• Title, Summary, Keyword: pacemaker cell

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The end effector of circadian heart rate variation: the sinoatrial node pacemaker cell

  • Yaniv, Yael;Lakatta, Edward G.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.12
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    • pp.677-684
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    • 2015
  • Cardiovascular function is regulated by the rhythmicity of circadian, infradian and ultradian clocks. Specific time scales of different cell types drive their functions: circadian gene regulation at hours scale, activation-inactivation cycles of ion channels at millisecond scales, the heart's beating rate at hundreds of millisecond scales, and low frequency autonomic signaling at cycles of tens of seconds. Heart rate and rhythm are modulated by a hierarchical clock system: autonomic signaling from the brain releases neurotransmitters from the vagus and sympathetic nerves to the heart's pacemaker cells and activate receptors on the cell. These receptors activating ultradian clock functions embedded within pacemaker cells include sarcoplasmic reticulum rhythmic spontaneous Ca2+ cycling, rhythmic ion channel current activation and inactivation, and rhythmic oscillatory mitochondria ATP production. Here we summarize the evidence that intrinsic pacemaker cell mechanisms are the end effector of the hierarchical brain-heart circadian clock system.

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide Inhibits Pacemaker Activity of Colonic Interstitial Cells of Cajal

  • Wu, Mei Jin;Kee, Keun Hong;Na, Jisun;Kim, Seok Won;Bae, Youin;Shin, Dong Hoon;Choi, Seok;Jun, Jae Yeoul;Jeong, Han-Seong;Park, Jong-Seong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.435-440
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    • 2015
  • This study aimed to investigate the effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) on the pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in mouse colon and to identify the underlying mechanisms of PACAP action. Spontaneous pacemaker activity of colonic ICC and the effects of PACAP were studied using electrophysiological recordings. Exogenously applied PACAP induced hyperpolarization of the cell membrane and inhibited pacemaker frequency in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.1 nM to 100 nM). To investigate cyclic AMP (cAMP) involvement in the effects of PACAP on ICC, SQ-22536 (an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase) and cell-permeable 8-bromo-cAMP were used. SQ-22536 decreased the frequency of pacemaker potentials, and cell-permeable 8-bromo-cAMP increased the frequency of pacemaker potentials. The effects of SQ-22536 on pacemaker potential frequency and membrane hyperpolarization were rescued by co-treatment with glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channel blocker). However, neither $N^G$-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a competitive inhibitor of NO synthase) nor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-${\alpha}$]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase) had any effect on PACAP-induced activity. In conclusion, this study describes the effects of PACAP on ICC in the mouse colon. PACAP inhibited the pacemaker activity of ICC by acting through ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channels. These results provide evidence of a physiological role for PACAP in regulating gastrointestinal (GI) motility through the modulation of ICC activity.

Inhibition of Pacemaker Activity of Interstitial Cells of Cajal by Hydrogen Peroxide via Activating ATP-sensitive $K^+$ Channels

  • Choi Seok;Parajuli Shankar Prasad;Cheong Hyeon-Sook;Paudyal Dilli Parasad;Yeum Cheol-Ho;Yoon Pyung-Jin;Jun Jae-Yeoul
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2007
  • To investigate whether hydrogen peroxide($H_2O_2$) affects intestinal motility, pacemaker currents and membrane potential were recorded in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal(ICC) from murine small intestine by using a whole-cell patch clamp. In whole cell patch technique at $30^{\circ}C$, ICC generated spontaneous pacemaker potential under current clamp mode(I=0) and inward currents(pacemaker currents) under voltage clamp mode at a holding potential of -70 mV. When ICC were treated with $H_2O_2$ in ICC, $H_2O_2$ hyperpolarized the membrane potential under currents clamp mode and decreased both the frequency and amplitude of pacemaker currents and increased the resting currents in outward direction under voltage clamp mode. Also, $H_2O_2$ inhibited the pacemaker currents in a dose-dependent manner. Because the properties of $H_2O_2$ action on pacemaker currents were same as the effects of pinacidil(ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channels opener), we tested the effects of glibenclamide(ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channels blocker) on $H_2O_2$ action in ICC, and found that the effects of $H_2O_2$ on pacemaker currents were blocked by co- or pre- treatment of glibenclamide. These results suggest that $H_2O_2$ inhibits pacemaker currents of ICC by activating ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channels.

