• Title, Summary, Keyword: pearl oyster

Search Result 26, Processing Time 0.025 seconds

Reproductive Condition of the Tropical Blacklip Pearl Oyster, Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus 1758) from Chuuk Lagoon, Federated State of Micronesia during the Summer Months in 2003 (Chuuk Lagoon에 서식하는 흑진주조개, Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus 1758)의 2003년 하계 생식소 발달 및 산란 특성)

  • Kang, Do-Hyung;Park, Heung-Sik;Yi, Soon-Kil;Choi, Kwang-Sik
    • Ocean and Polar Research
    • /
    • v.27 no.3
    • /
    • pp.351-358
    • /
    • 2005
  • Reproductive condition of the tropical blacklip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera collected during the period July through September 2003 from Chuuk Lagoon, Federated State of Micronesia was investigated using histology. The level of gonad development for each pearl oyster was determined with an average score of five microscopic fields, and the average score was used as the maturity index (ML). All wild pearl oysters collected in July did exhibit fully ripe eggs in their ovaries ($45{\sim}50{\mu}M$ in diameter), indicating that they were ready for spawning. In mid August most wild pearl oysters were in spawning and M1 dropped dramatically from mid- to late September, suggesting that the wild pearl oyster completed spawning during this period. In contrast, the cultivated pearl oysters collected in mid-September held ripe eggs in the ovaries and only a few of them spawned, indicating that gonad maturation of the cultivated pearl oyster was somewhat slower than that of the wild pearl oyster in Chuuk Lagoon during the summer period. Histological analysis also indicated that spawning of the pearl oyster is rather incomplete and they may spawn continuously during summer.

Preparation and Quality Characteristics of Enzymatic Salt-fermented Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii (효소분해 진주조개(Pinctada fucata martensii) 젓갈의 제조 및 품질특성)

  • Kim, In-Soo;Kim, Hye-Suk;Han, Byoung-Wook;Kang, Kyung-Tae;Park, Jeong-Min;Oh, Hyeun-Seok;Han, Gang-Uk;Kim, Jin-Soo;Heu, Min-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.39 no.1
    • /
    • pp.9-15
    • /
    • 2006
  • As a part of the investigation for utilizing pearl oyster by-products, a rapid salt-fermented pearl oyster using commercial enzyme was prepared and also examined on the characteristics. The salt-fermented pearl oyster prepared by optimal condition, which was prepared by mixing of minced pearl oyster, 15% salt, and 1% $Protamex^\circledR$ and fermented for 4 weeks, was superior in hydrolysis degree (28.7%) and ACE inhibitory activity (92.6%) to salt-fermented pearl oyster prepared by other conditions, such as the use of whole tissue, different enzymes $(Alcalase^\circledR,\;Neutrase^\circledR\;and\;Flavourzyme^\circledR)$, different salt concentrations (20 and 25%), and different fermentation periods (2, 6 and 8 weeks). There were, however, some shortcomings with this product. It showed a dark green color and an unfavorable bitter taste. These shortcomings were improved by the addition of seasoning paste. The calcium and phosphorus contents of the seasoned salt-fermented pearl oyster were 64.2 mg/100 g and 71.6 mg/100 g, respectively, and the calcium content based on phosphorus was a good ratio for absorbing calcium. The total amino acid content of the seasoned and salt-fermented pearl oyster was 7,054 mg/100 g and the major amino acids ware aspartic acid (555.1 mg/100 g), glutamic acid (1,131.2 mg/100 g), alanine (658.2 mg/100 g), and lysine (695.5 mg/100 g). The seasoned salt-fermented pearl oyster, along with angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (98.3%), also showed a recognizable level (87.5%) of anti-oxidative activity.

Survival Rates of Trochophores from Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii and Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas Immersed in Pour Kinds of Cryoprotectant (4종류의 동해 방지제에 침지 한 진주조개, Pinctada fucata martensii와 참굴, Crassostrea gigas 담륜자의 생존율)

  • CHOI Youn Hee;CHANG Young Jin
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.32 no.4
    • /
    • pp.476-480
    • /
    • 1999
  • Experiments were carried out to evaluate the tolerance of trochophores for pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii and Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas using different concentrations of cryoprotectants : dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol, glycerol and 1,2-propanediol. Each cryoprotectant with different concentrations was exposed for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes of immersion time. Survival rates were increased with decreased concentrations of cryoprotectant and decreased immersion time, and these differed from types of cryoprotectant. Survival rates of Pacific oyster trochophores were higher in DMSO and ethylene glycol, while those of pearl oyster trochophores were higher in glycerol and 1,2-propanediol. In case of trochophores from Pacific oyster, when 0.2 M sucrose was added in each cryoprotectant the survival rates were increased significantly.

