• Title, Summary, Keyword: oriental mineral medicines

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A Study on the Processing Standard of REALGAR

  • Kwak, Hwa-Sun;Byun, Young-Ho;Lee, Soo-Chan;Lee, Hyo-Jeong;Park, Seong-Cheol;Kim, Hye-Sung;Kwon, Dong-Yeul
    • Journal Of Oriental Pharmacy
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2010
  • While herbal medicine including mineral herbal medicine mostly provides microelements to the human body thanks to abundant metallic elements, its harmfulness has been raised due to elements of heavy metals. Harmfulness of mineral herbal medicine needs to be analyzed quantitatively as well as qualitatively so that specificity of herbal medicine including mineral herbal medicine can be reflected. Consequently, the following aims should be set up to mineral herbal medicine, REALGAR, standard processing of REALGAR and the standards of processed drugs should be secured. On the basis of the results of this study, the reasonable measures to develop the processing method and the test method for heavy metals were presented. Such measures are expected to give the following results. First, consumers may take food and medicine without anxiety, and food and medicine may be effectively managed, and the national service may be improved, and also safety against heavy metals may be publicized. Second, as the principal ingredients and microelements of mineral herbal medicine are qualitatively analyzed, such results are expected to contribute to the advance of national analytics for herbal medicine.

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Mineral Medicine Described in the Oriental Medicine Book and Mineral Medicines Applicable to Atopic Dermatitis Treatment (한의서에 기재된 광물(鑛物) 약재 및 아토피피부염 활용 외용성 광물(鑛物) 약재)

  • Bak, Jiwon;Kim, Donghee
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.231-240
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    • 2015
  • A total of 93 mineral medicines are mentioned in the Chinese Bonchodogam(本草圖鑑). In Donguibogam(東醫寶鑑), 77 mineral medicines are listed, where 18 are from soil origin, 4 from gem origin, and 55 mineral medicines were originated from stone. In the Herblogy(本草學), which is the textbook used in most oriental medicine colleges in Korea, a total of 23 mineral medicines are listed. Of those, Cinnabaris, Alumen, Melanteritum, Realgar, Orpimentum, Sulfur, Lime from Donguibogam, additional eight which are Talcum, Calomelas, Minium, Calamina, Stannum, Hydrargyrum, Lithargyrum, Hydrargyrum Chloratum from Bonchodogam and Gypsum, Natrii Sulfas, Talcum, Cinnabaris, Sulfur, Arsenicum Sublimatum, Realgar, Calomelas, Minium, Calamina, Borax, Aurum, Glauberitum from Herblogy were selected as the mineral medicine applicable as external atopic dermatitis treatment. Most of the mineral medicines were generally regarded as toxic materials, and therefore, they were elaborately processed to remove toxicity before use. In accordance, it is necessary to discuss how to effectively remove toxicity from toxic mineral medicines. In addition, detoxification can be applied to those mineral medicines classified based on the index material or high content compounds, and if efficacy can be evaluated through various analytical methods, this can be applied to diverse inflammatory diseases as well as atopic dermatitis.

Gastric juice and Realgar and Orpiment Mineral Medicine Reaction; Reaction Path and Speciation Modeling in Human Body (웅황과 자황의 소화 반응과 인체내 존재형태에 대한 예측 모델링)

  • Kim Sun Ok;Park Maeng Eon;Shin Soon Shik;Kim Gyeang Cheol
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.365-372
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    • 2002
  • The mineral medicines mean a sort of mineral or rock for medical treatment and natural material using their chemical components and physical properties. In this study, it was apprehended the mineralogical characteristics of As-bearing group mineral medicines. The extraction test is an vitro test system for predicting the bioavailability of the major and minor elements from mineral medicines and incorporates gastrointestinal tract parameters representative of a human(including stomach and small intestinal pH, stomach mixing time and velocity). The results of the extraction test are used for reaction path modeling in human body. Reaction path modeling in human body can predict digestion with gastric juice as well as bioavailability, speciation. Also, it can predict accumulation of arsenic as pH condition. As the results of the extraction test for digestion, the amounts of Fe extraction was the highest, followed by As, Ca, Ni. In addition, as the results of the reaction path modeling between arsenic compounds and gastric juice using thermodynamic data, when absorbed, major species are followed by H₃As₃S/sub 6/(aq), As₃S/sub 6/ (aq), AsO/sup +/, H₂As₃S/sup 6-/, H₂AsO/sup 3-/, HAs₃S6/sup 2-/, HAsO/sub 3//sup 2-/ and AsO/sub 3//sup 3-/. Specifically the concentration of H₃As₃S/sub 6/(aq) is the highest. As pH increases, the concentration of H₂AsO/sup 3-/, HAsO/sub 3//sup 2-/, HAsO/sub 3//sup 3-/, HAs₃S/sub 6//sup 2-/, H₂As₃S/sup 6-/, and H₃As₃S/sub 6/ increases, whereas the concentration of H₃As₃S/sub 6/ and AsO/sup +/ decreases. On the results of this study, it is able to find out effective and toxic components of poisonous arsenic group of mineral medicines and expected to be widely used for the development of new medicines.

