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Microbiological Safety Evaluation on Ice Cream and Ice Pop Products (빙과류의 품목별 제품의 미생물학적 안전성 평가)

  • Yu, Jeong-Wan;Kim, So-Hyun;Hong, Dong-Lee;Kim, Hyeon-Jae;Jeong, Eun-Joo;Lee, Jae-Hwa;Yang, Ji-Young;Lee, Yang-Bong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.367-373
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    • 2019
  • In order to evaluate the microbiological safety of ice cream products, the total viable bacterial counts were measured in 6 kinds of ice pops, 5 kinds of non-milk fat ice cream, and 5 kinds of milk fat ice cream, sold in local markets. In addition, E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, and L. monocytogenes were artificially inoculated in three types of ice cream products and stored at $-5^{\circ}C$, $-10^{\circ}C$, and $-18^{\circ}C$, respectively, and after inoculation, viable cells were measured periodically. As a result of the total viable count, about 1~2 log CFU/mL was detected in 16 kinds of ice cream products. As a result of inoculation with microorganisms at various temperatures, the number of viable cells decreased as the storage period became longer, and the higher the storage temperature, the faster the microorganisms died. Especially, the microorganisms were killed faster in the ice pop products than in the other ice cream products, and the microorganisms were killed relatively slower in the milk ice cream. L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were relatively stable in frozen conditions compared to other microorganisms. The microbial contamination of commercial ice cream was lower than the allowable standard of the Korean Food Code. Microorganisms did not proliferate when the microorganism was inoculated at freezing temperature. Therefore, it is expected that the microbiological safety of frozen foods will be ensured if the sanitary control and disinfection of raw materials are thoroughly carried out during the production of frozen confections and the temperature control during distribution and storage is well maintained.

Studies on sterile filters in the preparation of N-13 ammonia injection (N-13 암모니아 주사액 제조 시 멸균필터의 흡착율 차이에 관한 비교 평가)

  • Oh, Chang Bum;Kim, Si Hwal;Cha, Min Jung;Shin, Jin;Ji, Yong Gi;Choi, Sung Ook
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.64-68
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    • 2019
  • Purpose In the preparation process for N-13 Ammonia injections, there were radioactive medicines adsorbed on filters remarkably. Hereby, we have compared the adsorption rate and quality test on Millex GS filter and Satorious Minisart filter, both representatively hydrophilic sterilizing filters, also evaluated which filter is more accommodative for N-13 Ammonia injection. Materials and Methods The filters used for sterilization of N-13 Ammonia injections were Millex GS filter($0.22{\mu}m$) mand Satorious Minisart filter ($0.2{\mu}m$), which are generally used to strain aqueous solutions. After the N-13 Ammonia passes through each sterilization filter, the adsorption rate of the filter (n=10) is determined by measuring not only the radioactivity through the filter also the amount of radioactivity remaining in it using a Dose Calibrator. The N-13 Ammonia injections after each filter is tested by the quality control test to conform to the Samsung Medical Center standard. Results The ratio of radioactivity passed through Millex GS indicated $29.0{\pm}17.6%$. Satorious Minisart filters output was $80.9{\pm}3.2%$, respectively. Each ratio of radioactivity adsorbed on the sterile filter was $71.0{\pm}17.6%$ for Millex GS and $19.1{\pm}3.2%$ for the Satorious Minisart filters, respectively. Furthermore, on the ratio of filtered radioactivity, Using Satorious Minisart filter showed about 2.8 times higher than using Millex GS filter. The quality testing of N-13 Ammonia injections through each filter met the Samsung Medical Center standard. Conclusion The Millex GS filter is composed of cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate, whereas the Satorious Minisart filter if composed only of cellulose acetate. Therefore, the presence of cellulose nitrate in the membrane seems to have made differences. Therefore, the use of Satorious Minisart filter in the preparation of N-13 Ammonia injection solution minimized the loss of radioactive medicines due to filter adsorption, thereby improving the synthesis yield.

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Electrochemical Properties of Zr0.8Ti0.2Mn0.4V0.6Ni1-xFex Alloy Electrodes (Zr0.8Ti0.2Mn0.4V0.6Ni1-xFex 합금 전극의 전기화학적 특성)

