• Title, Summary, Keyword: parturition

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Establishment of a prediction table of parturition day in Shih-tzu bitches with ultrasound scanning (Shih-tzu견에서 초음파 검사에 의한 분만일 예시표 확립)

  • Kim, Bang-sil;Ko, Jin-sung;Lee, Sun-ae;Cho, Yang-tak;Kim, Jae-pung;Oh, Ki-seok;Kim, Jong-taek;Park, In-chul;Kim, Young-hong;Son, Chang-ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.303-310
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    • 2004
  • To establish a prediction table of parturition day real-time B-mode ultrasonographic examinations were performed in 12 pregnant Shih-tzu bitches. Measurement of inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter was performed from 15 days of gestation to parturition. These were converted retrospectively based on the day of parturition (Day 0). The data of inner chorionic cavity diameter obtained from Day -44 to Day -25 and fetal head diameter obtained from Day -25 to Day -1 were used to compile a prediction table of parturition day. The 22 pregnant Shih-tzu with unknown mating time were examined to assess an accuracy of the table established in this study. And these results were applied to the prediction of parturition day and compared to actual parturition day. Parturition day prediction based on the inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter was 100% accurate within ${\pm}2$ days. In addition, the accuracy for parturition day within 0, ${\pm}1$, and ${\pm}2$ days interval using the prediction table of parturition day were 68, 82, and 100%, respectively. Therefore, the prediction table of parturition day seems to be a useful tool for the prediction of parturition day in practice.

Studies on Artificial Contorl of Parturition in Korean Native Goats III. The Effects of Prostaglandin $F_2\alpha$ and Estradiol-Benezoate (한국 재래산양 분만의 인위적 조절에 관한 연구 III. Prostaglandin $F_2\alpha$와 Estradiol-Benzoate 병용투여에 의한 분만수기 효과)

  • 윤창현;민관식;장규태;오석두
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 1992
  • The present study was carried out to establish a practical regimen for artificial parturition induction using prostaglandin F2$\alpha$(PGF2$\alpha$) and estradiol-benezoate in Korean native goats. The effect of parturition induction and the time intervals to induced parturition after injection were investigated. The birth weight and body weight of kids at 15 days of age were measured. A total of 24 pluriparous goats were offered for this experiment. The animals were divided into 4 goats per treatment by the injection time(142, 145 or 148 day of pregnancy) and dosage(5.0$\times$10 or 7.5$\times$7.5mg). The results obtained were summarized as follows : A total of 24 pregnant goats were intramusculary treated with 5.0$\times$10 or 7.5$\times$7.5mg of PGF2$\alpha$ and estradiol-benzoate for parturition induction of Day 142, 145 or 148 of gestation. Parturition was induced in all of the goats(100%) treated. The kids produced from induced parturition were all healthy. The time intervals to induced parturition after PGF2$\alpha$ and estradiol-benezoate injection of 5.0$\times$10 or 7.5$\times$7.5mg to pregnant goats on Day 148(23.22$\pm$0.51~23.40$\pm$1.26hrs) were significantly(P<.01) shorter than those of the 142 days of the gestation(26.34$\pm$2.22~28.39$\pm$3.02hrs). No significant difference was found in the time intervals between the doses(5.0$\times$10 or 7.5$\times$7.5mg) treated for parturition induction. The birth weight of kids from induced parturition was no significant difference between on Day 148 and on Day 142 of gestation. However, the birth weight of kids from parturition induced on Day 148 was found significantly(P<.01) heavier than that of the 142 days of gestation. The body weight of kids at 15 days old was also significantly(P<.01) lighter in the parturition induced on day 142 than those on Day 142. The birth weight and body weight of kids at 15 days old were not affected by 5.0$\times$10 or 7.5$\times$7.5mg injection of PGF2$\alpha$ and estradiol-benzoate for inducing parturition. From the above results, it was concluded that the parturition induction by PGF2$\alpha$ and estradiol-benezoate injection of 5.0$\times$10 or 7.5$\times$7.5mg on Day 142 of gestation, which was correspondent to 8 days before expected spontaneous parturition, was available without any significant troubles.