The monitoring of some heavy metals in oriental mineral medicines (광물성 생약 중 중금속의 모니터링)

  • Han, Eunjung;Chung, Jaeyeon;Park, Kyungsu;Kang, Inho;Kang, Sinjung;Kim, Yunje
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.480-486
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    • 2008
  • This paper reports on the monitoring results of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in oriental mineral medicines. Levels of Pb, Cd and As were determined using the acid digestion method and ICP-MS. Hg levels were determined using the gold amalgamation method and Automatic mercury analyzer (AMA). The results indicated that, in the case of Pb, 25.81% (24 cases) of the samples were over MRL (5 mg/kg). Pb levels in Calamina, Pumex, and Cinnabaris exceeded MRL (5 mg/kg). In the case of Cd, 9.68% (17cases) of the samples were over MRL (0.3 mg/kg). Cd levels in Calamina, Pumex and Cinnabaris were exceeded MRL (0.3 mg/kg). In case of As, 24.73% (23 cases) of samples exceeded MRL (3 mg/kg). As levels in Calamina, Lithargyrum, Vermilionum, Cinnabaris and Chalcocitum exceeded MRL (3 mg/kg). In the case of Hg, it was shown that the 76.34% (78 cases) of the samples exceeded MRL (0.2 mg/kg). Hg levels in almost all the samples exceeded MRL (0.2 mg/kg). These results led us to recommend that the domestic commercial law to be legislated to ensure the quality estimation and safety of oriental mineral medicines.

Standardization Studies for the Oriental Mineral Medicine (광물성 약재(광물약)의 표준화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Seon-Ok;Park, Maeng-Eon
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.187-197
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    • 2015
  • Oriental mineral medicines are single or mixture of more than one mineral species or rock/fossil which are used to treat disease. Mineral medicines remove harmful or useless substances to decrease toxicity and secondary effects, and cause the manufacture of medical compounds with increased efficacy. The extraction test is an accepted in vitro system to predict the bioaccessibility of major and minor elements from mineral medicine. It incorporates gastrointerstinal tract parameters representative of a human body that including stomach and small intestinal pH which are the same as digestion condition. The bioaccessibility of a mineral medicine is the fraction that is soluble in the gastrointestinal environment and is available for absorption. Reaction path modeling in the human body can predict digestion with gastric fluid as well as absorption in the small intestine, existence in body fluids and reaction progress of the exhaust process according to pH conditions in body. Also reaction path modeling can predict bioavailability, which is equal to existence rate in the body and the form and amount of a medicine in the body after intake. The study results from predicating the existence form mineral medicines in the body, and proving the effective ingredient using bioaccessibitily and human risk assessment, suggest these that should be necessary data for new medicine development.

A Study on The Side Effects and Toxicity of Herbal Medicine (한약과 민간약물의 독성 및 부작용에 대한 고찰)

  • Park, Byung-Wook;Hea, Gum-Jeong;Ko, Heung;Lee, Eun
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.222-227
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    • 2002
  • Although there are a few reports concerning the side effects and toxicity of herbal medicines, there has not yet been any report concerning their causes, mechanisms or prevention. We investigated the internal reports concerning the side effects and toxicity of herbal medicines. In the findings, liver disorder (hepatic injury) was found in 7 cases, kidney disorders (nephropathy) were found in 12 cases, heart disorders were found in 4 cases and mineral-caused diseases were found in 2 cases. Besides, we found the major cause of the side effects and toxicity was drug abuse, such as over-dosage and long term medication. So, we hope this report brings more attention to the safety and toxicity of herbal medicines.

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A literal study of anti-tumor effects of Jakeumjung (자금정(紫金錠)의 항종양효능(抗腫瘍效能)에 대(對)한 고찰(考察))

