• 제목, 요약, 키워드: parametric gap function

검색결과 5건 처리시간 0.029초

ON THE LOWER SEMICONTINUITY OF THE SOLUTION SETS FOR PARAMETRIC GENERALIZED VECTOR MIXED QUASIVARIATIONAL INEQUALITY PROBLEMS

  • HUNG, NGUYEN VAN
    • 대한수학회보
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.1777-1795
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, we establish sufficient conditions for the solution set of parametric generalized vector mixed quasivariational inequality problem to have the semicontinuities such as the inner-openness, lower semicontinuity and Hausdorff lower semicontinuity. Moreover, a key assumption is introduced by virtue of a parametric gap function by using a nonlinear scalarization function. Then, by using the key assumption, we establish condition ($H_h$(${\gamma}_0$, ${\lambda}_0$, ${\mu}_0$)) is a sufficient and necessary condition for the Hausdorff lower semicontinuity, continuity and Hausdorff continuity of the solution set for this problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces with the objective space being infinite dimensional. The results presented in this paper are different and extend from some main results in the literature.

Optical and Electrical Properties of Sn-doped ZnO Thin Films Studied via Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Hall Effect Measurements

  • So, Hyeon Seob;Hwang, Sang Bin;Jung, Dae Ho;Lee, Hosun
    • Journal of the Korean Physical Society
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    • v.70 no.7
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    • pp.706-713
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    • 2017
  • We investigated the optical and the electrical properties of Sn-doped ZnO thin films grown via RF co-sputtering deposition methods at room temperature. Through annealing, the carrier concentrations and mobilities were improved. The ellipsometric angles, ${\Psi}$ and ${\Delta}$, of the ZnO:Sn thin films were measured via spectroscopic ellipsometry. Dielectric functions were obtained from the ellipsometric angles by using the Drude and the parametric optical constant models. With an increase in the Sn doping concentration, the Drude model amplitude increased substantially. The Urbach and the optical gap energies of the ZnO:Sn films were determined using the dielectric functions. The carrier concentrations and the mobilities of the ZnO:Sn thin films were measured using Hall-effect measurements. The effective mass of ZnO:Sn was estimated to be $0.274m_0$, assuming that the carrier concentrations measured via ellipsometry and Hall-effect measurements were the same. A shift in the optical gap energy of the Sn-doped ZnO was found to be due to a combination of the Burstein-Moss effect, electron-electron interactions, and electron-impurity scattering. The discrepancy between the measured and the calculated shifts in the optical gap energy is attributed to Sn-alloying effects.

Estimating the Transmittable Prevalence of Infectious Diseases Using a Back-Calculation Approach

  • Lee, Youngsaeng;Jang, Hyun Gap;Kim, Tae Yoon;Park, Jeong-Soo
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.487-500
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    • 2014
  • A new method to calculate the transmittable prevalence of an epidemic disease is proposed based on a back-calculation formula. We calculated the probabilities of reactivation and of parasitemia as well as transmittable prevalence (the number of persons with parasitemia in the incubation period) of malaria in South Korea using incidence of 12 years(2001-2012). For this computation, a new probability function of transmittable condition is obtained. The probability of reactivation is estimated by the least squares method for the back-calculated longterm incubation period. The probability of parasitemia is calculated by a convolution of the survival function of the short-term incubation function and the probability of reactivation. Transmittable prevalence is computed by a convolution of the infected numbers and the probabilities of transmission. Confidence intervals are calculated using the parametric bootstrap method. The method proposed is applicable to other epidemic diseases in other countries where incidence and a long incubation period are available. We found the estimated transmittable prevalence in South Korea was concentrated in the summer with 276 cases on a peak at the $31^{st}$ week and with about a 60% reduction in the peak from the naive prevalence. The statistics of transmittable prevalence can be used for malaria prevention programs and to select blood transfusion donors.

