• Title, Summary, Keyword: oxadiazon

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Effects of soil organic matter and oxidoreductase on adsorption and desorption of herbicide oxadiazon in soils (제초제 oxadiazon의 토양 흡탈착에 미치는 유기물의 함량과 산화환원효소의 영향)

  • Lee, Wan-Seok;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.70-78
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    • 1998
  • Dissipation, adsorption and desorption of oxadiazon were examined in two soils containing different amounts of soil organic matter. In addition, reactivity of oxadiazon with humic monomers was searched to clarify binding mechanism of oxadiazon to soil organic matter in the presence of a laccase of Myceliophthera thermophila. Half lives of oxadiazon were 38 days in Soil I and 45 days in Soil II. Freundlich constant, k values of fresh soils were higher than those of oxidized soils. Adsorption rates of oxadiazon were increased 17.1% in Soil I and 9.3% in Soil II in the presence of a laccase but no significant increase was observed in oxidized soils. Desorption rates of oxadiazon in fresh soils were lower than those in oxidized soils. Desorption rates of adsorbed oxadiazon in soils addes with the enzyme were not changed in oxidized soils but decreased in fresh soils. The herbicide oxadiazon alone underwent no transformation by a laccase but in the presence of catechol, guaiacol and gallic acid as humic monomer, transformation rates of it were from 20% to 24%.

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Abiotic Degradation Degradation of the Herbicide Oxadiazon in Water

  • Rahman Md. Mokhlesur;Park, Jong-Woo;Park, Man;Rhee In-Koo;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 2006
  • The performance of abiotic degradation of oxadiazon was investigated by applying zerovalent iron(ZVI), potassium permanganate($KMnO_4$) and titanium dioxide($TiO_2$) in the contaminated water. Experimental conditions allowed the disappearance of oxadiazon in the abiotic system. The degradation of this herbicide was monitored in buffer solutions having pH 3, 5 and 7 in the presence of iron powder in which the maximum degradation rate was achieved at acidic condition(pH 3) by 2% of ZVI treatment. The oxidative degradation of oxadiazon was observed in aqueous solution by $KMnO_4$ at pH 3, 7 and 10 in which the highest disappearance rate was found at neutral pH when treated with 2% of $KMnO_4$. The catalytic degradation of oxadiazon in $TiO_2$ suspension was obtained under dark and UV irradiation conditions. UV irradiation enhanced the degradation of oxadiazon in aquatic system in the presence of $TiO_2$. Conclusively, the remediation strategy using these abiotic reagents could be applied to remove oxadiazon from the contaminated water.

Impact of Herbicide Oxadiazon on Microbial Activity and Nitrogen Dynamics in Soil Environment

  • Rahman, Md. Mokhlesur;Song, Kyung-Sik;Rhee, In-Koo;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.187-192
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    • 2005
  • Influence of herbicide oxadiazon on soil microbial activity and nitrogen dynamics was evaluated. Soil samples were treated with oxadiazon at field and tenfold field rates and incubated. Organic amendment was added as an additional substrate for soil microorganisms. Tenfold field rate oxadiazon stimulated substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in amended soil as compared to unamended soil and control treatment. Soil urease activity was not affected by oxadiazon treatment. In both amended and unamended soils, treatment of the herbicide at higher rate had not significant influence on $NH_4$-N and $NO_3$-N concentrations. Higher dose of oxadiazon was degraded in both soils, but dissipation rate in amended soil was higher than unamended soil, with half-lives ($t_{1/2}$) of 23.1 and 138.6 days, respectively. Recommended field rate did not affect microbial activity and nitrogen dynamics in soil ecosystem. Results showed influence of oxadiazon on cycling processes of nitrogen in soil was not significant however its effect on microbial activity was a tendency depending on addition of organic amendment to soil.

Influences of Temperature and Light on the Herbicidal Activity of Bleaching Herbicides (Bleaching Herbicides의 제초활성에 영향을 미치는 온도 및 광의 영향)

  • Kim, J.S.;Na, J.Y.;Cho, K.Y.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.230-237
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    • 1989
  • This research was carried out to investigate the influences of temperature and light on the herbicidal activity of oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon and paraquat. Increased temperature from 10 to $35^{\circ}C$ resulted in increase of herbicidal activity in whole plants or leaf discs treated with herbicides. It seemed that temperature affected herbicide penetration into and reaction to the action site rather than appearance process of herbicidal activity (maybe membrane peroxidation after being absorbed. The activity of compounds tested increased with increased light intensity. Paraquat showed similar activities regardless of light qualities but oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon showed the highest activities in blue light spectrum, indicating that they seemed to be closely related to chlorophyll biosynthesis rather than carotenoid biosynthesis or electron transport systems of photosynthesis and respiration.

