• Title, Summary, Keyword: organic pollutants

Search Result 722, Processing Time 0.046 seconds

Study on Indoor Air Pollutants of Public Service Centers in Winter, Seoul (서울지역 공공청사 민원실의 겨울철 실내공기질에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Jea-Sik;Kim, Mi-Hyung;Lee, Ju-Yeol;Jeon, Myung-Jin;Ryu, In-Cheol;Park, Duck-Shin;Choi, Han-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
    • /
    • v.27 no.5
    • /
    • pp.569-579
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study evaluated the indoor air quality of 26 government offices located in Seoul. The pollutant samples were taken from Jan. 13th to Jan. 29th and Feb. 20th to Feb. 23rd, 2010 in the offices. The target indoor pollutants for this study were $PM_{10}$, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total bacteria counts, total volatile organic compounds, radon, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and asbestos which were controlled by the indoor air quality law for the multiple-use facilities management. The results of this study showed that some pollutants of the 38.5% offices exceeded the standards of the air quality guideline. The correlation analysis of the same pollutants between indoor and outdoor represented that $NO_2$ (r=0.629, p<0.05) and $O_3$ (r=0.459, p<0.01) were significant, however, $PM_{10}$ and CO were not. The correlation analysis between different pollutants showed that CO and TVOC (total volatile organic compounds: r=0.724; p<0.01), CO and $NO_2$ (r=0.674; p<0.01), HCHO and humidity (r=0.605; p<0.01), $CO_2$ and TVOC (r=0.534; p<0.01), TBC (total bacteria counts) and Asbestos (r=0.520; p<0.01) were significant. The energy-saving system of government buildings in winter caused under-ventilated and poor air quality. This study suggests that the concentrations of radon and $CO_2$ should be used as an indicator for monitoring indoor air quality and maintaining effective ventilations.

Management Changes of Hazardous Air Pollutants Sources and Its Proposed Improvement in Korea (유해대기오염물질 배출원 관리의 변천과 개선방향)

  • Kim, Jong-Ho;Lee, Jeong Joo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
    • /
    • v.29 no.5
    • /
    • pp.536-544
    • /
    • 2013
  • Even a small amount of hazardous air pollutants could have a harmful influence upon human beings, animals and plants. Hazardous air pollutants have the properties of toxicity, canceration and organism accumulation. They include heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxin, etc. The Clean Air Conservation Act has defined specific hazardous air pollutants and designated 35 pollutants, distinguishing them from common air pollutants for special control. This study investigates the history of the controls of specific hazardous air pollutants with reference to some relevant laws and regulations in Korea. It investigates the regulations at the permission stage, such as the restrictions on installation of emission facilities, the permission and reporting of installation of emission facilities, and the regulations at the operation stage, such as maintaining permissible emission levels, installation of measuring devices, dues for emission, self-measurement and securing environmental engineers. The current regulatory management is not so satisfactory in regards to the serious effects of specific hazardous air pollutants upon the human body. An advanced new concept, like the maximum available control technology in US, the facilities management standards, which will soon take effect, will be able to lessen the emissions of fugitive hazardous air pollutants. In addition, this study discusses some possible stricter controls on the emission facilities of specific hazardous air pollutants and proposes some measures to maintain and supplement the current systems.

Health Risk of Organic Pollutants in the Suspended Particulates in a Traffic Area of Seoul (서울시 일부 교통지역의 대기 부유분진 중 유기오염물질에 대한 발암 위해성 평가)

  • Shin, Dong-Chun;Chung, Yong;Kim, Jong-Man;Park, Seong-Eun;Lim, Yong-Wook
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
    • /
    • v.27 no.2
    • /
    • pp.326-336
    • /
    • 1994
  • Due to rapid industrialization and economic development since 1970's, Seoul has become known as one of the most heavily polluted cities in the world. This is especially because of its air pollution. This study was conducted to characterize the cancer risk from organic pollutants in the suspended particulates of Seoul. Extractable organic matter (EOM) and PAHs in Shinchon, a major traffic area, were measured monthly in two periods of Aug. $1987{\sim}sep.$ 1988, and Sep. $1990{\sim}Aug.$ 1991. While the differences both of EOM and benzo(a)pyrene concentrations between these two periods were not significant (P>0.05), the differences between heating and non-heating seasons were significant (p<0.01). The estimated mean concentrations of EOM and benzo(a)pyrene in fine particles in non-heating season were $3.98{\mu}g/m^3\;and\;0.51ng/m^3$ respectively, and in heating season were $6.75{\mu}g/m^3\;and\;2.96ng/m^3$ respectively, in these two periods combined. The calculated risk from EOM was compared with that from benzo(a)pyrene and also these values were compared with the level of acceptable risk.

