, Kanghee;Hwang, Junghye;Choi, Jin Soo;Heo, Yunwi;Park, June-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.625-639
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    • 2019
  • Microplastics are one of the substances threatening the marine ecosystem. Here, we summarize the status of research on the effect of microplastics on marine life and suggest future research directions. Microplastics are synthetic polymeric compounds smaller than 5 mm and these materials released into the environment are not only physically small but do not decompose over time. Thus, they accumulate extensively on land, from the coast to the sea, and from the surface to the deep sea. Microplastic can be ingested and accumulated in marine life. Furthermore, the elution of chemicals added to plastic represents another risk. Microplastics accumulated in the ocean affect the growth, development, behavior, reproduction, and death of marine life. However, the properties of microplastics vary widely in size, material, shape, and other aspects and toxicity tests conducted on several properties of microplastics cannot represent the hazards of all other microplastics. It is necessary to evaluate the risks according to the types of microplastic, but due to their variety and the lack of uniformity in research results, it is difficult to compare and analyze the results of previous studies. Therefore, it is necessary to derive a standard test method to estimate the biological risk from different types of microplastics. In addition, while most of the previous studies were conducted mostly on spheres for the convenience of the experiments, they do not properly reflect the reality that fibers and fragments are the main forms of microplastics in the marine environment and in fish and shellfish. Furthermore, studies have been conducted on additives and POPs (persistent organic pollutants) in plastics, but little is known about their toxic effects on the body. The effects of microplastics on the marine ecosystems and humans could be identified in more detail if standard testing methods are developed, microplastics in the form of fibers and fragments rather than spheres are tested, and additives and POPs are analyzed. These investigations will allow us to identify the impact of microplastics on marine ecosystems and humans in more detail.

Isolation and Characteristics of a Phenol-degrading Bacterium, Rhodococcus pyridinovorans P21 (페놀분해세균 Rhodococcus pyridinovorans P21의 분리 및 페놀분해 특성)

  • Cho, Kwang-Sik;Lee, Sang-Mee;Shin, Myung-Jae;Park, Soo-Yun;Lee, Ye-Ram;Jang, Eun-Young;Son, Hong-Joo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.9
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    • pp.988-994
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    • 2014
  • The effluents of chemical and petroleum industries often contain non-biodegradable aromatic compounds, with phenol being one of the major organic pollutants present among a wide variety of highly toxic organic chemicals. Phenol is toxic upon ingestion, contact, or inhalation, and it is lethal to fish even at concentrations as low as 0.005 ppm. Phenol biodegradation has been studied in detail using bacterial strains. However, these microorganisms suffer from substrate inhibition at high concentrations of phenol, whereby growth is inhibited. A phenol-degrading bacterium, P21, was isolated from oil-contaminated soil. The phenotypic characteristics and a phylogenetic analysis indicated the close relationship of strain P21 to Rhodococcus pyridinovorans. Phenol biodegradation by strain P21 was studied under shaking condition. The optimal conditions for phenol biodegradation by strain P21 were 0.09% $KNO_3$, 0.1% $K_2HPO_4$, 0.3% $NaH_2PO_4$, 0.015% $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$, 0.001% $FeSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$, initial pH 9, and $20-30^{\circ}C$, respectively. When 1,000 ppm of phenol was added to the optimal medium, the strain P21 completely degraded it within two days. Rhodococcus pyridinovorans P21 could grow in up to 1,500 ppm of phenol as the sole carbon source in a batch culture, but it could not grow in a medium containing above 2,000 ppm. Moreover, strain P21 could utilize toxic compounds, such as toluene, xylene, and hexane, as a sole carbon source. However, no growth was detected on chloroform.

Sorption of Arsenite Using Nanosized Mackinawite (FeS)-Coated Silica Sand (나노 크기 매킨나와이트로 코팅된 규사를 이용한 아비산염의 흡착)

  • Lee, Seungyeol;Kang, Jung Chun;Park, Minji;Yang, Kyounghee;Jeong, Hoon Young
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.185-195
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    • 2012
  • Due to the high reduction and sorption capacity as well as the large specific surface area, nanosized mackinawite (FeS) is useful in reductively transforming chlorinated organic pollutants and sequestering toxic metals and metalloids. Due to the dynamic nature in its colloid stability, however, nanosized FeS may be washed out with the groundwater flow or result in aquifer clogging via particle aggregation. Thus, these nanoparticles should be modified such as to be built into permeable reactive barriers. This study employed coating methods in efforts to facilitate the installation of permeable reactive barriers of nanosized mackinawite. In applying the methods, nanosized mackinawite was coated on non-treated silica sand (NTS) and chemically treated silica sand (CTS). For both silica sands, the maximum coating of mackinawite occurred around pH 5.4, the condition of which was governed by (1) the solubility of mackinawite and (2) the surface charge of both silica and mackinawite. Under this pH condition, the maximum coating by NTS and CTS were found to be 0.101 mmol FeS/g and 0.043 mmol FeS/g respectively, with such elevated coatings by NTS likely linked with impurities (e.g., iron oxides) on its surface. Arsenite sorption experiments were performed under anoxic conditions using uncoated silica sands and those coated with mackinawite at the optimal pH to compare their reactivity. At pH 7, the relative sorption efficiency between uncoated NTS and coated NTS changed with the initial concentration of arsenite. At the lower initial concentration, uncoated NTS showed the higher sorption efficiency, whereas at the higher concentration, coated NTS exhibited the higher sorption efficiency. This could be attributed to different sorption mechanisms as a function of arsenite concentration: the surface complexation of arsenite with the iron oxide impurity on silica sand at the low concentration and the precipitation as arsenic sulfides by reaction with mackinawite coating at the high concentration. Compared to coated NTS, coated CTS showed the lower arsenite removal at pH 7 due to its relatively lower mackinawite coating. Taken together, our results indicate that NTS is a more effective material than CTS for the coating of nanosized mackinawite.

