• Title, Summary, Keyword: orientation of borehole

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Sampling Bias of Discontinuity Orientation Measurements for Rock Slope Design in Linear Sampling Technique : A Case Study of Rock Slopes in Western North Carolina (선형 측정 기법에 의해 발생하는 불연속면 방향성의 왜곡 : 서부 North Carolina의 암반 사면에서의 예)

  • 박혁진
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.145-155
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    • 2000
  • Orientation data of discontinuities are of paramount importance for rock slope stability studies because they control the possibility of unstable conditions or excessive deformation. Most orientation data are collected by using linear sampling techniques, such as borehole fracture mapping and the detailed scanline method (outcrop mapping). However, these data, acquired by the above linear sampling techniques, are subjected to bias, owing to the orientation of the sampling line. Even though a weighting factor is applied to orientation data in order to reduce this bias, the bias will not be significantly reduced when certain sampling orientations are involved. That is, if the linear sampling orientation nearly parallels the discontinuity orientation, most discontinuities orientation data which are parallel to sampling line will be excluded from the survey result. This phenomenon can cause serious misinterpretation of discontinuity orientation data because critical information is omitted. In the case study, orientation data collected by using the borehole fracture mapping method (vertical scanline) were compared to those based on orientation data from the detailed scanline method (horizontal scanline). Differences in results for the two procedures revealed a concern that a representative orientation of discontinuities was not accomplished. Equal-area, polar stereo nets were used to determine the distribution of dip angles and to compare the data distribution fur the borehole method versus those for the scanline method.

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Development of Discontinuity Orientation Measurement (DOM) Drilling System and Core Joint Analysis Model (Discontinuity Orientation Measurement (DOM) 시추장비 및 코어절리 해석모델 개발)

  • 조태진;유병옥;원경식
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.33-43
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    • 2003
  • Field investigations of the orientations of discontinuity planes inside the borehole for designing the underground rock structures have been depend solely on the borehole image-taking techniques. But, borehole image-taking has to be processed after the completion of drilling operation and also requires the handling of highly expensive apparatus so that practical application is very restricted. In this study Discontinuity Orientation Measurement (DOM) drilling system and discontinuity analysis model RoSA-DOM are developed to acquire the reliable information of rock structure by analyzing the characteristics of joint distribution. DOM drilling system retrieves the rock core on which the reference line of pre-fixed drilling orientation is engraved. Coordinates of three arbitrary points on the joint surface relative to the position of reference line are assessed to determine the orientation of joint plane. The position of joint plane is also allocated by calculating the location of core axis at which joint plane is intersected. Then, the formation of joint set is analyzed by utilizing the clustering algorithm. Total and set spacings are calculated by considering the borehole axis as the scanline. Engineering applicability of in-situ rock mass around the borehole is also estimated by calculating the total and regional RQDs along the borehole axis.

Adaptive Filtering Processing for Target Signature Enhancement in Monostatic Borehole Radar Data

  • Hyun, Seung-Yeup;Kim, Se-Yun
    • Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.79-81
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    • 2014
  • In B-scan data measured by a pulse-type monostatic borehole radar, target signatures are seriously obscured by two clutters that differ in orientation and intensity. The primary clutter appears as a nearly constant time delay, which is caused by internal ringing between antenna and transceiver in the radar system. The secondary clutter occurs as an oblique time delay due to the guided borehole wave along the logging cable of the radar antenna. This issue led us to perform adaptive filtering processing for orientation-based clutter removal. This letter describes adaptive filtering processing consisting of a combination of edge detection, data rotation, and eigenimage filtering. We show that the hyperbolic signatures of a dormant air-filled tunnel target can be more distinctly enhanced by applying the proposed approach to the B-scan data, which are measured in a well-suited test site for underground tunnel detection.