  • Song, MyoungYoup;Kwon, IkHyun;Lee, DongSub
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 2002
  • A series of multicomponent $Zr_{0.8}Ti_{0.2}Mn_{0.4}V_{0.6}Ni_{1-x}Fe_{x}$ (x=0.00, 0.08, 0.15, 0.22, and 0.30) alloys are prepared and their oystal structure and P-C-T curves are examined. The electrochemical properties of these allqys such as activation conditions, discharge capacity, cycling performance are also investigated. $Zr_{0.8}Ti_{0.2}Mn_{0.4}V_{0.6}Ni_{1-x}Fe_{x}$ (x=0.00, 0.08, 0.15, 0.22 and 0.30) have the C14 Laves phase hexagonal structure. The electrode was activated by the hot-charging treatment. The best activation conditions were the current density 120 mA/g and the hot-charging time 12h at $80^{\circ}C$ in the case of the alloy with x=0.00. The discharge capacity increased rapidly until the fourth cycle and then decreased. The discharge capacity increased again from the 13th cycle, arriving at 234 mAh/g at the 50th cycle. The discharge capacily just after activation decreases with the increase in the amount of the substituted Fe but the cycling performance is improved. The discharge capacity after activation of the alloy with x=0.00 is 157 mAh/g at the current density 120 mA/g. $Zr_{0.8}Ti_{0.2}Mn_{0.4}V_{0.6}Ni_{0.85}Fe_{0.15}$ is a good composition with a medium quantity of discharge capacities and a good cycling performance. The ICP analysis of the electrolyte for these electrodes after 50 charge-discharge cycles shows that the concentrations of V and Zr are relatively high. Another series of multicomponent $Zr_{0.8}Ti_{0.2}Mn_{0.4}V_{0.6}Ni_{0.85}M_{0.15}$ (M = Fe, Co, Cu, Mo and Al) alloys are prepared. They also have the C14 Laves phase hexagonal structure. The alloys with M = Co and Fe have relatively larger hydrogen storage capacities. The discharge capacities just after activation are relatively large in the case of the alloys with M = Al and Cu. They are 212 and 170 mAh/g, respectivety, at the current density 120mA/g. The $Zr_{0.8}Ti_{0.2}Mn_{0.4}V_{0.6}Ni_{0.85}Co_{0.15}$ alloy is the best one with a relatively large discharge capacity and a good cycling performance.

A study on characteristic by isolation of nitrogen synthetic microorganism and ammonia nitrogen removal in artificial wastewater (질소 합성 균주의 분리에 의한 특성검토와 합성폐수중의 암모니아성질소 제거)

  • Kim, Su-Il;Lee, Ki-Hyung;Phae, Jae-Gun
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 2002
  • This study experimented a possibility of advanced treatment through microorganism that converts $NH_3-N$ to organic nitrogen in wastewater contaminated by ammoniac nitrogen unlike conventional nitrogen removal process. After distributing three kinds of special bacteria that use $NH_3-N$ as a substrate, when those bacteria were cultured in no salt condition and salt condition (3% NaCl), M11 showed better growth in salt condition and M12 showed better growth in no salt condition. However M7l grew well in both no salt condition and salt condition. In the test of glucose effect, maximum growth and removal rate were observed in glucose concentration of 5g/L but in high concentration (1000mg/L as $NH_3-N$) of $NH_3-N$ growth and removal rate were low. Removal rate was the highest in 100mg/L $NH_3-N$ and the fact that concentration of $NO_2-N$ and $NO_3-N$ didn't increase assumed $NH_3-N$ was converted to organic nitrogen. Optimum concentration of $K_2HPO_4$ for phosphorous supply and buffer was 5g/L. Special bacteria distributed could use $NO_2-N$ and $NO_3-N$ as well as $NH_3-N$ as substrates. This study showed that when growth rate of bacteria was high removal rate also was high. It is possible to apply as a method to treat wastewater polluted by $NH_3-N$.

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A Study on the Image Registration Algorithms for the Accurate Application of Multimodality Image in Radiation Treatment Planning (방사선치료 계획시 다중영상 활용의 정확도 향상을 위한 영상정합 알고리즘 분석)

  • 송주영;이형구;최보영;윤세철;서태석
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.209-217
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    • 2002
  • There have been many studies on the application of the reciprocal advantages of multimodality image to define accurate target volume in the Process of radiation treatment planning. For the proper use of the multimodality images, the registration works between different modality images should be performed in advance. In this study, we selected chamfer matching method and mutual information method as most popular methods in recent image registration studies considering the registration accuracy and clinical practicality. And the two registration methods were analyzed to deduce the optimal registration method according to the characteristics of images. Lung phantom of which multimodality images could be acquired was fabricated and CT, MRI and SPECT images of the phantom were used in this study. We developed the registration program which can perform the two registration methods properly and analyzed the registration results which were produced by the developed program in many different images' conditions. Although the overall accuracy of the registration in both chamfer matching method and mutual information method was acceptable, the registration errors in SPECT images which had lower resolution and in degraded images of which data were removed in some part were increased when chamfer matching method was applied. Especially in the case of degraded reference image, chamfer matching methods produce relatively large errors compared with mutual information method. Mutual information method can be estimated as more robust registration method than chamfer matching method in this study because it did not need the prerequisite works, the extraction of accurate contour points, and it produced more accurate registration results consistently regardless of the images' characteristics. The analysis of the registration methods in this study can be expected to provide useful information to the utilization of multimodality images in delineating target volume for radiation treatment planning and in many other clinical applications.

