• Title, Summary, Keyword: osmolyte

Search Result 22, Processing Time 0.031 seconds

Effects of Glycine Betaine and Related Osmolytes on Growth of Osmotically Stressed Yersinia enterocolitica (삼투압 스트레스를 받은 Yersinia enterocolitica의 성장에 미치는 glycine betaine을 비롯한 osmolyte의 영향)

  • Park, Shin
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
    • /
    • v.38 no.3
    • /
    • pp.218-223
    • /
    • 1995
  • Osmolytes accumulated in the osmotically stressed Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 9610 were investigated using natural abundance $^{13}C$ NMR spectroscopy. Glycine betaine, one of the more common and most effective osmolytes found in nature, was the dominant osmolyte in osmotically stressed Y. enterocolitica cells. Glycine betaine concentration was 41.8 times higher (801.9 nmol/mg protein) in stressed cells than in unstressed cells (19.2 nmol/mg protein). Proline was the minor osmolyte, and its concentration was 284.8 nmol/mg protein. The effects of glycine betaine and related osmolytes on growth rate of osmotically stressed Y. enterocolitica were investigated to identify their ability as osmolytes for Y. enterocolitica. When glycine betaine and proline were added in MMA medium containing 2.5% NaCl, the growth rate with glycine betaine (1 mM) was 3.6 times higher than in control (no addition of osmolyte), and that with proline was 1.3 times higher. Dimethylglycine (5 mM) also increased the growth rate 3.1 folds. On the other hand, monomethylElycine had no effect on growth of osmotically stressed and unstressed Y. enterocolitica. When carnitine was added in MMA medium containing 2.5% NaCl, carnitine (5 mM) increased the growth rate 2.4 folds, but choline had no effect on growth of osmotically stressed Y. enterocolitica. The above results indicate that glycine betaine is the dominant osmolyte in osmotically stressed Y. enterocolitica, and proline, dimethylglycine and carnitine also act as minor osmolytes.

  • PDF

Features and Functions of Purple Pigment Compound in Halophytic Plant Suaeda japonica : Antioxidant/Anticancer Activities and Osmolyte Function in Halotolerance

  • Chung, Sang Ho
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
    • /
    • v.31 no.4
    • /
    • pp.342-354
    • /
    • 2018
  • Suaeda japonica is a halophytic plant that lives in mudflat at intertidal zone of western and southern coastal areas of Korea. The seawater-living plants showed a purple color during their whole life. In contrast, freshwater-living plants displayed a green color in leaves. When seawater-living plants were transferred to potting soil, the purple color was gradually changed to green in the leaves. The extracted purple pigment compound exhibited typical characteristics of betacyanin that were represented by water solubility, pH- and temperature-dependent color changes, sensitivity to light, UV-Vis spectra, and gel electrophoretic migration pattern. The LC-MS analysis of the extracted pigment compound showed the presence of two major protonated molecular ions ($[M+H]^+$) at m/z 651.1 and m/z 827.1. Antioxidant activity of the pigment compound was determined using stable free radical DPPH assay. It was found to have an antioxidant activity that is linearly increased in proportion to the reaction time for up to 30 min, and the activity was comparable to that of control BHA at 9.0 mg/ml. The anticancer activity against several tumor cell lines was also examined following the MTT assay. The significant growth inhibitory effect was observed on two tumor cell lines, SW-156 (human kidney carcinoma) and HEC-1B (human endometrial adenocarcinoma). Probably, the pigment compound may function as an osmolyte to uphold halotolerant physiological processes in saline environment.

Effects of Foliar Application of Glycine Betaine on the Growth and Contents of Osmolyte in Tomato Seedling (Glycine betaine 엽면 처리가 토마토 유묘의 생육과 삼투조절물질 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Nam-Jun;Kwon, Joon-Kook;Lee, Jae-Han;Park, Jin-Myeon;Rhee, Han-Chul;Choi, Young-Hah
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
    • /
    • v.15 no.4
    • /
    • pp.390-395
    • /
    • 2006
  • Effects of exogenously foliar applied glycine betaine (GB) on the growth and contents of osmolyte in tomato seedling was investigated. Plants treated with exogenous glycine betaine induced better biomass production and plant height during chilling stress than the untreated plants. The total soluble sugar contents in GB foliar-applied plants lower than that of untreated plants 28 days after foliar application. Total water soluble protein contents in GB foliar-applied plants did not change 28 days after chilling stress. In untreated plant, it decreased rapidly in the beginning of chilling stress. Proline contents in untreated plants rapidly increased by the beginning of chilling stress, and then slightly decreased during the next 3 weeks. However proline contents in GB foliar-applied plants did not change during the 28 days chilling stress period. The results suggest that foliar application of GB is a effect methods to increase the chilling tolerance of tomato seedlings in protected cultivation system at low temperature season.