  • PDF

Organic Compounds in the Nak Dong River and Its Toxicity (낙동강 수질중 유기물질과 독성)

  • 류병호;심종환;최진택;조현철;정종순
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.39-53
    • /
    • 1994
  • This study aims to investigate organic compounds and its toxicity by Ames test and chromosomal aberration in the water of the Nak Dong River. Six sampling sites such as Goryung, Hagueun, Maelie, Duksan, Haedong and Myungiang were selected for these pur15oses. 200 l water samples were absorbed on XAD-2 resin columns (2.5X30cm), eluted with organic solvents mixture of acetone: cyclohexane and then dried under vacuum condition. The extracts from the XAD-2 resin was injected into GC/MS and 184 organic compounds were identified such as aldehydes, aromatic compounds, ketones, phenols, hydrocarbons, alcohols, carboxylic acids, alkanes and some unknowns. The US EPA priority pollutants such as naphthlene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and other pollutants, 1,2-diethyl benzene, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene and cyclohexanol were detected in these samples. The concentration of chemical pollutants such as 1,2-diethyl benzene, nephthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and cyclohexanol were ranged into 1.228 $\mu$g/l, 298 $\mu$g/l, 30.191 $\mu$g/l, 1.147 $\mu$g/l and 2.839 $\mu$g/l, respectively. The mutagenic activity of XAD-2 extracts were tested on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535 and TA 1537 and then exhibited strong mutagenic activity against S. typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 in the presence of S$_9$. Amon them, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phtalate and 1,2-diethyl benzene showed the most strongest mutagenic activity against S. typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 in the presence of S$_9$. On the other hands, chromosomal aberration of XAD-2 extracts in the human blood cells were not occurred by the sampling water at Goryung, Hagueun, Maelie and Duksan, Chromosomal aberration were also not occurred by the each concentration of 0.05, 0.1 amd 0.3 mg/l of each 1,2-diethyl benzol, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, naphthalene, phenol, cyclohexanol and benzothiazol test solution.

  • PDF

Control of Airborne Organic Pollutants Using Plug-Flow Reactor Coated With Carbon Material-Titania Mixtures Under Visible-Light Irradiation

  • Jo, Wan-Kuen;Kang, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Mo-Keun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.22 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1263-1271
    • /
    • 2013
  • Graphene oxide (GO)-titania composites have emerged as an attractive heterogeneous photocatalyst that can enhance the photocatalytic activity of $TiO_2$ nanoparticles owing to their potential interaction of electronic and adsorption natures. Accordingly, $TiO_2$-GO mixtures were synthesized in this study using a simple chemical mixing process, and their heterogeneous photocatalytic activities were investigated to determine the degradation of airborne organic pollutants (benzene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene (BEX)) under different operational conditions. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results demonstrated the presence of GO for the $TiO_2$-GO composites. The average efficiencies of the $TiO_2$-GO mixtures for the decomposition of each component of BEX determined during the 3-h photocatalytic processes were 26%, 92%, and 96%, respectively, whereas the average efficiencies of the unmodified $TiO_2$ powder were 3%, 8%, and 10%, respectively. Furthermore, the degradation efficiency of the unmodified $TiO_2$ powder for all target compounds decreased during the 3-h photocatalytic processes, suggesting a potential deactivation even during such a short time period. Two operational conditions (air flow entering into the air-cleaning devices and the indoor pollution levels) were found to be important factors for the photocatalytic decomposition of BEX molecules. Taken together, these results show that a $TiO_2$-GO mixture can be applied effectively for the purification of airborne organic pollutants when the operating conditions are optimized.

Hazardous Air Pollutants Emission Characteristics from Cement Kilns Co-burning Wastes

  • Pudasainee, Deepak;Kim, Jeong-Hun;Lee, Sang-Hyeob;Cho, Sung-Jin;Song, Geum-Ju;Seo, Yong-Chil
    • Environmental Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.14 no.4
    • /
    • pp.212-219
    • /
    • 2009
  • Emission characteristics of air pollutants from three commercially operating cement kilns co-burning waste were investigated. The major heavy metals emitted were mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) Removal efficiency of the bag filter was above 98.5% for heavy metals (except Hg), and above 60% for Hg. Higher fractions of heavy metals entering the bag filter were speciated to cement kiln dust. On average, 3.3% of the -heavy metals of medium and low toxicity (Pb, Ni, and Cr) entering the bag filter were released into the atmosphere. Among highly toxic heavy metals, 0.14% of Cd, 0.01% of As, and 40% of Hg entering the bag filter were released into the atmosphere. In passing through the bag filter, the proportion of oxidized Hg in all cases increased. Emission variations of hazardous air pollutants in cement kilns tested were related to raw materials, fuel, waste feed and operating conditions. Volatile organic compounds detected in gas emissions were toluene, acrylonitrile benzene, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, and methylene chloride. Although hazardous air pollutants in emissions from cement kilns co-burning waste were within the existing emission limit, efforts are required to minimize their levels.