Modulation of Pacemaker Potentials by Pyungwi-San in Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Murine Small Intestine - Pyungwi-San and Interstitial Cells of Cajal -

  • Kim, Jung Nam;Song, Ho Jun;Lim, Bora;Kwon, Young Kyu;Kim, Byung Joo
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 2013
  • Objective: Pyungwi-san (PWS) plays a role in a number of physiologic and pharmacologic functions in many organs. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells that generate slow waves in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of PWS in mouse small-intestinal ICCs. Methods: Enzymatic digestion was used to dissociate ICCs from the small intestine of a mouse. The whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record membrane potentials from the cultured ICCs. Results: ICCs generated pacemaker potentials in the GI tract. PWS produced membrane depolarization in the current clamp mode. Pretreatment with a $Ca^{2+}$-free solution and a thapsigargin, a $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase, inhibitor in the endoplasmic reticulum, eliminated the generation of pacemaker potentials. However, only when the thapsigargin was applied in a bath solution, the membrane depolarization was not produced by PWS. Furthermore, the membrane depolarizations due to PWS were inhibited not by U-73122, an active phospholipase C inhibitor, but by chelerythrine and calphostin C, protein kinase C inhibitors. Conclusions: These results suggest that PWS might affect GI motility by modulating the pacemaker activity in the ICCs.

Involvement of D2 Receptor on Dopamine-induced Action in Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Mouse Colonic Intestine

  • Zuoa, Dong Chuan;Shahia, Pawan Kumar;Choia, Seok;Jun, Jae-Yeoul;Park, Jong-Seong
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.218-226
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    • 2012
  • Dopamine is an enteric neurotransmitter that regulates gastrointestinal motility. This study was done to investigate whether dopamine modulates spontaneous pacemaker activity in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) from mouse using whole cell patch clamp technique, RT-PCR and live $Ca^{2+}$ imaging analysis. ICCs generate pacemaker inward currents at a holding potential of -70 mV and generate pacemaker potentials in current-clamp mode. Dopamine did not change the frequency and amplitude of pacemaker activity in small intestinal ICCs. On the contrary dopamine reduced the frequency and amplitude of pacemaker activity in large intestinal ICCs. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Dopamine2 and 4-receptors are expressed in c-Kit positive ICCs. Dopamine2 and 4 receptor agonists inhibited pacemaker activity in large intestinal ICCs mimicked those of dopamine. Domperidone, dopamine2 receptor antagonist, increased the frequency of pacemaker activity of large intestinal ICCs. In $Ca^{2+}$-imaging, dopamine inhibited spontaneous intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ oscillations of ICCs. These results suggest that dopamine can regulate gastrointestinal motility through modulating pacemaker activity of large intestinal ICCs and dopamine effects on ICCs are mediated by dopamine2 receptor and intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ modulation.

Effects of Samchulkunbi-tang in Cultured Interstitial Cells of Cajal of Murine Small Intestine

  • Kim, Jung Nam;Kwon, Young Kyu;Kim, Byung Joo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.112-117
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    • 2013
  • We studied the modulation of pacemaker activities by Samchulkunbi-tang (SCKB) in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) from murine small intestine with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Externally applied SCKB produced membrane depolarization in the current-clamp mode. The pretreatment with $Ca^{2+}$-free solution and thapsigargin, a $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase inhibitor in endoplasmic reticulum, abolished the generation of pacemaker potentials and suppressed the SCKB-induced action. The application of flufenamic acid (a nonselective cation channel blocker) abolished the generation of pacemaker potentials by SCKB. However, the application of niflumic acid (a chloride channel blocker) did not inhibit the generation of pacemaker potentials by SCKB. In addition, the membrane depolarizations were inhibited by not only GDP-${\beta}$-S, which permanently binds G-binding proteins, but also U-73122, an active phospholipase C inhibitor. These results suggest that SCKB modulates the pacemaker activities by nonselective cation channels and external $Ca^{2+}$ influx and internal $Ca^{2+}$ release via G-protein and phospholipase C-dependent mechanism. Therefore, the ICC are targets for SCKB and their interaction can affect intestinal motility.

The Mechanism of Action of Ghrelin and Motilin in the Pacemaker Potentials of Interstitial Cells of Cajal from the Murine Small Intestine

  • Kim, Jeong Nam;Kim, Byung Joo
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.470-479
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    • 2019
  • Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells that exhibit periodic spontaneous depolarization in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and generate pacemaker potentials. In this study, we investigated the effects of ghrelin and motilin on the pacemaker potentials of ICCs isolated from the mouse small intestine. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration, we demonstrated that ghrelin depolarized pacemaker potentials of cultured ICCs in a dose-dependent manner. The ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys] GHRP-6 completely inhibited this ghrelin-induced depolarization. Intracellular guanosine 5'-diphosphate-${\beta}$-S and pre-treatment with $Ca^{2+}$-free solution or thapsigargin also blocked the ghrelin-induced depolarization. To investigate the involvement of inositol triphosphate ($IP_3$), Rho kinase, and protein kinase C (PKC) in ghrelin-mediated pacemaker potential depolarization of ICCs, we used the $IP_3$ receptor inhibitors 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and xestospongin C, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632, and the PKC inhibitors staurosporine, Go6976, and rottlerin. All inhibitors except rottlerin blocked the ghrelin-induced pacemaker potential depolarization of ICCs. In addition, motilin depolarized the pacemaker potentials of ICCs in a similar dose-dependent manner as ghrelin, and this was also completely inhibited by [D-Lys] GHRP-6. These results suggest that ghrelin induced the pacemaker potential depolarization through the ghrelin receptor in a G protein-, $IP_3$-, Rho kinase-, and PKC-dependent manner via intracellular and extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ regulation. In addition, motilin was able to depolarize the pacemaker potentials of ICCs through the ghrelin receptor. Therefore, ghrelin and its receptor may modulate GI motility by acting on ICCs in the murine small intestine.

