• Title, Summary, Keyword: paraquat residue

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Growth and crop residue of soybean and barley grown at high paraquat level of the orchard soil (고농도 paraquat 잔류 과원토양에서의 콩과 보리 생육 및 작물 잔류)

  • Chun, Jae-Chul;Park, Nam-Il;Kim, Sung-Eun;Chun, Jae-Kwan
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.85-89
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    • 1998
  • Effect of soil residue paraquat (1,1-dimethyl-4,4-dipyridinium dichloride) on growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Sacheon No.6 and cv. Tapgolbori) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Alcheon and Danyeop] was investigated. Changes in soil residue paraquat during the cultivation period and residue amount in the p1ants at harvest were also determined. Experiments were conducted at two paraquat residue conditions; the first was done in an apple orchard soil where paraquat residue recorded 30.2 ppm in 1996, but decreased to about 9 to 9.8 ppm at the time of crop seeding and the second was conducted in the soil fortified to about 27 to 32 ppm paraquat residue. In both conditions, no crop injury due to the residue paraquat was observed and number of emerged seedlings and plant height of the two crops were not affected by soil residue paraquat. Residue amount of paraquat in the plants occurred less than 0.5 ppm detection limit. At the first condition, soil residue paraquat was further slightly decreased for 90 days after seeding, while no great change in the residue level was found at the second condition for 30 days after seeding. The results suggest that no carry-over effect occurs at about 30 ppm of soil residue paraquat and at present crop cultivation in Korean orchard soils are safe with respect to crop growth and paraquat residue in the plants.

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Residue and adsorptive capacity of paraquat in orchard soils (우리나라 과수원 토양의 Paraquat 잔류와 흡착능)

  • Chun, Jae-Chul;Kim, Sung-Eun;Park, Nam-Il;Lim, Sung-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.90-95
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    • 1998
  • Soil residues of paraquat (1,1-dimethyl-4,4-dipyridinium dichloride) were determined in apple, pear, grape, and peach orchards for which 15 sites each were selected randomly from the corresponding large-scale production area throughout the country. Strong adsorption capacity measured using wheat bioassay (paraquat concentration required to reduce 50% root growth of wheat, SAC-WB) was also investigated on the orchard soils and the paraquat residue level was calculated against total SAC-WB values (SAC-WB value + paraquat residue). Average bound residue of paraquat on the 60 sites was 6.9 ppm, while paraquat residue in apple orchard reached 20.2 ppm which was the highest among the orchards and was almost double as compared with those in the other three orchards. Loosely bound residue of paraquat determined on the bound residue high top five soils occurred less than 0.5 ppm detection limit. Average SAC-WB value was 276.1 ppm and there were no any correlations between the SAC-WB value and clay content, organic matter content, and cation exchange capacity of the orchard soils. Paraquat residue level of the orchard soils against total SAC-WB recorded 2.43%.

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Effects of Timing of Rye Harvest Date and Residue Residue Chemical Treatment Corn for Silage (호밀의 수확 및 제초제 처리시기가 후작 사일리지용 옥수수에 미치는 영향)

  • 김원호;김동암;김종덕
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was conducted in 1992 and 1993 at the forage experimental field, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Suweon to determine timing of rye(Secde cemde L.) harvest and residue chemical treatment prior to tillage in minimizing the adverse effects of the rye residue on growth and yield of succeeding corn(Zea muys L.). Eight treatments were established in 1993 which included four treatments such as no paraquat (1, l'diiethyl- 4, 4'-bipyridinium dichloride), paraquat treatment at 10, 23, and both 23 and 10 days prior to tillage when rye was harvested on April 14, and another four treatments such as no paraquat, paraquat treatment at 1, 5 and 10 days prior to tillage when rye was harvested on April 26. No paraquat treatment significantly resulted in reductions in corn plant height on June 3 and 10 when rye was harvested on April 14, but differences in the plant height and leaf number of corn among treatments were generally nonsignificant. Corn LA1 and silk emergence were not affected by paraquat treatment times regardless of rye harvested dates, but silk emergence was delayed by 1 to 2 days with no paraquat when rye harvested on April 14. Corn dry matter and TDN yields were significantly increased by paraquat treatment at 10 and 5 days prior to tillage treatment when rye was harvested on April 14 and 26, respectively, but other agronomic characteristics such as dry matter percentage, ear percent to total dry matter, and stover and ear yields of corn at harvest showed little or no response to paraquat treatment times.

