• Title, Summary, Keyword: organophosphorus pesticides

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Distribution of Organophosphorus Pesticides in some Estuarine Environments in Korea

  • Yu Jun;Lee Dong Ho;Kim Kyung Tae;Yang Dong Beom;Yang Jae Sam
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 2001
  • To study the distribution of organophosphorus pesticides which are extensively used for agriculture in Korea. Sea water samples were taken from 4 coastal areas during May and August of 1997 and sediment samples were collected from two coastal areas in August of 1997. These samples were analyzed using a Gas Chromatography/Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector (GC/NPD). In August the most commonly found organophosphorus pesticides in the surface waters of Kunsan area were IBP < S-Benzyl O,O-di-isopropyl phosphorothioate > $(m=432.5ng\;L^{-1})$ and EDDP < O-ethyl S,S-diphenyl phosphorodithioate > $(m=37.4ng\;L^{-1}) $ which are largely used between June and September to prevent rice blast disease. In Danghang Bay, dry fields located near the mouth of the estuary seemed to affect the concentrations of certain organophosphorus pesticides in the surface waters. Since organophosphorus pesticides applied in the watershed are rapidly decomposed while being transported along freshwater streams, watershed size is not proportional to the concentrations of these pesticides in the coastal waters. Pesticides concentrations measured in August were compared with those in May. IBP concentrations in coastal waters were about an order of magnitude higher in August than in May. Temporal and geographical distribution of individual organophosphorus pesticides is likely to be affected by types of agricultural practices in the watershed. Chloropyrifos was the most important of the organophosphorus pesticides in the sediments of the study area because of its persistent nature and high affinity to particulates.

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An Evaluation of Liquid Chromatography/Mass Specrometry with Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionizarion for the Rapid and Simultaneous Measurement of Carbamate Pesticides and Organophosphorus Pesticides

  • Kim, Byeong Ju;So, Hyeon Yeong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.471-476
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    • 2000
  • Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (LC/APCI/MS) is evaluated for the simultaneous determination of carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides in a single chromatographic analysis. APCI mass spectra of those compounds were obtrained to study their ionization characteristics. APCI provided abundant ions such as protonated molecules and characteristic fragment ions for carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides. To evaluate the feasibility of the LC/APCI/MS for a routine quantitative analysis, the linearity and repeatability of LC/APCI/MS were examined by measuring standard solution mixtures of five carbamate pesticides and four organophosphorus pesticides over the range of 1 to 100 ㎍/mL. Teh peak areas in chromatograms of characteristic ions for those compounds showed less than 3% of variation from run to run. The standard calibration curves for the nine pesticides show good linearity in the concentration range. The detection limits of the LC/APCI/MS system for those compounds range from 0.006 to 0.2 ng.

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A Study on the Simplified Extraction and Cleanup Technique for Organophosphorus and Organochlorine pesticides in Vegetables (채소 중의 유기인제 및 유기염소제 농약의 단순화된 抽出과 精製 技法에 관한 연구)

  • 전옥경;이용욱
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 1997
  • This procedure describes the method for gas chromatographic determination of 31 organophosphorus and 28 organochlorine pesticides in 10g of spinach, tomato and onion. After the pesticides were extracted with several solvents, the amount of coextractives and recovery rates of acephate and methamidophos were calculated. Samples for organochlorine pesticides were cleaned up with florisil solid phase extraction columns. NaBH$_4$ was added to onion extracts, which contained sulfur compound. All the concentrated extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with ECD and NPD. The smallest amount of coextractives resulted from the spinach samples extracted with 5% MeOH in ethyl acetate. 5% EOH in ethyl acetate had the highest extractability for acephate and methamidophos and gave the best overall performance as an extraction solvent. The ability of 5% EOH in ethyl acetate to extract various organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides from spinach, tomato and onion was examined. Recovery of 59 insecticides ranged from 58.0% to 110.5%. The average recoveries of fortified spinach, tomato and onion were 90.08%, 94.54% and 84.90%, respectively.