  • Park, Il-dong;Son, Chang-gyu;Cho, Chong-kwan
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.73-81
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    • 2002
  • In the literal study of anti-tumor effects of Jakeumjung. the results were as follows. 1. Jakeumjung is a traditional oriental medical prescription which is composed of Cremastare appeniculatae tuber, Euphorbiae pekinensis radix, Toosendan fructus, Chinensis galla, Moschus, Realgar and Cinnabaris. 2. Jakeumjung is applied to patients by administering or external application. When it is administered for patients, pertinent dose is 0.6~1.5g twice or three times per one day. When it is applied by external application, we melt it by water or vinegar and apply it to patients. 3. Effects of Jakeumjung are expelling toxin and pestilence, counteracting pathogen and relieving stagnation, detumescence and stopping pain. So it is used for detoxification from ancient. In recent, it is often used for cancer such as breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, epigastric cancer, acute leukemia, lymphoma, thymus cancer and skin cancer. 4. From the various experiments, Jakeumjung has been proved to have antifungal and antitumor effects. It inhibits and kills L7212, L1210 cells of leukemia. Especially, it acts in S stage of cell period. 5. Jakeumjung includes mineral medicines such as Realgar, Cinnabaris. So if we execute progressive study for anticancer effects and safety, the boundary of oriental medicine of using mineral medicines for cancer therapy will magnify in the future.

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Evolution of "Medicinal Material Usage Targeted at Infantile Convulsion" of the Chosun Dynasty (조선시대(朝鮮時代) 소아경풍(小兒驚風)에 사용된 약재의 변화)

  • Lee, Ga Eun;Ahn, Sang Woo
    • The Journal of Korean Medical History
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 2008
  • Infantile convulsion has always been the subject of concern as it is a common yet fatal disease among infants. During the Koryo dynasty and the early years of Chosun dynasty animal and mineral medicinal materials were used to relieve heat. These are replaced with more subtle medicinal materials later on in the Chosun dynasty when differentiation of chronic and acute infantile convulsion first emerged. As such, perception on appropriate medicinal materials is constantly renovated in the course of time.

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A Study of Removal Property of Harmful Algal Blooms by Hwangto and Oriental Mineral Medicines (황토와 광물성 한약재의 적조구제 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Pil-Geun;Sung, Kyu-Youl;Jang, Young-Nam;Park, Maeng-Eon
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.277-289
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to find a new material having high removal efficiency for the harmful red tide. C. polykrikoides grow very fast and accumulate into dense and visible patches near the surface of the seawater ('Water bloom'). Some mineral medicines and Hwangto (reddish soil consist of clay minerals and Fe-oxides) were used in this study to remove C. polykrikoides. The pre-determined sprinkling ratio of mineral vs. seawater which contains approximately 5,000 cells/mL of C. polykrikoides was 10 g/L. In order to quantify the removal efficiency, the density of living cells was measured by counting with the Intervals of 0, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after sprinkling. Five Hwangtos feom different localities were examined in this study. It is found that a material with a high concentration of Fe and Al was the most effective to remove C. polykrikoides. After the sprinkling of the Hwangto showing the best removal efficiency in the test, 99% of total algaes were found to be eliminated within 60 minutes. Jeokeokji showed the highest removal efficiency among clay mineral medicines(92% removal efficiency after 60 minutes), and the rests in decreasing order are as follows: Gamto (91%) > Baekseokji (89%) > Hydromica (81%). In addition, Fe-oxide mineral medicine similarly looking as fine-grained earthy Daejaseok showed 100% removal efficiencyafter 30 minutes, and Wooyoeryang, 95% after 60 minutes. It is noted that even little addition (1 g/L) of Daejaseok, 10% of Hwangto concentration into seawater showed the removal efficiency of 100% after 60 minutes. From the results, it could be concluded that the fine-grained earthy Daejaseok was the most effective natural mineral medicine to remove the C. polykrikoides from seawater. Under the microscope the removal mechanism was found to be activated in the following order: adsorption, swelling of chain colony, chain colony crisis and algaecide.

A study on the extracting characteristics of velvet antlers using kyenegum protease (계내김(鷄內金)에서 추출한 protease를 이용한 녹용(鹿茸) 추출 특성 연구)

  • Park, Jae-Ho;Kim, Do-Wan
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 2011
  • Objective : Kyenegum has been frequently used for characterizing digestive symptoms in the traditional and oriental medicines. This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of extracts from velvet antlers using the 4 different kinds of extracting methods. Methods : The extracts of velvet antlers were extracted using a $65^{\circ}C$ DW (9hrs), a Kyenegum crude enzyme, a $121^{\circ}C$ DW (2hrs), and a Kyenegum protease. To evaluate the characteristic of velvet antler extracts, we examined the brix, soluble solid, amino acid, mineral composition, and collagen protein. Results : As a result of the comparisons of velvet antlers extracted by the traditional extraction and the crude enzyme of kyenegum, the brix and soluble solid showed the higher contents for kyenegum enzymes. Also, mineral contents of the extracted velvet antlers were higher, particularly in Ca and P for those. The contents of collagen protein, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, were found to be more than twice in kyenegum protease compared with other extracting methods. Conclusion : These results indicated that the Kyenegum crude enzyme and protease are very effective to extract of velvet antlers.