Parametric study of porous media as substitutes for flow-diverter stent

  • Ohta, Makoto;Anzai, Hitomi;Miura, Yukihisa;Nakayama, Toshio
    • Biomaterials and Biomechanics in Bioengineering
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.111-125
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    • 2015
  • For engineers, generating a mesh in porous media (PMs) sometimes represents a smaller computational load than generating realistic stent geometries with computer fluid dynamics (CFD). For this reason, PMs have recently become attractive to mimic flow-diverter stents (FDs), which are used to treat intracranial aneurysms. PMs function by introducing a hydraulic resistance using Darcy's law; therefore, the pressure drop may be computed by test sections parallel and perpendicular to the main flow direction. However, in previous studies, the pressure drop parallel to the flow may have depended on the width of the gap between the stent and the wall of the test section. Furthermore, the influence of parameters such as the test section geometry and the distance over which the pressure drops was not clear. Given these problems, computing the pressure drop parallel to the flow becomes extremely difficult. The aim of the present study is to resolve this lack of information for stent modeling using PM and to compute the pressure drop using several methods to estimate the influence of the relevant parameters. To determine the pressure drop as a function of distance, an FD was placed parallel and perpendicular to the flow in test sections with rectangular geometries. The inclined angle method was employed to extrapolate the flow patterns in the parallel direction. A similar approach was applied with a cylindrical geometry to estimate loss due to pipe friction. Additionally, the pressure drops were computed by using CFD. To determine if the balance of pressure drops (parallel vs perpendicular) affects flow patterns, we calculated the flow patterns for an ideal aneurysm using PMs with various ratios of parallel pressure drop to perpendicular pressure drop. The results show that pressure drop in the parallel direction depends on test section. The PM thickness and the ratio of parallel permeability to perpendicular permeability affect the flow pattern in an ideal aneurysm. Based on the permeability ratio and the flow patterns, the pressure drop in the parallel direction can be determined.

슬러지 유중 건조에 대한 전산 해석 및 실험적 연구 (A Numerical and Experimental Study for Fry-drying of Various Sludge)

  • 신미수;김혜숙;김병갑;황민정;장동순;엄태인
    • 대한환경공학회지
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.341-348
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    • 2010
  • 유중 건조 공정의 기본 원리는 수분과 비열차이가 있는 오일을 가열할 때 온도 차이에 따라 형성되는 슬러지 내부의 급격한 압력 변화를 이용한다. 즉 슬러지 내부에 발생하는 급격한 압력 상승이 이루어질 때 슬러지 공극을 통하여 수분이 빠르게 배출하도록 하는 것이다. 본 연구의 목적은 유중 건조공정 중 다양한 운전 변수가 건조효율에 미치는 영향을 구체적으로 규명하기 위한 것이다. 변수 연구를 위하여 일련의 건조 실험과 수치해석을 시도하였으며 그 결과 건조온도, 건조시간, 폐오일종류, 슬러지 종류 등 중요 실험변수에 따른 건조곡선이 얻어졌다. 건조 온도 변화에 따른 연구 결과는 폐오일의 종류에 관계없이 $140^{\circ}C$ 이상으로 운전하는 것이 건조효율에 유리한 것으로 나타났으며 이 결과는 수치 해석적 결과로도 확인되었다. 그리고 슬러지 직경의 경우 직경이 감소할수록 효율적으로 건조되는 경향으로 보였으며 이는 비표면적의 증가에 기인하는 것으로 판단되었다. 오일 종류나 물성의 변화에 대한 연구에서는 오일의 점도가 가시적인 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났다. 특히 점도가 높은 오일의 경우 건조 초반에 수분 증발이 현저히 지체되는 현상이 나타났다. 그러나 건조온도 $140^{\circ}C$ 이상에서는 이러한 지체 현상이 감소하는 결과를 나타내었다. 슬러지 종류에 따른 연구에서는 전체적으로 큰 차이를 나타내지는 않았으나 하수슬러지가 다른 종류의 슬러지에 비하여 좀 더 가시적으로 양호한 수분제거 양상을 나타내었다. 수치 해석적 연구는 실험적 연구에 대한 상호보완적인 연구로서 가능성을 보였으나 복잡한 세부모델에 대한 경험적인 모델개발의 필요성이 제기되었다.