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Developmental Abnormality in Agricultural Region and Toxicity of the Fungicide Benomyl on Korea salamander, Hynobius leechii (한국산 도롱뇽(Hynobius leechii)의 농경지에서의 배 발생 이상과 살균제 Benomyl의 독성효과)

  • Choi, Yeoung-Ju;Yoon, Chun-Sik;Park, Joo-Hung;Jin, Jung-Hyo;Cheong, Seon-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.198-212
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    • 2002
  • A numerical variation and abnormalities were studied on egg bags and embryos of Korean salamander, Hynobius leechii from agricultural habitat. The teratogenic and toxic effects of fungicide benomyl were also investigated with early embryos from non-agricultural habitat. We collected 144 egg bags from agricultural region, and 3418 of early embryos were contained. The lengths of egg bags were varied from 10 to 23 cm and the most frequent length was 19 cm. The number of embryos was varied from 7 to 43, and the most frequent range was 22 to 26. Spontaneous abnormalities were occurred in 406 embryos among 116 egg bags, and 24 kinds of external abnormalities were found. Individuals showing severe external defect were histologically studied and they showed optic dyspalsia, thyroid carcinoma, somatic muscular dysplasia, partial biaxial structure, decrease of red blood cells in the heart, cephalic degeneration and intestinal dysplasia. 385 embryos from non-agricultural region were exposed to 200 nM${\sim}$ 1 ${\mu}$M of benomyl at blastula or gastrula for 12 days. All embryo were dead in the concentration of 1 ${\mu}$M (LD$_{100}$) and 75% of embryos were dead in 800nM of benomyl. Speciflc effect due to benomyl was acrania or cephalic dysplasia and this restult suggests that the benomyl inhibit stongly to the development of neural tissue. These abnormal developments may be caused by antimitotic action, inhibition of tubulin complex, destruction of microtubule, inhibitions of neurulation and closing of neural fold, and by the inhibition of the movement of neural crest cells.

Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Soft-bottom Polychaetesin Jinju Bay of the Southern Coast of Korea (진주만에서 저서 다모류의 시 · 공간 분포)

  • Kang Chang Keun;Baik Myung Sun;Kim Jeong Bae;Lee Pil Yong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.35-45
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    • 2002
  • Seasonal quantitative van Veen grab sampling was conducted to characterize the composition and structure of the benthic polychaete community inhabiting the shellfish farming ground of a coastal bay system of Jiniu Bay (Korea). A total of 132 polychaete species were identified and the polychaetes accounted for about $80\%$ of overall abundance of benthic animals. There was little significant seasonal difference in densities (abundances) of polychaetes, Maximum biomass was obseued in summer (August) and minimum value was recorded in winter (February) and spring (May). Conversely, diversity and richness were lowest in summer, indicating a seasonal variability in the polychaetous community structure, The cluster analysis indicated that such a seasonal variability resulted mainly from the appearance of a few small, r-selected opportunists in spring and the tubiculous species of the family Maldanidae in summer. On the other hand, several indicator species for the organically enriched environments such as Capitelia capitata, Notoniashs Jatericeus and hmbrineris sp. showed high densities during all the study period. Density and biomass of univariate measures of community structure were significantly lower in the arkshell-farming ground of the southern area than in the non-farming sites of the bay, A similar general tendency was also found in the spatial distributions of species diversity and richness. Principal component analysis revealed the existence of different groups of benthic assemblages between the arkshell-farming ground and non-farming sites, The lack of colonization of r-selected opportunists and/or tubiculous species in the former ground seemed to contribute to the spatial differences in the composition and structure of the polychaetous communities. Although finer granulometric composition and high sulfide concentration in sediments of the arkshell-farming ground and low salinity in the northern area were likely to account for parts of the differences, other environmental variables observed were unlikely. The spatial distribution of polychaetes in Jiniu Bay may be rather closely related to the sedimentary disturbance by selection of shells for harvesting in spring.