Changes of characteristics of livestock feces compost pile during composting period and land application effect of compost (축분 퇴비화과정 중 특성변화와 축분퇴비 이용효과)

  • Jeong, Kwang-Hwa;Kang, Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.56-64
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    • 2001
  • Composting of livestock feces is economic and safe process to decrease the possibility of direct leakage of organic pollutants to ecosystem from commercial and environmental point of view. This study was conducted with three different experiments related to composting of livestock feces. The purpose of experiment 1 was to investigate changes of characteristic of compost pile during composting period by low temperature in cold season. To compare composting effect of experimental compost pile and control pile exposed in cold air, experimental compost piles were warmed up by hot air until their temperatures were reached at $35^{\circ}C$. Sawdust, Ricehull and Ricestraw were mixed with livestock feces as bulking agent. The highest temperatures of compost pile during composting period were in sawdust, rice hull, rice straw, and control were $75^{\circ}C$, $76^{\circ}C$, $68^{\circ}C$, $45^{\circ}C$ respectively. Moisture content, pH, C/N and volume of compost were decreased during composting period. Experiment 2 was carried out to study utilization effect of compost by plant. A corn was cultivated for 3 years on fertilized land with compost and chemical fertilizer. The amount of harvest and nutrition value of corn were analyzed. In first year of trial, the amount of harvest of corn on land treated with compost was lower by 20% than that of land treated with chemical fertilizer. In second year, there was no difference in yield of com between compost and chemical fertilizer. In third year, the yield of com on land fertilized with compost was much more than that of land fertilized with chemical fertilizer. The purpose of experiment 3 was to estimate the decrease of malodorous gas originating from livestock feces by bio-filter. Four types of bio-filters filled with saw dust, night soil, fermented compost and leaf mold were manufactured and tested. Each bio-filter achieved 87-95% $NH_3$ removal efficiency. This performance was maintained for 10 days. The highest $NH_3$ removal efficiency was achieved by leaf mold on the first day of operation period. It reduced the concentration of $NH_3$ by about 95%. Night soil and fermented compost showed nearly equal performance of 93 to 94% for 10 days from the beginning of operation. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan originating for compost were equal to or less than $3mg/{\ell}$ and $2mg/{\ell}$, respectively. After passing throughout the bio-filter, hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan were not detected.

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Anaerobic Biodegradability of Leachates Generated at Landfill Age (매립년한에 따른 침출수의 혐기성 생분해 특성)

  • Shin, Hang-Sik;Lee, Chae-young;Kang, Ki-hoon
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.90-96
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    • 2000
  • The composition of leachates varies depending on the waste characteristics, landfill age and landfilling method. Generally, leachates contain high dissolved organic substance and ammonia nitrogen whereas phosphorus concentration was very low. Leachate A produced from young landfill is characterized by high BOD5/COD ratio (0.8) whereas leachate C produced from old landfill has lower BOD5/COD ratio (0.1). Maximum biochemical methane potential of leachate A, B (from medium landfill) and C were 271,106 and 4 ml CH4/g-COD, respectively. On the other hand, the maximum biodegradability of leachate A, B, and C were 75,30, and 1%, respectively. These results indicated that anaerobic treatment of leachate from young landfill was effective in removing organic pollutants. In case of leachate C, carbon might reside in the form of large molecular weight organic compounds such as lignins, humic acids and other polymerized compounds of soils, which are resistant to biodegradation. The lag-phase period increased with the increasing organic concentration in leachate. In case of leachate A of concentration greater than 25%, the lag-phase period increased sharply. This implied that the start-up period of anaerobic process using an unacclimated inoculum could be extended due to the higher concentration of leachate. This relatively long lag-phase is probably related to the fact that most of the inhibitory compounds have been diluted beyond their inhibitory concentrations of less than 50%. Furthermore, the ultimate methane yield and methane production rate decreased as leachate concentration increased. It was anticipated the potential inhibition was related with the steady-state inhibition as well as the initial shock load.

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