Pearson-type Chi-square Test on the Joint Orientations from Different Depths in Boreholes (시추공 영상자료와 카이제곱 검정을 이용한 절리 방향성의 수직적 변화양상에 관한 정량적 평가)

  • Kim, Ki-Seog;Park, Young-Do;Park, Yeon-Jun
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.185-193
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    • 2008
  • We have carried out Pearson-type chi-square tests on the orientation data of joints from different depths in order to estimate the homogeneity of joint orientations obtained from a borehole. The orientation data of joints were collected from two non-foliated massive rocks of granitic gneisses in South Korea since orientations of joints in folded metamorphic rocks, for example, are controlled by foliation and also changes as the orientations of foliation change by folding. Borehole images were used for the analysis of the orientations of individual joints. The orientation data were subdivided into the upper level data and lower level data. The data from these two levels are plotted on the patch net consisting of 21 orientation patches. Then, the two patterns on the patch net were analyzed using a contingency table. From the chi-square test on the data collected from two sites, we found that some data sets show statistically meaningful differences in orientations of joints. Since joints are one of the important parameters in determining the physical properties of rock masses, in situ investigation of joints are desirable in the geotechnical investigation and also in design of subsurface structures (e.g. tunnels and underground storages).

Estimation of principle stress field by Televiewer data analysis (텔레뷰어 자료분석을 통한 암반 내 수평 주응력 방향 산출)

  • Kim, Jung-Yul;Kim, Yoo-Sung;Nam, Ji-Yeon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.815-822
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    • 2004
  • A knowledge of in situ stress state is important to design various engineering structures such as dams, tunnels and so on. There are about three wellknown indicators that is, borehole will breakouts, hydraulic fracturing, ellipsoidal cross section of borehole that have been attributed to the state of stress in the vicinity of borehole. Fortunately, Televiewer traveltime image can be used as a caliper log with 144 or 288 arms, which allows to determine the borehole shape. Televiewer amplitude image will give detailed information about the distribution and character of breakouts and hydraulic fracturing as well. For investigation purposes, a series of boreholes(total 195 boreholes: 12.239m) that have been logged all over the country during past 10 years are analyzed. The primary objective of this paper are to examnine the ability of a Televiewer to determine the shape of borehole, to present data inferred by stress indicators, to indicate their possible relationship with the anisotropic horizontal stresses. It is shown that in most cases the fracture orientation statistically estimated from observed fractures denotes an excellent correlation with the orientations inferred by stress indicators. Many intervals of breakouts are terminated at the intersection of oblique fracture with the borehole. The results from Televiewer data are further compared with those of hydraulic fracturing techniques.

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A Feasibility Study of Earthquake Monitoring Using a High-resolution Borehole Strainmeter (고분해능 시추공 변형률계 활용을 통한 지진 연구 가능성)

  • Soh, Inho;Chang, Chandong
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.177-185
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    • 2016
  • This work investigates whether stress changes induced by an earthquake can be estimated using the deformation measured by high-resolution borehole strainmeters. We estimate the changes in the orientation and magnitude of the principal compression stresses using borehole strainmeter data recorded before and after the M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake on April 4, 2010. Clear differences in the stress orientations and magnitudes are apparent before and after the event. The change in stress orientation appears related to subtle increases of stress in the tectonic maximum principal orientation, which is in agreement with the earthquake focal mechanism solution. The sudden stress drop at the onset of the earthquake was 10−3-10−2 MPa in the principal orientations. The Coulomb stress transfer model, which can estimate stress transfer, predicts a shear stress increase of (0.1-0.6) × 10−2 MPa at the strainmeter site, which is in line with the measured data (0.3-0.8) × 10−2 MPa. Overall, our results suggest that borehole strainmeter data reflect the subtle stress changes associated with earthquake occurrence, and that such data can be utilized for earthquake-related research.