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Establishment of Control System of Weedy Rice(Oryza sativa) and Barnyardgrass(Echinochloa crus-galli) in Direct-seeded Rice - I. Effect of Oxadiazon, Molinate, Thiobencarb on Control of Red Rice and Barnyardgrass in Water-seeded Rice (벼 직파재배에 있어서 잡초성벼 및 피 방제체계 확립에 관한 연구 - I. 담수표면산파 재배시 앵미와 피에 대한 oxadiazon, molinate, thiobencarb의 파종전 처리 효과)

  • Ryang, H.S.;Kim, J.K.;Kyoung, E.S.;Kim, J.S.;Ma, S.Y.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.106-115
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxadiazon, molinate, thiobencarb before seeding on control of red rice and barnyardgrass in water-seeded rice. High application rate plot among oxadiazon treatment plots could observe phytotoxicity symptoms depending on field conditions, but these injury recovered gradually with time. Molinate and thiobencarb application plots at the concentration of 225~400, 210~420g ai/l0a respectively were not observed phytotoxicity. Control of red rice was different according to kinds of herbicides and application rates. Oxadiazon showed higher control performance at the concentration of more than 60g ai/10a. Control effect of molinate and thiobencarb against red rice was enhanced with the increase of application rate, and both herbicides showed satisfactory effect at more than 300g ai/10a. Control of barnyardgrass showed up to 90~100% in all tested herbicides. There was no significant yield reduction by oxadiazon, molinate, and thiobencarb application before seeding in all tested field. In the pot experiment, crop injury, seedling stand, and early growth were more advantageous at time of drainge after one day after seeding than flooding until rooting.

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Different Physiological Activity of Selected Rice Cultivars to Diphenylether Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen - VI. Responses of Oxyfluorfen - Similar Herbicides (Oxyfluorfen에 대한 내성(耐性) 및 감수성(感受性) 벼품종(品種)의 생리활성(生理活性) 기구(機構) - VI. 유사제초제(類似除草劑)에 대한 반응(反應))

  • Kuk, Y.I.;Guh, J.O.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.337-345
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to investigate the protox activity, the PPIX accumulation and the activity of antioxidative enzymes of the oxyfluorfen-tolerant and -susceptible rice cultivars by oxyfluorfen and oxytluorfen-similar herbicides treatment. When treated with acifluorfen, bifenox or oxadiazon, the oxyfluorfen-tolerant rice cultivars showed less decreased in fresh weight than the susceptible rice cultivars. The inhibition of protox activity was in the order of acifluorfen > oxyfluorfen > bifenox > oxadiazon, and the PPIX accumulation was in the sequence of oxadiazon > acifluorfen > oxyfluorfen > bifenox. The inhibition of protox activity and the PPIX accumulation by the herbicide was greater in the susceptible rice cultivars than in the tolerant rice cultivars. The effect inhibiting the decrease of chlorophyll content resulting from the treatment of GC, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis inhibitor, was in the order of oxyfluorfen > acifluorfen > bifenox > oxadiazon, and the tolerant rice cultivar had more than the susceptible rice cultivar. In the treatment of DPE and oxadiazon, the activities of MDAR, POX and GR was higher in the tolerant rice cultivar than in the susceptible rice cultivar, and in the case of POX isozyme the activities of main D and E bands increased in the tolerant rice cultivars at tested herbicides but they didn't in the susceptible rice cultivar.

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Difference of Classification, Growth and Herbicidal Tolerance in Collected Weedy Rice(Oryza sativa) (수집(蒐集) 잡초성(雜草性)벼(Oryza sativa)의 분류(分類), 생장(生長) 및 제초제(除草劑) 내성차이(耐性差異))

  • Kuk, Y.I.;Guh, J.O.;Chon, S.U.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.31-43
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to investigate classfication of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) based on isozymes esterase and peroxidase, growth and developmental difference of weedy rices and rices grown under dry and water condition, and weedy rice control and tolerant difference of weedy rices in various herbicides using weedy rices collected from thirteen strains of Chonnam, one Chonbuk, two Kyeongki and two rice cultivars. 1. The collected weedy rices were classified into three groups based on isozyme esterase and peroxidase using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(PAGE) method. The classified groups were not same each other. 2. Plant height was taller in collected weedy rices than rice cultivars at 18 days after seeding under dry and water conditions, but number of leaves, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight and root length were not significantly different between collected weedy rices and rice cultivars. In addition, growths of collected weedy rices were greater in dry- than water-condition. 3. After thiobencarb(S-4-chlorobenzyl diethythiocarbamate), molinate(S-ethyl hexahydro-1H-azepine-1-carbothioate) and oxadiazon(5-tert-butyl-3(2,4-dichloro-5-isopropoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one) were applied at 6 days before seeding, the weedy rices controlled 100% by thiobencarb at 2.1kg ai/ha and 024kg ai/ha oxadiazon treatment but controlled 26% to 67% by molinate at 6.5kg ai/ha. Rice due to the herbicides was injured severely(25% to 100%) in flood condition at time of rice seeding after oxadiazon at 0.48kg ai/ha and 2.1kg ai/ha thiobencarb application, except for molinate which injured rice slightly(4% to 13%) in drain condition. The collected weedy rices to all experimented herbicides showed slight intraspecific variations. The intraspecific variations of weedy rices decreased in the order of thiobencarb>molinate>oxadiazon.