(-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits the Pacemaker Activity of Interstitial Cells of Cajal of Mouse Small Intestine

  • Kim, Kweon-Young;Choi, Soo-Jin;Jang, Hyuk-Jin;Zuo, Dong-Chuan;Shahi, Pawan Kumar;Parajuli, Shankar Prasad;Yeum, Cheol-Ho;Yoon, Pyung-Jin;Choi, Seok;Jun, Jae-Yeoul
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.111-115
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    • 2008
  • The effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on pacemaker activities of cultured interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) from murine small intestine were investigated using whole-cell patch-clamp technique at $30^{\circ}C$ and $Ca^{2+}$ image analysis. ICC generated spontaneous pacemaker currents at a holding potential of -70 mV. The treatment of ICC with EGCG resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the frequency and amplitude of pacemaker currents. SQ-22536, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, and ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, did not inhibit the effects of EGCG. EGCG-induced effects on pacemaker currents were not inhibited by glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channel blocker and TEA, a $Ca^{2+}$-activated $K^+$ channel blocker. Also, we found that EGCG inhibited the spontaneous $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ oscillations in cultured ICC. In conclusion, EGCG inhibited the pacemaker activity of ICC and reduced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ oscillations by cAMP-, cGMP-, ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channel-independent manner.

Naringenin inhibits pacemaking activity in interstitial cells of Cajal from murine small intestine

  • Kim, Hyun Jung;Kim, Byung Joo
    • Integrative Medicine Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2017
  • Background: Naringenin (NRG) is a common dietary polyphenolic constituent of fruits. NRG has diverse pharmacological activities, and is used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells of the GI tract. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of NRG on ICCs and on GI motility in vitro and in vivo. Methods: ICCs were dissociated from mouse small intestines by enzymatic digestion. The whole-cell patch clamp configuration was used to record pacemaker potentials in cultured ICC clusters. The effects of NRG on GI motility were investigated by calculating percent intestinal transit rates (ITR) using Evans blue in normal mice. Results: NRG inhibited ICC pacemaker potentials in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride or iberiotoxin, NRG had no effect on pacemaker potentials, but it continued to block pacemaker potentials in the presence of glibenclamide. Preincubation with SQ-22536 had no effect on pacemaker potentials or on their inhibition by NRG. However, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one blocked pacemaker potential inhibition by NRG. In addition, L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester blocked pacemaker potential inhibition by NRG. Furthermore, NRG significantly suppressed murine ITR enhancement by neostigmine in vivo. Conclusion: This study shows NRG dose-dependently inhibits ICC pacemaker potentials via a cyclic guanosine monophosphate/nitric oxide-dependent pathway and $Ca^{2+}$-activated $K^+$ channels in vitro. In addition, NRG suppressed neostigmine enhancement of ITR in vivo.

The Inhibitory Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide on Pacemaker Activity of Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Mouse Small Intestine

  • Parajuli, Shankar Prasad;Choi, Seok;Lee, Jun;Kim, Young-Dae;Park, Chan-Guk;Kim, Man-Yoo;Kim, Hyun-Il;Yeum, Cheol-Ho;Jun, Jae-Yeoul
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2010
  • In this study, we studied whether hydrogen sulfide ($H_2S$) has an effect on the pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), in the small intestine of mice. The actions of $H_2S$ on pacemaker activity were investigated using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ analysis at $30^{\circ}C$ and RT-PCR in cultured mouse intestinal ICC. Exogenously applied sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), a donor of hydrogen sulfide, caused a slight tonic inward current on pacemaker activity in ICC at low concentrations (50 and $100{\mu}m$), but at high concentration ($500{\mu}m$ and 1 mM) it seemed to cause light tonic inward currents and then inhibited pacemaker amplitude and pacemaker frequency, and also an increase in the resting currents in the outward direction. Glibenclamide or other potassium channel blockers (TEA, $BaCl_2$, apamin or 4-aminopydirine) did not have an effect on NaHS-induced action in ICC. The exogenous application of carbonilcyanide p-triflouromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and thapsigargin also inhibited the pacemaker activity of ICC as NaHS. Also, we found NaHS inhibited the spontaneous intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ ($[Ca^{2+}]_i$) oscillations in cultured ICC. In doing an RT-PCR experiment, we found that ICC enriched population lacked mRNA for both CSE and CBS, but was prominently detected in unsorted muscle. In conclusion, $H_2S$ inhibited the pacemaker activity of ICC by modulating intracellular $Ca^{2+}$. These results can serve as evidence of the physiological action of $H_2S$ as acting on the ICC in gastrointestinal (GI) motility.