• Title, Summary, Keyword: oxidant

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Alteration of hepatic anti-oxidant systems by 4-nonylphenol, a metabolite of alkylphenol polyethoxylate detergents, in Far Eastern catfish Silurus asotus

  • Park, Kwan Ha
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.30
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    • pp.6.1-6.7
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    • 2015
  • Objectives This study aimed to estimate the effects of 4-nonylphenol (NP), a ubiquitously present surfactant in aquatic environments, on the anti-oxidant systems of the liver in the Far Eastern catfish Silurus asotus. Methods Changes in biochemical parameters involved in glutathione (GSH)-related and other anti-oxidant systems were analyzed following 4 weeks of 4-NP administration (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg diet) via a formulated diet to catfish. Results 4-NP exposure induced an elevation in hepatic lipid peroxide levels and an accompanying decrease in reduced state GSH after 2 weeks, suggesting pro-oxidant effects of the chemical in catfish. This oxidative stress was associated with an inhibition of the GSH-utilizing enzyme glutathione peroxidase at the same time point. This inhibition was restored after 4 weeks. The activities of other anti-oxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were increased after 4 weeks. These enzyme increases occurred more strongly at the higher 4-NP concentration (1.0 mg/kg diet). Conclusions 4-NP given to catfish at 0.1 to 1.0 mg/kg diet, concentrations relevant to environmental levels, depletes the endogenous anti-oxidant molecule GSH and temporarily inhibits GSH-related anti-oxidant enzymes. Such declines in anti-oxidant capacity and elevated oxidative stress seem to be compensated eventually by subsequent activation of various anti-oxidant enzyme systems.

Comparison of anti-oxidant activities of seventy herbs that have been used in Korean traditional medicine

  • Ko, Seong-Hee;Choi, Seong-Won;Ye, Sang-Kyu;Yoo, Sang-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Chung, Myung-Hee
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2008
  • Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxidation reactions; luminol/Fenton reagent, 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein(DCHF)/Fenton reagent and DCHF/peroxynitrite. In each assay, 70 herbs were divided into two groups; anti-oxidant group which inhibited the respective oxidation reaction and was majority(about 60 herbs), and pro-oxidant group which enhanced the oxidation reaction but was minority(more or less 10 herbs). When the herbs were listed in the order of their anti-oxidant strength, the orders obtained from each assay were found to be quite similar. The upper top rankers(more or less 10 herbs) in each assay showed strong activity compared to the others. The uppermost rankers in each assay were Rubus coreanus Miquel/Rubus schizostylus(覆盆子), Schisandra chinensis Baillon/Schizandra chinensis(五味子) and Terminalia chebula Retziusl Terminalia chebula(訶子). Of the pro-oxidant herbs, about 4-5 herbs were strongly pro-oxidant, which enhanced the control oxidation reactions to 150-300%. But the meaning of this observation is not known since few of them in one assay were also anti-oxidant in other assays. The results obtained in the present study may serve as information for understanding pharmacological effects of these herbs and developing new drugs from them.

The Effect of Kamihaengche-tang Plus Yukmijihwang-tangon Oxidant and Hg-induced Rabbit's Liver Cell Injury (가미행체탕 합 육미지황탕이 Oxidant 및 Hg에 의한 가토 간세포손상에 미치는 영향)

  • 이수행;김원길;김우환
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.174-187
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    • 2002
  • Objectives : This study was carried out to determine whether Kamihaengche-tang plus Yulanijihwang-tang (KCYH) exerts a protective effect against oxidant-induced liver cell injury. Methods : Cell injury was estimated by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release, and lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation in rabbit liver slices. Results : Oxidants (tBHP and $H_2O_2$) increased dose-dependently LDH release which was significantly prevented by 1% KCYH. The protective effect of KCYH against oxidant-induced cell injury was dose-dependent in the range of 0.05-1 % concentrations. Similarly, KCYH inhibited oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. When liver tissues were exposed to Hg (0.5 mM), ALT activity in the medium and lipid peroxidation in tissues were markedly increased. These changes were prevented by 1% KCYH, KCYH restored toxicant-induced inhibition of cellular GSH content. KCYH increased the activities of catalase and glutathion peroxidase in oxidant-treated tissues. Conclusions : These results indicate that KCYH exerts a protective effect against oxidant-induced liver cell injury, and this effect is attributed to prevention of lipid peroxidation. These effects may be due to an increase in concentration of endogenous antioxidants.