  • PDF

Influence of Cooling Rate, Developmental Stage and Addition of Sugar on Cryopreservation of Pearl Oyster (Pinctada Fucata Martensii) Larvae

  • Park, Youn-Hee;Chang, Young-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Embryo Transfer Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.103-103
    • /
    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to investigate cryopreservation of pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii larvae. Four cooling rates (-0.25, -0.5, -0.75 and -1.0$^{\circ}C$/min.) were used to examine a proper cooling rate during cryopreservation of trochophores before seeding temperature (-12$^{\circ}C$). Seven developmental stages (early and late trochophores, early and late D-shaped larvae and early, middle and late umbo stage larvae) and different sugars (fructose, glucose and sucrose) were used to investigate optimal larval stage and effective sugar in cryopreservation of larvae. The survival rates of frozen-thawed trochophores increased at cooling rate of -1.0$^{\circ}C$/min. As larval developing, survival rate of frozen-thawed larvae increased, except umbo stage larvae, and especially late D-shaped larvae highly survived as 91%. Addition of sugar revealed positive effect on cryopreservation in this experiment and 0.2 M glucose and sucrose mixed with 2.0 M dimethyl sulfoxide significantly enhanced survival rate of larvae (P<0.05). The results of our study indicate that desirable cooling rate, developmental stages of larvae and effective sugar far cryopreservation of pearl oyster, P. fucata martensii larvae are -1$^{\circ}C$/min, late D-shaped larvae and 0.2 M glucose and sucrose, respectively.

  • PDF

Physicochemical Properties of Pearl Oyster Muscle and Adductor Muscle as Pearl Processing Byproducts (진주 가공부산물(육 및 패주)의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Jin-Soo;Kim, Hye-Suk;Oh, Hyeun-Seok;Kang, Kyung-Tae;Han, Gang-Uk;Kim, In-Soo;Jeong, Bo-Young;Moon, Soo-Kyung;Heu, Min-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.35 no.4
    • /
    • pp.464-469
    • /
    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to evaluate a knowledge on food components of muscle and adductor muscle of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata martensii) as pearl processing byproducts. The concentrations of mercury and chromium as heavy metal were not detected in both pearl oyster muscle and adductor muscle, and those of cadmium and lead were 0.06 ppm and 0.11 ppm in only pearl oyster muscle, respectively. Thus, the heavy metal levels of pearl processing byproducts were below the reported safety limits. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) content and pH of pearl oyster muscle were 11.6 mg/100g and 6.31 and those of abductor muscle were 8.6 mg/100 g and 6.33, respectively. It was concluded that pearl oyster muscle and adductor muscle might not invoke health risk in using food resource. The contents of crude protein (16.5%) and total amino acid (15,691 mg/100 g) of adductor muscle were higher than those of muscle (11.2% and 10,131 mg/100 g) and oyster (12.1% and 11,213 mg/100 g) as a control. The contents of calcium and phosphorus were 95.4 mg/100 g and 116.0 mg/100 g in muscle, 75.2 mg/100g and 148.1 mg/100 g in adductor muscle, respectively. The calcium level based on phosphorus was a good ratio for absorbing calcium. The free amino acid contents and taste values were 635.5 mg/100 g and 40.2 in muscle, and 734.9 mg/100 g and 24.1 in adductor muscle, respectively, but that (882.8 mg/100 g and 40.2) of oyster was higher than those of pearl processing byproducts. Based on the results of physicochemical and nutritional properties, pearl oyster muscle and adductor muscle can be utilized as a food resource.

Textural, Isotopic, and Chemical Investigation of Cultured Pearls (양식진주의 조직적, 동위원소적 및 화학적 연구)

  • Woo, Kyung Sik
    • 한국해양학회지
    • /
    • v.24 no.2
    • /
    • pp.69-78
    • /
    • 1989
  • Cultivated pearls, composed of aragonite crystals, show two distinctive layers: nacreous and conchiolin organic layers. Each aragonite crystal is surrounded by organic matrix, which probably consists of amino acids. Nucleus, surrounded by pearl layer, also consists of nacreous crystals, suggesting that there is a close mineralogical and ultrasturctural relationship between pearl and nucleus. Carbon isotopic values of cultivated pearls are within the range of marine carbonate carbon. Oxygen isotopic composition indicates that the temperature for the growth of pearl and pearl oyster ranges from 16.4 to $21.4^{\circ}C$ and from 15.5 to $24.8^{\circ}C$, corresponding to the summer temperature range of the cultivating area. Elemental composition of pearl, pearl oyster, and nucleus shows that there is a difference in chemical composition depending upon the original mineralogy and the chemical composition of water in which shells grow. Especially, a strong relationship exists between pearl and the inner layer of pearl oyster because both are composed of nacreous aragonite and formed in a shallow marine environment.