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A Study on Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues of Korean Commercial Teas (국산다류중 유기염소제 및 유기인제 농약의 잔류량)

  • 이철원;박건상;신효선
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 1996
  • An attempt was made to determine the residual distribution of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in the various kinds of Korean tea which were purchased form the maket. The organochlorine pesticides investigated in this study were BHC, DDT and dicofol and the organophoshorus pesticides were diazinon, EPN, fenitrothion and parathion. The pesticide residues were determined by GC-ECD and BHC was detected in all the samples and it's level were ranged from 0.00064 po 0.05995 ppm and it's average was 0.00682 ppm and DDT, dicofol and organophosphorus pesticides were not detected in all samples. The organophophorus pesticides were detected(0.0035∼0.0983 ppm) in raw materials but were not in the manufactured material and it is considered that the largely components of the pesticides is removed by drying and high temperature while the tea was manufactured. The recovery tests of the pesticides gave satisfactory results showing an average yield of 97.6% with organochlorine pesticides and 92.5% with organophoshorus pesticides and the detection limits level were 0.00008 ppm to 0.0010 ppm.

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Residue of Organophosphorus and Organochlorine Pesticides in Fresh Ginseng and Red Ginseng Extract (수삼과 홍삼농축액 중 유기인계와 유기염소계 농약의 잔류)

  • Kim, Jung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.337-342
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    • 2007
  • To obtain the data on the risk assessment of residue levels of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides in fresh ginseng and red ginseng extract, the residual pesticides in samples are surveyed with GC-NPD and GC-ECD for quantitative analysis and GC-MSD for qualitative analysis. The residual organophosphorus pesticides, such as diazinon, pyrimethanil, tolclofos-methyl, metalaxyl, diethofencarb, parathion, cyprodinil, tolylfluanid and kresoxim-methyl, are not detected in fresh ginseng from Punggi. The residual organophosphorus pesticides except tolclofos-methyl are not detected in fresh ginseng from Sangju. Average amount of tolclofos-methyl in fresh ginseng from Sangju are $0.054{\pm}0.008\;mg/kg$, representing $18{\pm}2%$ of MRL of 0.03 mg/kg on fresh ginseng in Korea. The residual organochlorine pesticides, such as BHC isomer, DDT isomer, aldrin, azoxystrobin, captan, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, dieldrin, difenoconazole, endosulfan-sulfate, endrin, fenhexamid, quintozene, ${\alpha}$-endosulfan and ${\beta}$-endosulfan, are not detected in fresh ginseng from Punggi and Sangju. The residual organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides in red ginseng extract from Punggi and Sangju are not detected.

GC-MS Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticide Residue in Seawater From the Kwangyang Bay, Korea (광양만 해수 중 유기인 잔류 농약성분의 GC-MS 분석)

  • Park, Mi-Ok;Park, Jeom-Sook
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.293-304
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    • 2006
  • Sea water samples collected in August, 1994 from 20 stations in the Kwangyang Bay were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) to investigate persistence and distribution pattern of four organophosphorus pesticides (DDVP, Diazinon, IBP, EDDP). Except for IBP, the contamination by DDVP, Diazinon, and EDDP in marine aquatic environment in Korea has not been reported previously. In this study, however, all these four pesticides were detected in all stations (except DDVP) and their concentrations were in ng/L level. The concentrations ranged from detection limit to 15.3ng/L for DDVP, 1.8-27.7ng/L for Diazinon, 7.3-63.5ng/L for IBP, and 22.2-1100.1ng/L for EDDP. It is noteworthy that the measured concentrations of IBP and EDDP in this study would be much lower than usual, since the use of IBP and EDDP was less than 50% of average annual consumption due to unusually dry and hot weather condition in the summer of 1994. It was very surprising to find that the highest concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides were observed at stations near Daesa Streamlet instead of Seomjin River, which has more point source of the pesticides. This result suggests that the small river discharge during heavy ram period in summer can give harmful effect on marine biota (both wild and aqua-cultured) with its organophosphorus pesticide residue, despite of their short residence time in aquatic environment. In order to protect the marine life properly from acute toxicity of the organophosphorus pesticides, it needs to be emphasized that monitoring the level of agricultural pesticides in river run-off should be done during active consumption period rather at regular intervals.