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Predicting Parturition Time through Ultrasonic Measurement of Posture Changing Rate in Crated Landrace Sows

  • Wang, J.S.;Wu, M.C.;Chang, H.L.;Young, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.682-692
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    • 2007
  • This study presents an automatic system to predict parturition time in the crated sows. The system relies on ultrasonic transducers mounted from above along the length of the crate. Using a 40 kHz time of flight (TOF) single envelope wave, the momentary distances between the sensors are measured. Therefore, the local momentary height of the sow and the momentary posture, i.e. standing posture (SDP), kneeling posture (KP), sitting posture (STP) and lateral lying posture (LLP) are determined. Crated sows change their postures from standing to lying and vice versa which follows a characteristic pattern. As parturition approaches, sows exhibit uneasiness, restlessness and the stand up sequence (SUS, the posture transition from LLP to SDP) rate increases because of labor pains. In time series, the SUS rate demonstrates a peak and it happens approximately 0-12 h before parturition. In this paper, the basic parturition threshold value method (BPTVM) and the same hour method (SHM) are proposed for predicting parturition, both of which are based on the SUS rate. The BPTVM mainly detects the peak of the SUS rate. As the SUS rate exceeds the threshold value, the parturition becomes predictable. Moreover, the SHM calculates the difference in the SUS rates between a particular time of day and the corresponding time of the preceding day. Compared to the BPTVM, the SHM can eliminate the circadian rhythm of the SUS rate influenced by feeding behavior. Using the SHM the parturition can be approximately predicted within hours. In an attempt to define the threshold parameters of predicting parturition, a data set with 32 sows of the SUS rate are used to estimate assumable predicting probability. The results show the assumable probability of the parturition prediction within 9 h is 96.9% for the SHM and 84.4% for the BPTVM. Moreover, the SHM can even reach a 75% probability of prediction within three hours of parturition. We conclude that the SHM is more accurate and is more useful for parturition time prediction. When parturition is detected, the proposed algorithm generates a warning signal which can inform human personnel to protect the mother and newborn piglets.

Establishment of prediction table of parturition day by ultrasonography in Korean Jindo bitches (진도개에서 초음파검사에 의한 분만일 예정표 확립)

  • Kim, Se-ra;Kang, Hyun-gu;Oh, Ki-seok;Park, In-chul;Park, Sang-guk;Kim, Sung-ho;Son, Chang-ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.373-381
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    • 2000
  • Serial ultrasonographic examinations were performed on pregnant Korean Jindo bitches. Measurements of inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter were made from pregnancy day 15 to parturition. These measurements were converted retrospectively based on the day of parturition (day 0). The data of inner chorionic cavity diameter obtained from day -42 to day -25 and fetal head diameter obtained from day -24 to day -1 were used to prediction of parturition day. Formulas for the prediction of parturition day using the method of least squares were derived. These formulas were then used to predict parturition dates based on single measurements of inner chorionic cavity diameter or fetal head diameter in 17 additional pregnant Korean Jindo bitches. Predicted date of parturition was then compared to actual whelping date. In the prediction of parturition based on inner chorionic cavity diameter, 7 of 10 bitches were coincided prediction date and actual whelping date, and the prediction was accurate to within 1 day in 3 of 10 bitches. The prediction of parturition based on fetal head diameter was accurate to within 1 day in 6 of 7 bitches and within 2 days in 1 of 7 bitches. In conclusion, the ultrasound measurement of inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter are practical and accurate tool in the prediction of parturition.

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Regression of the Corpus Luteum of Pregnancy Following Parturition in Goats (산양에 있어서 분만후 임신황체의 퇴행)

  • 변명대;함태수
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.161-172
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    • 1991
  • This study was conducted to research the endocrine mechanisms of postpartum anestrus and determine if the morphology of the CL could be related to function in Korean native goats. At parturition 48 goats were assigned to a nonsuckled group and a suckled group. Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone(LH), follicle stimulating hormone(FSH), prolactin(PRL), estradiol-17$\beta$(E2) and cortisol were measured at various times after parturitionin the goats. The corpora lutea of pregnancy were examined by a light microscope on the 6th hour and the first, 3rd, 10th, 11th, and 21st days after parturition. The results were summarized as follows : Mean serum LH concentrations were lower after parturition in all treatments and increased gradually with the intervals after parturition(P<0.01). These values did not differ between groups. The levels of serum FSH were lower after parturition and tended to increase gradually between 2 and 21 days. The levels of serum FSH are not significantly different between the groups of goats. Two days after kidding mean levels of serum PRL began to fall in nonsuckling goats but increased in suckling goats. During 3 weeks serum PRL concentrations were different between nonsuckling and suckling goats(P<0.01). Three days after parturition the levels of serum E2 decreased in all treatments. From parturition to day 21 serum E2 concentrations were greater in nonsuckling than in suckling goats(P<0.01). At the sixth hour after parturition the structure of the CL was well preserved. At days 1 and 3 the blood vessels were sparcely distributed, whereas, at days 1 and 3 the blood vessels were sparcely distributed, whereas, at days 10, 11 and 21 tortuous larger vessels with thick walls were observed on the luteal tissue. At days 1, 3, 10, 11 and 21 after parturition the CL of pregnancy showed degeneration and the proportion of tissue occupied by intercelluar substances increased at days 21 postpartum. In conclusion, the present study has shown that regression of the CL of pregnancy is accelerated in the period after parturition and effectively completed within three weeks postpartum.