산란계 사료에 비태인의 수준별 급여가 하절기 생산성 및 계란의 품질에 미치는 영향

  • Ryu, Myeong-Seon;Shin, Won-Jip;Kim, Sang-Ho;Ryu, Gyeong-Seon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.49-51
    • /
    • 2001
  • Betaine functions as an osmoregulators in the cells and its inclusion can spare the choline, carcass fat reduction. Thus, two hundred eighty eight of seventy eight weeks old laying hens were fed with 0, 500, 1,000, 2,000 ppm betaine addition during the environmentally high temperature stress. Basal diets contained 16% CP and 2,800 ME. Egg production, feed intake, feed conversion were examined for eight weeks. Egg qualities, liver betaine, blood osmolarity, AntiDiuretic Hormone(ADH) were measured at the end experiment. Egg production of hens fed 500, 2,000 ppm dietary betaine and showed significance between control and 2,000 ppm betaine treatment(P<0.05). ADH of blood sera tended to increase as dietary supplemental betaine increased. The results of this experiments indicated that dietary supplemental betaine was able to improve the performance, eggshell breaking strength, liver betaine in this experiment.

  • PDF

Characteristics of the Purple Pigment Compound in Halophytic Plant, Suaeda japonica (내염성 식물 칠면초 (Suaeda japonica )가 갖는 자색 색소의 특징)

  • Chung, Sang-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korea Contents Association Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.361-362
    • /
    • 2013
  • As one of the steps toward understanding how the plant is well adapted to strongly saline habitats, the purple pigment compound that is accumulated in Suaeda japonica was extracted and characterized. The extracted pigment compound exhibited typical characteristics of betacyanin that were represented by water solubility, pH- and temperature-dependent color changes, sensitivity to light, UV-Vis spectra, and gel electrophoretic migration pattern. LC-MS of the extracted pigment compound showed the presence of two major protonated molecular ions ($[M+H]^+$) at m/z 651.1 and m/z 827.1. According to the DPPH assay, it was found to have an antioxidant activity that is linearly increased in proportion to the reaction time for up to 30 min, and the activity was comparable to that of control BHA at 9.0 mg/ml. The cytotoxic activity against several tumor cell lines was also examined following the MTT assay. The significant growth inhibitory effect was observed on two tumor cell lines, SW-156 (human kidney carcinoma) and HEC-1B (human endometrial adenocarcinoma). Probably, the pigment compound may function as an osmolyte to uphold halotolerant physiological processes in saline environment.

  • PDF

Free Amino Acid and Nitrogen Contents of the Coastal Plants in Korea (해안식물의 유리아미노산과 질소함량)

  • 추연식;도정화;송승달
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
    • /
    • v.22 no.3
    • /
    • pp.109-117
    • /
    • 1999
  • Thirty two species of coastal plants (mainly halophytes) were investigated for their free amino acids and the total and water-soluble nitrogen contents in leaves. All plants except some species (e.g. Scutellaria and Linaria) contained proline, but only Ageratum. Tetragonia and Raphanus in rather high amounts, that it can be thought to serve as a cytoplasmic osmolyte. In some plant species (Euphorbia. Glehnia. Peucedanum. Raphanus and monocotyledonous Carex and Zoysia), however, hydroxyproline. (OH-Pro) rather than proline were accumulated to a considerable extent. The concentrations of total free amino acids were low in Aster tripolium, Linaria. Lysimachia. Plantago. Rumex, Vitex and especially in the members of the Chenopodiaceae and Crassulaceae. Marked differences also occurred in the nitrogen levels. Aizoaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cruciferae, Euphorbiaceae and Leguminosae usually showed high values of total and soluble amino nitrogen, while the opposite was true for most of the Cyperaceae, Gramineae, Lamiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scophuriaceae, and Verbenaceae. The free amino acids in the investigated plant species contributed very little to the nitrogen content, but in plants of Euphorbia, Messerschmidia and Orostachys. their amino acid-N made up for 25∼30% of the total nitrogen. In conclusion, only a few cases did proline known as compatible solute constitute a significant proportion of the free amino acid pool in coastal plants.

  • PDF

High Concentration of Sodium Chloride Increases on Survival of Non-pathogenic Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora 9-3 during Drying and Storage (비병원성 Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora 9-3의 건조 및 저장의 과정에서 생존에 미치는 염 효과)