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Effects of Rye Harvest Date and Residue Management on Growth and Yield of Corn for Silage (호밀의 수확시기 및 잔주의 처리방법이 사일리지용 옥수수의 생장과 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 김원호;김동암
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was conducted at the forage experimental field, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Suweon in 1992 and 1993 to investigate the effects of tillage method-conventional and rotary-till, rye (Secde cereale L.) harvest date-early (April 14) and late (April 26), and rye residue treatmentno paraquat(1, 1-dinethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride) and paraquat in minimizing the adverse effects of the rye residue on growth and yield of succeeding corn(Zea mays L.). Corn plant height during the growing season was slighly taller with conventional tillage relative to rotary-till when rye was harvested in early and treated by paraquat. Corn LA1 during the growing season was slighly increased when rye was harvested in early and where conventional tillage was used with paraquat treatment. There were no differences in the leaf number and silking dates of corn among the tillage methods, harvest dates of rye and paraquat treatments. The dry matter yield of corn was significantly increased by paraquat treatment when rye was harvest in early, but no differences were found in the dry matter percentage, ear percent to total dry matter, and stover, ear and estimated TDN yields of corn among the treatments.

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Behaviour of the soil residues of the bipyridylium herbicide, [$^{14}C$]paraquat in the micro-ecosystem (Micro-ecosystem중 bipyridylium 제초제 paraquat 토양잔류물의 행적)

  • Kwon, Jeong-Wook;Lee, Jae-Koo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.66-77
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    • 1999
  • In order to elucidate the fate of the residues of the bipyridylium herbicide paraquat in soil, maize plants were grown for 4 weeks on the specially-made pots filled with two different types of soils containing fresh and 6-week-aged residues of [$^{14}C$]paraquat, respectively. The mineralization of [$^{14}C$]paraquat to $^{14}CO_{2}$ during the aging period and the cultivation period of maize plants amounted to $0.13{\sim}0.18%$ and $0.02{\sim}0.17%$, respectively, of the original $^{14}C$ activities. At harvest the roots and shoots contained less than 0.1% and 0.01% of the originally applied $^{14}C$ activities, respectively, whereas the $^{14}C$ activities remaining in soil were more than 97% in both soils. The water extractability of the soil where maize plants were grown for 4 weeks was less than 1.2% of the original $^{14}C$ activities. Most of the non-extractable soil-bound residues of [$^{14}C$]paraquat were incorporated into the humin fraction. Soil pHs during the aging of soil B and after cultivation in all treatments increased. The distribution of the $^{14}C$ activities in subcellular particles of the maize plant roots was the highest in the residue fraction(incompletely homogenized tissue). Dehydrogenase activities increased after vegetation, regardless of soil aging.

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Studies on the herbicide Application for Use in Pasture Establishment by Overseeding II. Influence of herbicide residue in soils on the growth of introduce pasture grasses (겉뿌림 초지조성지에서 제초제 처리방법에 관한 연구 II. 제초제의 토양 잔류성과 목초의 생육장해)

  • 김정갑
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.162-168
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    • 1991
  • Iterbicide resduc. cauicd ~rljul-y to ovcrsown pasture grasses \\hen herbicide appliccl for use in pasturc est;~blish~nt~nt lo gro~vth contro! ol n;rtivc ~r ~:cds and shrubs. 'l'hih L~sperirnel~t was conducted to cv;lluati. (he herbicidr residue anti its ph!:totosical ~riiiuence on the growth of introtluccd pasturts species. Esperimcmtal soils was treated with buthitlazolc, ~ o d l ~ l m chlorate, glyphosatc. U-46 anti paraquat each at twt) applici~tion rates. Lhcf~1i.s glowl~mlc~ including othrr pasture grasses and le~urnes were evaluatrd for tolerance to herbicide. IIerbicide residue in the amount ot injury caused to introduced pasture grasses was found in order of buthidazole, sodium chlorate, U-46 and glyphosate. Euthidazole was not available for use in pasture establishment because of their long persist of toxic herbicide residues. A great stand redl~ction of subseq ~ ~ c n t oversown pastures was also observed In sodium chlorate treatment. However, normal vegetative stand and grass production was obtained, when thc pasture grasses seeded 45-60 days later herbicide treatments. Glyphosate did not affect subsequent oversown pasture species in both grasses and legumes. fistuccr arundinc~cea and Pou pratensis were the most tolerant pasture species to herbicide residue while 7'rzfi,lium pyatense and Medicugo suti~u showed a wsceptible response regardless of herbicide.

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