Organophosphorus pesticides removal effect in rice and Korean Cabbages by Washing and Coo]ling (쌀과 배추의 세척 및 가열에 의한 유기인계 농약의 제거 효과)

  • 제갈성아;한영선;김성애
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.410-415
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    • 2000
  • This study was performed to study tile organophosphorus pesticides residues removal effect of rice and Korean cabbage. Four organophosphorus pesticides(EPN, diazinon, fenithrithion, phenthoate) were artificially added to rice and Korean cabbage. Then they were washed with water and cooked differently to analyze the amount of pesticides residues reduced. The result of the study were as following; 1. The removal rate of pesticides residue on rice was 15.5∼35.4% an[ the amount of washing water was more influential in removal rate than number of washing. 2. The removal rate of pesticides residues through cooking processes after rice washing was 72.1∼77.8%. 3. The removal rate of pesticides residues through washing and cooking processes on the Korean cabbage were 18.4∼41.0%, 22.8∼92.7%. 4. As the amount of washing water of Korean cabbage increase, pesticides removal effect was higher. 5. Squeezing out the washed water from the cabbage increased pesticides removal rate.

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Determination of residual pesticides in crude drugs - Gas chromatographic Analysis of 18 pesticides - (한약재중의 잔류농약 분석 - GC에 의한 18종 잔류농약의 분석 -)

  • Hwang, In-Sook;Choi, Byung-Hyun;Bae, Chong-Ho;Kim, Myung-Hee;Cho, Hae-Jeon
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.200-211
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to determine the 11 organochlorine, 7 organophosphorus residual pesticides in 251 crude drugs. These residual pesticides in herbal drugs were extracted with acetonitrile and the extracts were cleaned up via LC-florisil solid phase extraction column. The prepared samples were assayed for pesticide residues using GC-ECD, NPD with capillary column and identified by GC-MSD. Recoveries were $63.9{\sim}111.5%$ in the organochlorine pesticides and $69.8{\sim}92.4%$ in the organophosphorus pesticides, and detection limits were $0.001{\sim}0.65\;ppm$ in the organochlorine pesticides and $0.0009{\sim}0.0074\;ppm$ in the organophosphorus pesticides. Pesticide residues were detected in 9 cases.

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Preparation of Optimal Condition for Residual Pesticides Analysis by Solid-Phase Microextraction in Water (물중의 잔류농약 분석을 위한 SPME의 최적조건 선정에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Mi Ra;Jeong, Hyo June;Lee, Hong Keun
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.421-433
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to develope a simple, rapid and solvent-free solid-phase microextraction(SPME) procedure for extracting three organochlorine, one triazine and nine organophosphorus pesticides from water. The optimal conditions of SPME for analyses of organochlorine pesticides were obtained at $250^{\circ}C$ of desorption temperature, 45 minutes of equilibrium time, pH 6 and NaCl 0% addition using $100{\mu}m$ polydimethylsiloxane fiber and those of triazine and organophosphorus pesticides were obtained at $270^{\circ}C$ of desorption temperature, 60 minutes of equilibrium time, pH 6 and NaCl 0% addition using $100{\mu}m$ polydimethylsiloxane fiber. This method showed good lineality for organochlorine pesticides between 0.0001 and $10{\mu}g/L$ with regression coefficients ranging 0.9986~0.9992 and for triazine and organophosphorus pesticides between 0.01 and $10{\mu}g/L$ with regression coefficients ranging 0.9867~0.9998.

Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity on the Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides (유기인계 및 Carbamates 농약에 의한 Acetylcholinesterase 활성의 저해)

  • 김정호;김영호
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.52-56
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    • 1998
  • The effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were examined inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase activity in the chicken brain with enzyme-inhibition methods. The acetylcholinesterase activity in chicken brain determined by the Ellman method was 167 mmol/min/g protein. The optimum pH of acetycholinesterase was 8.2. $pl_{50}$ of acetycholinesterase by some organophosphorus were 3.80M of phosphorodlthioate, 4.04M of phosphorothioate, 6.33M of phosphate, and 6.60M of phosphrothiolate. pluto of acetycholinesterase by some carbamates were 5.1 OM of XMC, 5. 90M of carbofuran, 6.16M of isoprocarb, 6.30M of carbaryl, 6.47M of BPMC, and 6.77M of propoxur. pluto of carbamates selected was similar to that of phosphorothioate and phosphate organophosphates.

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