Interpretation of fracture network in Rock mass using borehole wall image (시추공벽 영상을 이용한 암반내 절리구조 해석)

  • 김재동;김종훈
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.342-350
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    • 1998
  • In this study, fracture network in rock mass was interpreted using borehole wall images obtained by televiewer. The orientation and JRC value of major joint set were evaluated adopting image analysis techniques, of which process were written in macro-program code. As linking JRC to joint stiffness using Barton-Bandis model, fracture network map was produced for application to jointed rock modelling in numerical analysis of underground structure.

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Visual Interpretation about the Underground Information using Borehole Camera (휴대용 시추공 카메라를 이용한 지하정보의 가시화 기법)

  • Matsui Kikuo;Jeong Yun-Young
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.28-38
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    • 2005
  • According to the recent development of measurement system utilizing one or a set of boreholes, visualization of the explored underground became to be a major issue. It induced even the introduction of monitoring apparatuses on the borehole wall with multi-function tool, but the usage of these was often limited by where is unfavorable rock condition and a few of engineers can approach. And so, a portable type of borehole camera with only the essential function has been investigated and a few of commercial models about this is recently being applied into the field condition. This paper was based on the monitoring results obtained using a commercial model by Dr. Nakagawa. Discontinuities in rock mass were the topic for the visualization, and it was studied how can visualize their three dimensional distribution and what a numerical formulation is needed and how to understand the visualization result. The numerical formulation was based on the geometric correlation between the dip direction / dip of discontinuous plane and the trend / plunge of borehole, a set of the equation of a plane was induced. As field application of this into two places, it is found that the above visualization methodology will be especially an useful geotechlical tool for analyzing the local distribution of discontinuities.

The Effect of Stress on Borehole Deformability (응력이 공내 변형률에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤건신
    • Geotechnical Engineering
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.219-234
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    • 1998
  • Modulus measurements in vertical boreholes under simulated horizontal in-situ stress conditions were performed on laboratory rock specimens. The experimental program was focused on the examination of modulus change with the variation of the orientation, magnitude and ratios of horizontal biaxial stresses. The experiment results show that the modulus increases when the magnitude of the horizontal stresses increases. The modulus measured in the minimum principal direction increased when the ratio between the horizontal principal stresses increased, while the modulus measured in the maximum principal direction decreased when the ratio of the horizontal principal stresses increased. These were caused by the tangential stresses that vary depending upon the magnitude of horizontal stresses, the applied pressure and the orientation of measurement. Also, the measured moduli were determined under tensile stress, compressive stress, or both stresses. Thus, the stress effect on deformation modulus should be considered, not only for the interpretation of the results of borehole deformability measurement, but also for the design of underground gas storage and pressure tunnel, and for the interpretation of tunnel monitoring.

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Application of Radar Survey to a Granite Quarry Mine (화강암 석산 지역에서의 레이다 탐사의 적용)

  • Seol Soon-Jee;Kim Jung-Ho;Cho Seong-Jun;Yi Myeong-Jong;Chung Seung-Hwan
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.8-18
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    • 2001
  • To delineate the inhomogeneities including fractures and to estimate the freshness of rock borehole radar consisting of the reflection and tomography methods, and GPR surveys were conducted at a granite quarry mine. The borehole reflection survey using the direction finding antenna was also conducted to get the spatial orientations of reflectors. 20 MHz was adopted as the central frequency for the borehole radar reflection and tomography surveys and 100 MHz was for GPR. Through the interpretation of borehole reflection data using dipole and direction finding antenna as well as GPR images, which are good agreement with each other, we could determine the orientation of the major fractures in three dimensional way. Parts of travel time curves of tomography data showed the anisotropy, which is uncommon in granite quarry. By comparing the tomography data and TeleViewer images, the anisotropy effect in this area are closely related to fine fissures aligned in the same direction. The area confined by the two fractures, MF2 and MF5, might consist of the most fresh granite in the surveyed area, which was concluded from the borehole radar tomography, and GPR images as well as the distribution of anisotropy.

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