The Development of Insecticidal Soaps and Organic Control of Aphid (CODEX 유기농업허용 살충비누 제조와 진딧물 방제연구)

  • Lee, Tae-Geun;Yoon, Sung-Hee;Park, Dong-Yun
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.87-99
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    • 2002
  • The development of insecticidal soaps made by various fatty acids and organic control for insect by using of insecticidal soap(fatty acid salts) were employed. And the results were as follows: 1. To determine the input volume of potassium hydroxide for saponification of fatty acids, there were compared to individual acid value of fatty acids. in case of coconut fatty acids for saponification was 266.3 mg of potassium hydroxide(266 g/1kg of fatty acid) was calculated. 2. To make the 25% soap content by coconut fatty acids, there was required for the 266g of potassium hydroxide and 3,459 liter of soft water. Then the liquor of soap was 4,644 liter. 3. The progress of insecticidal soap made by fatty acids was accomplished indirect heating and stirring reactor (1)to make the volume of potassium hydroxide solution and warming up(90$^{\circ}$) (2)input volume of individual fatty acid (3)more than 30 min stirring reaction (4)cooling progress. 4. Insecticidal value of insecticidal soap was observed more than 92% the dilution of 50 dilution solution in consecutive 5 days of 2 treatments of the 25% soap made by coconut fatty acids on the red pepper. And insecticidal value of insecticidal soap was observed more than 94% the 100 dilution solution in consecutive 5 days of 3 treatments of the 25% soap made by coconut fatty acids on red pepper and cabbage. 5. The treatment of two times of 25% soap made by coconut fatty acids at the 50 dilution solution and 100 dilution solution in spider mite on red bean has 100% insecticidal value. 6. There was no observation phytotoxic sypmtons on red pepper in field, except for 25% soap made by carprylic acid. 7. Over the two times over 0.1% in addition of isopropyl alcohol was to improvement the insecticidal effect, but there was no effect in addition of diatomaceous earth.

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Effects of Supplementary Yeast Culture(Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris) on the Performance Small Intestinal Microflora and Serum IgG Concentration in Broiler Chickens (Yeast Culture(Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris)가 육계의 생산성, 소장내 미생물 균총 및 혈청 IgG 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, D.Y.;NamKung, H.;Baek, I.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.289-296
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    • 2002
  • A broiler experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris) on the growth performance, small intestinal microflora and immune response in broiler chickens. One thousand hatched broiler chickens(Ross$^{(R)}$) were assigned to 6 treatments: control (basal diet), CTC; chlorotetracycline 100ppm, YC-SC; yeast culture(Saccharomyces cerevisiae) 0.3%, YC-PP; yeast culture(Pichia pastoris) 0.3%, RPPC-0.1; refined Pichia pastoris culture 0.1%, RPPC-0.3; refined Pichia pastoris culture 0.3%. There were no significant differences in growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and mortality among the treatments. However, chickens fed diets with yeast cultures showed numerically higher weight gain than those fed the control diets. Supplementation of yeast cultures and CTC improved feed efficiency and decreased mortality compared to control. Nutrient digestibilities were not affected by the dietary treatments. Total number of Lactobacilli in small intestine was higher while that of Cl. perfringens was lower with yeast culture treatments than control. Small intestine E. coli population of RPPC-0.3 treatment was significantly lower than that of the control. The serum IgG concentration tended to be higher in broilers fed yeast cultures than those fed the control and CTC diet. In conclusion, the supplementation of yeast culture products showed, although not significant but, numerical advantages in productivity and profile of microbial flora and serum IgG compared to the control and CTC supplementation.

Physiological and Ecological Characteristics of the Apple Snails (왕우렁이 (apple snails)의 생리.생태적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Beom;Koh, Mun-Hwan;Na, Young-Eun;Kim, Jin-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was carried out to obtain some information about overwintering, physiological and ecological characteristics of apple snails. Another purpose of this experiment was to characterize an appetite for rice plants by apple snails and to elucidate their choice of fresh green ones (vegetables, some other crops, weeds in rice fields). The freshwater snails were found with higher population at sites abundant organic compounds such as plant debris and at regions with high temperature. They also prefer calcium-rich water. This is a naturally occurring process. Apple snails were exceptionally veil-adapted to the south regions of Korea, especially Janghang, Jangseong and Haenam, even if the temperature of winter season is cold below 0$^{\circ}C$. Apple snails were not very selective in their food choice and eat almost everything available in their environment. A snail have something called a radula in its mouth for grinding up its food. A apple snail also chews on fruits and young succulent plant barks. In case of reproduction. apple snails deposit about 157$\sim$784 (average of 321 eggs) milky white to pale orange colored eggs above the waterline. In approximately every 22.4 seconds a new egg appears. The total time needed to deposit a egg mass varies from 58 minutes$\sim$4 hours 13 minutes. Apple snails reproduct actively from May to June and from September to October. An appetite of apple snails for rice plants was the different depending on their size and glowing stage for rice plants. Apple snails had a great appetite of rice plants as well as dropwort, tomato, cabbage, radish, aquatic plants etc. They preferred to eat young rice plants and drastically quit eating rice plants of over 40 cm in height. Thus considering the food preference of apple snail for various plants including rice, they were thought to be a potentially strong predator in fields, especially, at regions with warmer winter.