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Emergence and Growth of Weeds and Their Chemical Control in Paddy Field under Different Water Depths (담수심(湛水深)에 따른 논 잡초발생(雜草發生) 상태(狀態)와 제초제(除草劑) 효과(效果)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Ku, Y.C.;Oh, Y.J.;Lee, J.H.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 1982
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate weed control effect of Butachlor, Oxadiazon, and Bifenox under three levels of water depth (0, 3, 6 cm). Number of E. crusgall. and M. vaginalis decreased as water depth increased while that of P. distinctus showed the opposite trend. Water depth did not influence number of E. kuroguwai and C. serotinus. Weed control effect of Butachlor and Oxadiazon was best at 3 cm water depth at while that of Bifenox was best at 6 cm water depth. Injury of Butachlor to rice decreased as water depth increased while that of Oxadiazon and Bifenox showed opposite trend.

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Pesticide Residue Monitoring and Environmental Exposure in Paddy Field Soils and Greenhouse Soils (전국 논토양과 시설하우스 토양 중 잔류농약 모니터링과 환경 노출성)

  • Park, Byung-Jun;Lee, Ji-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.134-139
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    • 2011
  • To investigate an amount of pesticide residue in rice paddy field soils and greenhouse soil, this monitoring was carried out pesticide detection frequency and concentrations collected samples from 150 rice paddy field soils and 152 greenhouse soils of nationwide in the year of 2007, and 2008, respectively. The detection limit of pesticides of this experiment were ranged 0.001~0.005 ppm. In 2007, One hundred fifty samples were collected from rice paddy field soils in April and monitored for 120 wide-used pesticides. A total of 11 pesticides were detected four fungicides, four insecticides and three herbicides in paddy field soils. The highest concentration levels of pesticide detected were 0.84 ppm as herbicide oxadiazon, 0.81 ppm as fungicide isoprothiolane and 0.50 ppm as insecticide buprofezin. The detection frequencies range were 0~19.3%, and the frequency was 2.7% as isoprothiolane and 19.3% as oxadiazon in paddy field soils. In 2008, One hundred fifty two samples were collected from greenhouse soils in April and monitored for 120 wide-used pesticides. A total of 29 pesticides were detected six fungicides, sixteen insecticides and seven herbicides in greenhouse soils. high concentration levels of pesticide detected levels were 5.09 ppm as insecticide chlorfenapyr, 2.57 ppm as fungicide chlorothalonil and 0.72 ppm as herbicide oxadiazon. The detection frequencies range were 0~38.8%, and high frequencies were 38.8% as insecticide endosulfan, 13.2% as oxadiazone, 10.5% as fungicide hexaconazole and 7.2% as isoprothiolane in greenhouse soils, Total endosulfan and oxadiazon were showed high detection frequency of 38.8% and 13.2%, respectively.

Studies on the Development of weed Control Method for Paddy Rice by Bensulfuron-methyl Combination Suspension Concentrate (Bensulfuron-methyl 혼합(混合) 액상수화제(液狀水和劑)의 사용법(使用法) 개발(開發) 연구(硏究))

  • Ryu, G.H.;Park, J.E.;Lee, I.Y.;Lee, H.G.;Lee, J.O.;Park, Y.S.;Shin, H.S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.28-33
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of weed control by pyributicarb{O-[3-tert-butylphenyl] N-[6-methoxy-2-pyridyl]-N-methyl thiocarbamate}/bensulfuron-methyl{methyl 2-[[[[[[4, 6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl] amino] carbonyl] amino] sulfonyl] methyl] benzoate} SC and oxadiazon{5-tert-butyl-3-[2,4-dichloro-5-isopropoxyphenyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3)-one}/bensulfuron-methyl SC, and to develope weed control methods for paddy rice. There was little difference between suspension concentrate and granule of pyributicarb/bensulfuron-methyl and oxadiazon/bensulfuron-methyl combination in the effect of weed control. Pyributicarb/bensulfuron-methyl SC and oxadiazon/bensulfuron-methyl SC were diffused from the point of application to 6m. Pyributicarb/bensulfuron-methyl SC applied on water surface from irrigation inlet and in paddy water from dike controlled more than 90% of weeds. Pyributicarb/bensulfuron-methyl SC was precipitated about 1-2cm per 1 hour after dripping on water surface. The efficacy of weed control by pyributicarb/bensulfuron-methyl SC was higher in 0-1cm than in 6-7cm standing water depth.

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