  • PDF

Selection of Cryoprotectants for Cryopreservation of Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii Trochophore (진주조개, Pinctada fucata martensii 담륜자의 냉동보존을 위한 동해방지제의 선택)

  • 장영진;최윤희;장윤정
    • Development and Reproduction
    • /
    • v.3 no.1
    • /
    • pp.107-111
    • /
    • 1999
  • To find out the desirable cryoprotectant for cryopreservation of bivalve trochophores, four types of cryoprotectant were tested with trochophores of the pearl oyster (pinctada fucata martensii) generally used in the pearl production in Korea. Each cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, glycerol and 1,2-propanediol) was mixed with 0.2 M sucrose to make final concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 M. The trochophores were immersed in each preparation, waiting for 10 minutes to reach equilibration and cryopreserved in the liquid nitrogen (-l96$^{\circ}C$). Survival rate of trochophores thawed after cryopreservation increased as the media concentration increase. However, a few number of the trochophores seemed to be damaged with the efflux of cell inclusions. Our study rsults indicate that desirable cryoprotectants for cryopreservation of pearl oyster trochophores are 1.0~2.0 M dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol : 82.8~97.4% of the trochophores cryopreserved with these media survived after thawing.

  • PDF

Lipid Components of the Cultured Pearl Oyster (Pinctada fucata martensii) in Korea

  • Moon Soo-Kyung;Kang Ji-Yeon;Kim Kyeong-Dae;Kim In-Soo;Jeong Bo-Young
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
    • /
    • v.8 no.4
    • /
    • pp.189-194
    • /
    • 2005
  • Protein, lipid classes, and fatty acid composition, including n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), were analyzed in the soft parts, which we differentiated as the adductor muscles and 'other portions,' from the cultured pearl oyster after the pearl was harvested and before the nucleus was grafted to evaluate the nutritional qualities of the soft parts. Total lipid content was higher in the other portions of the soft parts ($1.25-1.26\%$) than in the adductor muscles ($0.58­0.65\%$) in both pearl oyster samples, whereas protein content was higher in the latter ($15.5­18.7\%$) than in the former ($11.2-13.9\%$; P<0.05). The percentage of total lipids (TLs) consisting of phospholipids (PLs) was higher in the adductor muscles ($60.4-68.3\%$) than in the other portions ($40.6-47.0\%$), but the percentage of nonpolar lipids (NLs) was higher in the other portions of the soft parts. The prominent lipid classes were free sterol (FS) and triglyceride (TG) in the NLs and phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the PLs. The adductor muscles contained high levels of FS and all PL classes, while the other portions contained high levels of all NL classes, especially TG (but not FS; P<0.05). The prominent fatty acids were 22:6n-3 ($17.2-24.9\%$), 16:0 ($8.35-15.8\%$), 20:5n-3 ($7.95-14.9\%$), 18:0 dimethyl acetal (DMA, $4.79-13.5\%$), 18:0 ($4.50-6.16\%$), and 20:4n-6 ($4.36-5.43\%$). The percentages of 22:6n-3, 20:4n-6, and 18:0 DMA were higher in the adductor muscles than in the other portions of both pearl oyster samples, while those of 20:5n-3 and 16:0 were higher in the other portions (P<0.05). The levels of these food components were similar to those of other bivalves or were higher, especially the protein content, indicating that the soft parts of pearl oysters, which are currently wasted, have food value.

Growth Comparison of Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata between the Two Culturing Areas (양성장에 따른 진주조개, Pinctada fucata의 성장)

  • YOO Sung Kyoo;CHANG Young Jin;LIM Hyun Sig
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.19 no.6
    • /
    • pp.593-598
    • /
    • 1986
  • The growth of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata was compared between two areas, Hansan Bay and Ilkwang located in southern part and in southeast part of Korean waters respectively, from November 1984 to June 1986. The pearl oysters in Hansan Bay grew from 2.53cm to 6.07 cm in shell length in 17 months, while those in Ilkwang grew from 2.53 cm to 4.07 cm in 19 momths. Shell height, shell breadth and total weight of the pearl oysters in Hansan Bay also showed more rapid growth than those in Ilkwang. The relative growth of shell breadth to shell length in specimens between Hansan Bay and Ilkwang showed a significant difference indicating that the value in Ilkwang is bigger than that in Hansan Bay, It is also suggested that Hansan Bay is a good area for the growth and Ilkwang, an area worth wintering of the pearl oyster.

  • PDF