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Effects of Oxidant Addition to Fuel on Soot Formation of Laminar Diffusion Flames (동축류 확산화염의 매연생성에 미치는 연료에 첨가된 산화제의 영향)

  • Lee, Won-Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 1998
  • The influence of oxidant addition on soot formation is investigated experimentally with ethylene, propane and mixture fuel co-flow diffusion flames. Oxidant addition into fuel shows the increase of integrated soot volume fractions for ethylene, ethylene/ethane and ethylene/methane mixture flames. However, the increase of integrated soot volume fraction with oxidant addition was not significant for propane and ethylene/propane mixture flames. This discrepancy is explained with $C_2\;and\;C_3$ chemistry at the early stage of soot formation process. The oxidant addition increases the concentration of $C_3H_3$ in the soot formation region, and therefore, enhances soot formation process. A new soot formation rate model that includes both dilution effect and chemical effect of oxygen is suggested to interpret the increase of integrated soot volume fractions with oxidant addition into ethylene. Also, the role of adiabatic flame temperature for the chemical effect of oxygen addition into fuel was reviewed. The influence of oxidant or diluent addition into fuel on soot formation process are the fuel dilution effect, the adiabatic flame temperature altering effect and/or the chemical effect of oxygen. Their relative importance could change with fuel structure and adiabatic flame temperature.

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Vitamin C Is an Essential Factor on the Anti-viral Immune Responses through the Production of Interferon-${\alpha}/{\beta}$ at the Initial Stage of Influenza A Virus (H3N2) Infection

  • Kim, Yejin;Kim, Hyemin;Bae, Seyeon;Choi, Jiwon;Lim, Sun Young;Lee, Naeun;Kong, Joo Myung;Hwang, Young-Il;Kang, Jae Seung;Lee, Wang Jae
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.70-74
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    • 2013
  • L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is one of the well-known antiviral agents, especially to influenza virus. Since the in vivo antiviral effect is still controversial, we investigated whether vitamin C could regulate influenza virus infection in vivo by using Gulo (-/-) mice, which cannot synthesize vitamin C like humans. First, we found that vitamin C-insufficient Gulo (-/-) mice expired within 1 week after intranasal inoculation of influenza virus (H3N2/Hongkong). Viral titers in the lung of vitamin C-insufficient Gulo (-/-) mice were definitely increased but production of anti-viral cytokine, interferon (IFN)-${\alpha}/{\beta}$, was decreased. On the contrary, the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$ and interleukin (IL)-${\alpha}/{\beta}$, were increased in the lung. Taken together, vitamin C shows in vivo antiviral immune responses at the early time of infection, especially against influenza virus, through increased production of IFN-${\alpha}/{\beta}$.

Characteristics of odorous VOCs removal by using electrolytic oxidant (전해 산화제에 의한 악취 원인 VOCs 제거 특성)

  • Lee, Tae Ho;Ryu, Hee Wook
    • Journal of odor and indoor environment
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.381-388
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    • 2018
  • In this study, various conditions and phenomena that occur in the process of removing odorous VOCs by using electrolyzed oxidant were examined. The formation of hypochlorous acid, which is an oxidant produced by electrolysis, was investigated and the properties of the oxidizing agent used to decompose toluene, xylene, and cyclohexane were investigated. As a result, it was found that the production rate and the final concentration of the oxidizing agent increased with the current density. It was found that the degree of removal varies depending on the property of each pollutant. Interestingly, in the batch experiments in which the pH of the produced oxidant was controlled, it was found that the degree of elimination varied depending on the pH of the substance. These results suggest that the difference in the concentration and distribution of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypochlorite ($OCl^-$) due to the pH change leads to the difference in oxidizing power on the oxidation characteristics of each substance. Styrene and terpineol showed better degradation characteristics than toluene and xylene in odorous VOC removal experiments by spraying electrolytic oxidant using a lab-scale continuous reactor. In conclusion, the removal of odorous VOCs by the electrolytic oxidant can have various applications in that it can oxidize pollutants of various spectra.