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Changes of Serum Calcium Concentration, Frequency of Ruminal Contraction and Feed Intake Soon after Parturition of Dairy Cows Fed Difructose Anhydride III

  • Wynn, S.;Teramura, M.;Sato, T.;Hanada, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.58-68
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    • 2015
  • Requirements to control the large decrease in serum calcium (Ca) due to parturition and to increase the feed intake soon after parturition have been well accepted in dairy cows. This study was aimed to investigate the feed intake affected by serum Ca concentration with difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplement in dairy cows soon after parturition. Fourteen transition Holstein cows were divided into DFA and control (CONT) groups within 1 to 5 parity variations in each group. Measurement schedule for an individual cow was from 14 d before parturition to 7 d following parturition. The cows in DFA group were supplied 0.2 kg/head/d of DFA III feed containing 40 g of pure DFA III while the cows in CONT group received no DFA III. Other feeding procedures were the same for all cows in both groups. At parturition (d 0), serum Ca concentration sharply declined in both groups (p<0.05). Time interval for recovery from decreased serum Ca to its normal range (>9.0 mg/dL) tended to be faster in DFA group (12 h) than in the CONT group (48 h), but the differences were not significant. Active ruminal contraction was observed in DFA group at following parturition of d 1 (p<0.05), d 3 (p<0.05), and d 5 (p<0.01). Dry matter (DM) intake did not differ between the groups. However, positive correlations were observed between serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction (p<0.001), and between ruminal contraction and DM intake (p<0.001) during following parturition. According to multiple regression analysis ($R^2$ = 0.824, p<0.001), the DM intake was positively affected by serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction. These results suggest that feed intake soon after parturition in dairy cows can be increased by improvement of serum Ca concentration and active ruminal contraction, but DFA III supplementation in this study did not improve the lower serum Ca concentration due to parturition.

Survey on Rate of Twin Pregnancy and Parturition in Dairy Cows in Korea (국내 유우(Holstein)의 쌍태임신율 및 분만에 관한 조사)

  • Cho, Jin-Haeng;Kim, Myung-Cheol;Jeong, Seong-Mok;Lee, Jae-Yeon;Shin, Sang-Tae;Shin, Beom-Jun
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to evaluate the rate of twin pregnancy and parturition in dairy cows. Calving records of Holstein dairy cows from 1998 to 2009 comprising Goyang and Paju cities herd with 20,990 calving events representing 820 twin births were used to evaluate twinning rate, calf sex ratio, periods of pregnancy and complication after parturition in single and twin births. Overall, the reported twinning rate was 3.9% in Holstein dairy cows. Rate of bicornual pregnancy (75%) was larger than that of unicornual pregnancy (25%) among cows having twin. Regardless of parity, the greatest twinning rate was observed in fall season from September to November. Calf sex ratios (male, M; female, F) were 48.0% FM, 28.9% MM, 21.5% FF and 0.9% mummifications for twin calves. Parturition type among cows having twins included normal (4.7%), premature (66.9%), delayed (9.2%), abortion (18.4%) and mummification (0.8%). The period of pregnancy in twin pregnancy (mean 272.6 days) was shorter than single pregnancy (mean 278.1 days). The retained placenta after parturition was over fourth times such as twin parturition (34.8%) higher than single parturition (8.5%) and the abomasal displacement was over two times such as twin parturition (10.2%) higher than single parturition (4.9%). The distribution of twin pregnancy with parities was high rate during the 2~3 parities. The prevalence of complication such as retained placenta and abomasal displacement with twin parturition revealed higher than single parturition.