  • Park, Kyoung-Soo;Kim, Gun-Ju;Shin, Yun-Ju;Kim, Sik;Cha, Jae-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
    • /
    • v.12 no.4
    • /
    • pp.368-374
    • /
    • 2008
  • Dry formulation is a limiting step for successful development of microbial bio-pesticides with the antagonistic Gram-negative bacteria because their survival rates are too low during drying and storage. The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl) in culture medium that induces osmolyte in bacterial cells is known to increase of survival rate during drying in many Gram-negative bacteria. Effect of NaCl on survival of antagonistic non-pathogenic Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora 9-3 (Ecc 9-3) during drying and storage was studied. Growth rate of Ecc 9-3 was not much different up to 0.5 M NaCl in NB while it was lower significantly with 0.7 M NaCl. Survival rates were twice and 3 times higher with 0.5 M NaCl than with no additional NaCl during drying at room temperature and freeze-drying, respectively. Survival rate was also higher with high NaCl in culture medium during storage after drying. It was not much different on storage at $4^{\circ}C$ both of drying at room temperature and freeze-drying. However, the survival rate was higher on storage at $27^{\circ}C$ and $37^{\circ}C$ with high NaCl concentration. Among the additives tested, lactose affects most to survival rate both of drying at room temperature and freeze-drying, and dextrin influenced significantly to survival rate of drying at room temperature.

Can Exogenous Betaine Be an Effective Osmolyte in Broiler Chicks under Water Salinity Stress?

  • Honarbakhsh, Shirin;Zaghari, Mojtaba;Shivazad, Mahmood
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.20 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1729-1737
    • /
    • 2007
  • A CRD experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different exogenous betaine levels (0.000, 0.075, 0.150 and 0.225 percent) on 576 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross) under water salinity stress. Different levels of water salinity were made by adding 3 levels of NaCl (0, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/L) to drinking water. Feed and water were available ad libitum. Betaine increased body weight, improved feed conversion ratio, and decreased packed cell volume (p<0.05). Water salinity promoted body weight over the whole period, increased feed intake (11 to 21 and 29 to 42-d) and also improved feed conversion ratio in grower and finisher periods (p<0.01). Breast weight, water consumption (28-d and 42-d) and excreta moisture (28-d) were increased by elevating the level of water salinity (p<0.01). Interaction between dietary betaine and water salinity was significant on plasma osmolarity as well as epithelial osmolarity of the duodenum at 28-d. Epithelial osmolarity was decreased from duodenum to ileum. The data imply that betaine is involved in the protection of intestinal epithelia against osmotic disturbance which can be caused by saline water, but further research is needed to investigate the effects of betaine with higher levels of water salinity.

Metabolic, Osmoregulatory and Nutritional Functions of Betaine in Monogastric Animals

  • Ratriyanto, A.;Mosenthin, R.;Bauer, E.;Eklund, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.22 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1461-1476
    • /
    • 2009
  • This review focuses on the metabolic and osmoregulatory functions of betaine and its impact on nutrient digestibility and performance in pigs and poultry. Betaine is the trimethyl derivative of the amino acid glycine, and is present in plant and animal tissue. It has been shown to play an important role in osmoregulation of plants, bacteria and marine organisms. Due to its chemical structure, betaine exerts a number of functions both at the gastrointestinal and metabolic level. As a methyl group donor, betaine is involved in transmethylation reactions and donates its labile methyl group for the synthesis of several metabolically active substances such as creatine and carnitine. Therefore, supplementation of betaine may reduce the requirement for other methyl group donors such as methionine and choline. Beneficial effects on intestinal cells and intestinal microbes have been reported following betaine supplementation to diets for pigs and poultry, which have been attributed to the osmotic properties of betaine. Furthermore, betaine potentially enhances the digestibility of specific nutrients, in particular fiber and minerals. Moreover, at the metabolic level, betaine is involved in protein and energy metabolism. Growth trials revealed positive effects of supplemental betaine on growth performance in pigs and poultry, and there is evidence that betaine acts as a carcass modifier by reducing the carcass fat content. In conclusion, due to its various metabolic and osmoregulatory functions, betaine plays an important role in the nutrition of monogastric animals.

Protective Effect of Biological Osmolytes against Heat- and Chaotropic Agent-Induced Denaturation of Bacillus licheniformis γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase

  • Lo, Huei-Fen;Chi, Meng-Chun;Lin, Min-Guan;Lan, Yuan-Gin;Wang, Tzu-Fan;Lin, Long-Liu
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.28 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1457-1466
    • /
    • 2018
  • In the present study, the stabilizing effect of four different biological osmolytes on Bacillus licheniformis ${\gamma}$-glutamyl transpeptidase (BlGGT) was investigated. BlGGT appeared to be stable under temperatures below $40^{\circ}C$, but the enzyme retained less than 10% of its activity at $60^{\circ}C$. The tested osmolytes exhibited different degrees of effectiveness against temperature inactivation of BlGGT, and sucrose was found to be the most effective among these. The use of circular dichroism spectroscopy for studying the secondary structure of BlGGT revealed that the temperature-induced conformational change of the protein molecule could be prevented by the osmolytes. Consistently, the molecular structure of the enzyme was essentially conserved by the osmolytes at elevated temperatures as monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. Sucrose was further observed to counteract guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)-and urea-induced denaturation of BlGGT. Taken together, we observed evidently that some well-known biological osmolytes, especially sucrose, make a dominant contribution to the structural stabilization of BlGTT.