The Comparison of Antioxidant Capacities and Catechin Contents of Korean Commercial Green, Oolong, and Black Teas (국내 시판되는 녹차, 우롱차 및 홍차의 카테킨 함량과 항산화능 비교)

  • Lee, Min-June;Kwon, Dae-Joong;Park, Ok-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.449-453
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    • 2007
  • Using green tea(GT), oolong tea(OT), black tea(BT) and green tea bag(GTB) out of tea products in market, this study quantified polyphenol and catechins as anti-oxidant substances and analyzed their respective anti-oxidant capacities. As a result, more epigallocathechin(EGC) was found in GT and GTB as well as caffein(CAF) in GT and BT. GT contained more epigallocathechin gallate(EGCG) than other tea types. Both FRAP and ORAC, as two methods of analyzing anti-oxidant capacities, showed that GTB had highest anti-oxidant capacities, while OT had lowest of all. By brand, it was found that all the 3 brands of GT had similarly high anti-oxidant capacities, but there were differences in the anti-oxidant activities of GTB and BT depending on brand. Out of catechin components, it was found that epicatechin(EC), epicathechin gallate(ECG) and EGCG were major components affecting anti-oxidant capacities.

A Comparative Study on Variability of Oxidants Out of Air Pollution Materials in Seoul: Metropolitan vs. Suburban Area (서울지역의 대기오염 물질중 산화성 물질의 지역간 차이에 대한 연구)

  • 김정수
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 1981
  • A Continuous monitoring of Air Pollution in city of Seoul was carried out from January 1 to December 31 of 1979 at two selected sites, Kwanghwamun observatory and Kwanag observatory. The measured data were averaged on monthly basis. The maximun value of oxidant pollution was observed in July, and the minimum in February. It is the purpose of this study to determine the effect of hydrocarbon, nitrogenoxide, wind velocity and ambient temprature on the observed values of oxidant pollution for the above two months. The results of the study may be summarized as follows. 1) The oxidant concentration in February was higher than in July by about 2 times in both downtown area and the suburbia. The concentration in downtown area was $25.75\pm 4.75ppb$, and that in suburbia was $29.83\pm 5.16ppb$. As for the oxidant concentration in July, it was observed that the suburban area ($26.464\pm 7.59ppb$) had about 2.8 times higher value than the downtown area ($9.284\pm 1.55ppb$). 2) The peak oxidant concentration of suburban area during the daytime is occured from noon to 5:00 P.M.. These patterns are similar to the classical patterns, but the peak Oxidant Concentration of downtown area in February was occured at 9:00A.M. 3) The overall level of nitrogen oxide pollution was much higher in downtown area than in suburban area. Two peaks of nitrogen oxide concentration occured at 10 A.M. and 12 midnight in downtown area. This observation agrees with the report that the air pollution is higher in the area where the pollution sources are concentrated. 4) The multiple correlation analysis for the oxidant and the other variables measured in February in downtown area showed close correlation with nitrogen oxide and ambient temprature. The multiple correlation coefficient of oxidant with nitrogen oxide was 0.872, and that with nitrogen oxide and temperature simultaneously was 0.903. The multiple correlation equation used for this study may be expressed as follows:

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Anti-Oxidant Activities of Fucosterol from the Marine Algae Pelvetia siliquosa

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Yeon-Sil;Jung, Sang-Hoon;Kang, Sam-Sik;Shin, Kuk-Hyun
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.26 no.9
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    • pp.719-722
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    • 2003
  • The anti-oxidant activities of fucosterol isolated from the marine algae Pelvetia siliquosa were investigated. Fucosterol exhibited a significant decrease in serum transaminase activities elevated by hepatic damage induced by $CCl_4$-intoxication in rats. Fucosterol inhibited the sGOT and sGPT activities by 25.57 and 63.16%, respectively. Fucosterol showed the increase in the anti-oxidant enzymes such as hepatic cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activities by 33.89, 21.56 and 39.24%, respectively, in $CCl_4$-intoxicated rats. These results suggest that fucosterol possess not only the anti-oxidant, but also the hepatoprotective activities in rats.

In Vivo Anti-Oxidant Activities of Tectochrysin

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Kyoung-Soon;Park, You-Mie;Shin, Kuk-Hyun;Kim, Bak-Kwang
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.43-46
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    • 2003
  • The anti-oxidant activities of tectochrysin, a major compound of propolis, were investigated. Tectochrysin exhibited a significant decrease in serum transaminase activities elevated by hepatic damage induced by $CCl_4$-intoxication in rats. Tectochrysin tested exhibited a lipid peroxidation causing a significant decrease in MDA production in TBA-reactant assay. Tectochrysin was strong in the increase in the anti-oxidant enzymes such as hepatic cytosolic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in $CCl_4$-intoxicated rats. These results suggest that tectochrysin possess not only the anti-oxidant, but also the activities in $CCl_4$-intoxicated rats. Especially, tectochrysin was found to cause significant increases in the rat liver cytosolic SOD, catalase, GSH-px activities as well as a significant decrease in the MDA production.