The Effect of Prepartum Diet on Nitrogen and Major Mineral Balance of Dairy Cows during Parturition in Summer

  • Kamiya, Y.;Kamiya, M.;Tanaka, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1415-1421
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    • 2006
  • Proper nutritional management during the dry period is required to prevent metabolic disorders during the time of parturition and for potential increase milk yield during early lactation, especially under the heat of summer. The effect of prepartum diets on partitioning of nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) during dry period and early lactation in summer was investigated. Nine cows were assigned to two groups and fed either control (group C: four cows) or high concentrate (group H: five cows) diets to meet 110% of their requirements before parturition. The proportion of concentrate in control diet was 35%, and that in the high concentrate diet was 45%. After parturition, all cows were fed the same diets ad libitum during lactation. Balance trials were conducted at 9, 8 and 7 days before parturition and at 12, 13 and 14 days after parturition. Before parturition, dry matter intake (DMI), DM and NFE digestibility in group C tended to be lower than those in group H. The retention of N (p<0.01) and P (p<0.05) in group C during the dry period was significantly lower than those in group H. The retention of Mg in group C during the dry period tended to be lower than in group H. The concentration of plasma NEFA in group C tended to be higher than in group H during dry period. The prepartum diet did not have an apparent effect on DMI and milk yield at 2 weeks after parturition and N, Ca, P, Mg and K balance after parturition.

Parturition Induction on Melania Snails, Semisulcospira libertina libertina and Semisulcospira gottschei (다슬기 (Semisulcospira libertina libertina)와 곳체다슬기 (Semisulcospira gottschei)의 출산 유도)

  • Chang, Hae-Jin;Min, Byung-Hwa;Bang, In-Chul;Kim, Young-Ju;Chang, Young-Jin
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2005
  • The effects of various physicochemical stimuli in parturition induction were assayed on ovoviviparous freshwater melania snails, Semisulcospira libertina libertina and S. gottschei. Both of them did not respond to $NH_4OH$ and $H_2O_2$, but showed responses to the water temperature raising, serotonin and acetylcholine. S. gottschei showed stronger responses to the stimulants in parturition induction compared with S. libertina libertina. In case of S. libertina libertina exposed to $10^{-9}M$ acetylcholine, the number of newly born larvae and juveniles per adult and juvenile parturition rate were 68 individuals and 57.5%, which were the most among experimental groups, respectively. In the parturition induction with temperature raising of $9^{\circ}C$, S. gottschei bred 113 larvae and juveniles in which juvenile parturition rate was 56.3% and $10^{-12}M$ acetylcholine also induced very high juvenile parturition rate(61.7%) and 83 larvae and juveniles. It could be concluded that the treatment of acetylcholine has a high effectiveness in the parturition induction of S. libertina libertina and S. gottschei.

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Studies on Artificial Control of Parturition in Korean Native Goats IV. The Effects of Dexamethasone and(or) Estradiol-Benezoate to Induction of Parturition (한국재래산양 분만의 인위적 조절에 관한 연구 IV. Dexamethasone 단독 및 Estradiol-Benzoate와의 병용투여에 의한 분만유기 효과)

  • 윤창현;성환후;오석두;장규태
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 1992
  • The effects to the corticosteroid dexamethasone(DEX) and(or) estradiol-benzoate(E-B) treated to induction of parturition and birth weights of the young was conducted in 48 pregnant Korean native goats. The animals were divided into 4 goats per each treatment by the time(142, 145 and 148 day of pregnancy) and dosage(DEX 15, 20mg, DEX 8mg+E-B 10mg and DEX 13mg+E-B 7.5mg per goat). The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1 The time for induction of parturtion after DEX(15, 20mg) treatment on day 148 of pregnancy was significantly(P<0.01) shorter than 142 and 145 days. There was no significant difference each dosage of DEX on same day of pregnancy. 2. The addition of E-B to DEX treatment compared with DEX alone group at day 142 and 145 of pregnancy were significantly(P<0.01) shorter the time for induction of parturition. However, treatment with DEX along or with E-B on 148 day of pregnancy did not affect the time to induction(about 27 hrs) of parturition between each treatment. 3. The birth weight of kids after parturition was heaviest(P<0.01) on day 148 of pregnancy. However, development and vigor of kids were not significant different between DEX alone treatment and with E-B.

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