A study on characteristics of influent and effluent pollutants in public sewage treatment works combined with industrial wastewater and landfill leachate (공공하수처리시설에서 수질오염물질 유입 및 배출 특성 고찰 - 산업폐수 및 매립지 침출수 연계처리 시설을 중심으로 -)

  • Jeong, Dong-Hwan;Cho, Yangseok;Ahn, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Eunseok;Kim, Changsoo;Chung, Hyen-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
    • /
    • v.30 no.6
    • /
    • pp.673-682
    • /
    • 2016
  • In this study, we investigated influent and effluent water pollutants in 53 Public Sewage Treatment Works (PSTWs) where industrial wastewater or landfill leachate is combined four times for two years from 2014 to 2015. Also, we analyzed the characteristics of heavy metals and volatile organic carbons at influent and effluent of these PSTWs caused by sewage treatment combined with industrial wastewater or landfill leachate. As a result, six heavy metals such as barium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and zinc, and four volatile organic carbons (VOCs) including phenols, di(2-)ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), formaldehyde and toluene were observed above detection limits in most of PSTWs. Also, it was revealed that six heavy metals such as hexavalent chromium, mercury, cadmium, chromium, nickel and selenium, and four VOCs including 1,1-dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, naphthalene, and epichlorohydrin were observed more frequently according to precipitation. As a result of reviewing the monitoring data on "Water Quality Monitoring Networks" in lower watersheds of PSTWs, both heavy metals and VOCs were below detection limits, indicating that the effluent water had little influence on the watershed. Nevertheless for the better management of influent and effluent pollutants in PSTWs, it is necessary to establish the advanced management plans for water pollutants in PSTWs, which include a list of priority substances management, monitoring plans, and guidelines for industrial wastewater and landfill leachate combined in PSTWs.

Applied Horticultural Biotechnology for the Mitigation of Indoor Air Pollution

  • Torpy, Fraser R.;Pettit, Thomas;Irga, Peter J.
    • Journal of People, Plants, and Environment
    • /
    • v.21 no.6
    • /
    • pp.445-460
    • /
    • 2018
  • Exposure to indoor air pollution is an emerging world-wide problem, with growing evidence that it is a major cause of morbidity worldwide. Whilst most indoor air pollutants are of outdoor origin, these combine with a range of indoor sourced pollutants that may lead to high pollutant levels indoors. The pollutants of greatest concern are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM), both of which are associated with a range of serious health problems. Whilst current buildings usually use ventilation with outdoor air to remove these pollutants, botanical systems are gaining recognition as an effective alternative. Whilst many years research has shown that traditional potted plants and their substrates are capable of removing VOCs effectively, they are inefficient at removing PM, and are limited in their pollutant removal rates by the need for pollutants to diffuse to the active pollutant removal components of these systems. Active botanical biofiltration, using green wall systems combined with mechanical fans to increase pollutant exposure to the plants and substrate, show greatly increased rates of pollutant removal for both VOCs, PM and also carbon dioxide ($CO_2$). A developing body of research indicates that these systems can outperform existing technologies for indoor air pollutant removal, although further research is required before their use will become widespread. Whilst it is known that plant species selection and substrate characteristics can affect the performance of active botanical systems, optimal characteristics are yet to be identified. Once this research has been completed, it is proposed that active botanical biofiltration will provide a cheap and low energy use alternative to mechanical ventilations systems for the maintenance of indoor environmental quality.

Matrix effect on the Determination of Inorganic Priority Pollutants in Sludges (오니 시료중의 무기 Priority Pollutants의 분석 과정에 미치는 매질의 영향)

  • Lee, Huk-Hee;Lee, Sueg-Geun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.11 no.4
    • /
    • pp.297-304
    • /
    • 1998
  • The three analysis methods, EPA method 3050, the method offered by Ministry of Environment in Korea, and modified method corrected in this laboratory, were studied to investigate the effect of matrix on the analysis of inorganic priority pollutants. 7 inorganic priority pollutants(Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg) were spiked to the plating, leather, paper, electric, and dye sludges. Mean recovery of the elements except Hg was 95.5% when the procedure of EPA method was applied. However, recovery by the two other extraction methods showed 11.1% and 27.7%, respectively. Digestions were done by MDS (microwave digestion system) and $HNO_3+HClO_4$ methods. To study organic and inorganic matrix effect, samples were made by adding triethanol amine as a organic matrix and $FeCl_3{\cdot}6H_2O$+$AlCl_3{\cdot}6H_2O$ as a inorganic matrix, respectively. The extracts were analyzed by AAS and HG-AAS. Mean recovery of the elements by the $HNO_3+HClO_4$ procedure, except Hg, gave better result than that of the MDS method. Mean recovery of elements was decreased when organic and inorganic matrices were added in the sludge samples. The procedure of MDS and $HNO_3+HClO_4$ digestion gave higher recoveries than that of direct analysis. In general, the results of the studies showed a significant matrix effect on the inorganic priority pollutants analysis in sludges.

  • PDF