• Title, Summary, Keyword: organic pollutants

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The effects of microplastics on marine ecosystem and future research directions (미세플라스틱의 해양 생태계에 대한 영향과 향후 연구 방향)

  • Kim, Kanghee;Hwang, Junghye;Choi, Jin Soo;Heo, Yunwi;Park, June-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.625-639
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    • 2019
  • Microplastics are one of the substances threatening the marine ecosystem. Here, we summarize the status of research on the effect of microplastics on marine life and suggest future research directions. Microplastics are synthetic polymeric compounds smaller than 5 mm and these materials released into the environment are not only physically small but do not decompose over time. Thus, they accumulate extensively on land, from the coast to the sea, and from the surface to the deep sea. Microplastic can be ingested and accumulated in marine life. Furthermore, the elution of chemicals added to plastic represents another risk. Microplastics accumulated in the ocean affect the growth, development, behavior, reproduction, and death of marine life. However, the properties of microplastics vary widely in size, material, shape, and other aspects and toxicity tests conducted on several properties of microplastics cannot represent the hazards of all other microplastics. It is necessary to evaluate the risks according to the types of microplastic, but due to their variety and the lack of uniformity in research results, it is difficult to compare and analyze the results of previous studies. Therefore, it is necessary to derive a standard test method to estimate the biological risk from different types of microplastics. In addition, while most of the previous studies were conducted mostly on spheres for the convenience of the experiments, they do not properly reflect the reality that fibers and fragments are the main forms of microplastics in the marine environment and in fish and shellfish. Furthermore, studies have been conducted on additives and POPs (persistent organic pollutants) in plastics, but little is known about their toxic effects on the body. The effects of microplastics on the marine ecosystems and humans could be identified in more detail if standard testing methods are developed, microplastics in the form of fibers and fragments rather than spheres are tested, and additives and POPs are analyzed. These investigations will allow us to identify the impact of microplastics on marine ecosystems and humans in more detail.

Study on Environmental Hazards of Alternatives for PFOS (PFOS 대체물질의 환경유해성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Bong-In;Chung, Seon-Yong;Na, Suk-Hyun;Shin, Dong-Soo;Ryu, Byung-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.317-322
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    • 2016
  • While PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$) was not degraded by microorganisms for 28 days, the 4 alternatives were biodegraded at the rates of 21.6% for $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$, 20.5% for $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, 15.8% for $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ and 6.4% for $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$, respectively. The acute toxicity test using Daphnia magna was conducted for 48 hours, the half effective concentration ($EC_{50}$) of PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$) was evaluated in 54.5 mg/L. While the 4 alternatives did not show any effect at 500.0 mg/L. The surface tension of the PFOS salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$) is 46.2 mN/m at a concentration of 500.0 mg/L. While the surface tension of the 4 alternatives was found to be superior to PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$). The surface tension of $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ (20.9 mN/m) has the lowest, followed by $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$ (23.4 mN/m), $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$ (27.3 mN/m), $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$ (28.2 mN/m). The four kinds of alternatives ($C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$) were found to be superior to PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$) in terms of biodegradation, Daphnia sp. acute toxicity and surface tension, and thus they were considered applicable as PFOS alternatives. Especially biodegradation rate of $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ and $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$ was relatively high as 15.8~21.6%, and Daphnia sp. acute toxicity and surface tension were considerably superior (surface tension 39~55%) to PFOS sodium salt. Therefore, these alternatives are considered to be available as an alternative of PFOS.