• Title, Summary, Keyword: pectins

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Purification and Analysis of Pectins (펙틴의 정제 및 분석)

  • 황재관
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.500-509
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    • 1993
  • Pectins present in the primary cell walls and middle lamellae of plant cell walls are extracted by water, cheating agents, acid or alkali solutions. However, some neutral contaminating components are extracted in conjunction with pectins during the extraction process. Thus, the accurate characterization of physi-cochemical properties of pectins necessitates to get rid of the impurities. In this review, dialysis, alcohol precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and metal precipitation were compared as procedures to purify the pectin extracts. In addition, the chemical methods to analyze pectins are discussed in terms of three major chemical constituents, i.e., anhydrogalacturonic acid, methoxyl groups and neutral sugars.

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Modeling of Rheological Properties of Pectins by Side Branches (펙틴의 곁사슬에 의한 유변학적 성질에 대한 모델)

  • Shin, Hae-Hun;Hwang, Jae-Kwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.583-589
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    • 2002
  • The rheological properties of apple pectins and tomato pectins with different degrees of side branches (sample I and sample II) were investigated with wide range of shear rate by theological modeling. Among the Power law model, Cross model and Carreau model, the Carreau model was the best fitted to the experimental data. Increasing in branching of apple pectins resulted in higher zero-shear viscosity $({\eta}_0)$. But, tomato pectins that have a low degree of side branches were shown litte difference between sample I and sample II. It is concluded that side branches of pectins can result in significant difference in rheological properties. And, this is predicted by the Carreau model.

Changes in Solution Properties of Pectins by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sidechains

  • Hwang, Jae-Kwan;Jozef L. Kokini
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.389-395
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    • 1995
  • The neutral sugar sidechains of apple pectins were hydrolyzed by commercial hemicellulase produced from Aspergillus niger, and the corresponding changes in solution viscosity were investigated in dilute(cc*) pectin solutions. Pectinase activity included in hemicellulases was removed by Epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography using polygalacturonic acid as a ligand. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sidechains did not affect the specifc viscosity of dilute(0.5%) pectin solutions, while viscosity significantly decreased in concentrated(2.0∼6.0%) region. These results strongly suggest that the sidechains of pectins exists as an entangled state in concentrated solutions. It was also found that in the concentrated region the extent of viscosity reduction was dependent on pectin concentrations.

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Changes on the Components of Free Polysaccharide from Cell Wall of Persimmon Fruit by Treatments of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes (세포벽분해효소의 처리에 따른 감과실의 세포벽 유리 다당류의 변화)

  • 신승렬;김미현
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.173-183
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    • 1995
  • This paper was carried out to investigate changes in chromatograms of polysacctatides and soluble pectins on Sephadex G-50 and non-cellulosic neutral sugars of polysaccharides isolated from cell wall of persimmon fruits treated with polygalacturonase and $\beta$-galactosidase in vitro. The chromatogram pattern of soluble pectins extracted from cell wall treated with $\beta$-galactosidase on Sephacryl S-500 column were similar to those of untreatment, but contents of soluble pectins treated with $\beta$-galactosidase were different from those of untreatment. The patterns of chromatograms In soluble pectins extracted from cell wall treated with polygalacturonase were more complex and lower molecular polymer than those of other cell wall-degrading enzyme treatments. Non-cellulosic neutral sugar of polysaccharides in fraction I of soluble material treated with polygalacturonase was rhamnose, those in fraction II were similar to those in fraction III and contents of arabinose, xylose and glucose were higher than contents of other non-cellulosic neutral sugars. Non-cellulosic neutral sugars of polysaccharides in fraction I in soluble material by $\beta$-galactosidase treatment were rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and mannose. Content of glucose of polysaccharides in fraction II was higher than that in fraction I . Non-cellulosic neutral sugars treated with mixed enzyme were rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose. Compositions of non-cellulosic neutral sugars of polysaccharides in fraction I were similar to those in fraction II and III.

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Changes in the Enzyme Activities, Pectins and Structure of Persimmon Fruit during Softening (감과실의 연화중 효소활성, 펙틴 및 조직의 변화)

  • 신승렬;문광덕;이광희;김광수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.611-616
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    • 1993
  • This study was carried out to investigate change in the polygalacturonase and ${\beta}-galactosidase$ activities, pectins, cell wall structure of persimmon fruit during ripening and softening. Polygalacturonase and ${\beta}-galactosidase$ activities were not detected at turning stage. However polygalacturonase activities of mature and soft persimmon fruits were 55.01 and 206.70units/100g-fresh weight(fr. wt.), respectively. ${\beta}-Galactosidase$ activities of mature and soft persimmon fruits were 21.79 and 380.23unit/100g-fr. wt. respectively. The contents of total and insoluble pectins increased during maturation but decreased during softening. The content of water-soluble pectin increased during maturation and softening. The intercellular space was in larged during ripening, and middle lamella was degraded in mature persimmon fruit, and the cells of soft persimmon fruit were separated each other.

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Immunopotentiating and Antitumor Activities of Purified pectins and Polysaccharides from Trichosnnthes Rhizoma and Taraxii Herba

  • Park, Soo-Wan;Chung, Yeoun-Bong;Kim, Hye-Kyung;Lee, Chung-Kyu
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.126-130
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    • 1994
  • Water-soluble pectins isolated from Trichosanthes Rhizoma and Taraxii Herba and their deproteinized polysaccharides were purified through DEAE cellulose column and were applied to immunopotentiating and antitumor studies to clarify the nature of their activities of our previous reports. As the results of works, the lectins and deproteinized polysaccharides increased the number of circulating leukocytes and total peritoneal cells. And they markedly elevated the lowered production of antibody and reactivity of T Iymphocyte in tumor-bearing mice, which were rapidly recovered by discontinuance of sample treatments. They also decreased the growth of Sarcoma 180 solid tumor in mice.

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Copper binding capacity and physicochemical properties of pectins with different degrees of esterification. Approach to standardization of pectin preparations

  • Kovalev, Valeri V;Khotimchenko, Maxim Y;Khotimchenko, Yuri S
    • Advances in Traditional Medicine
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.171-181
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    • 2007
  • Metal binding activity of the pectin samples with different physicochemical properties was studied. It was found that in vitro copper binding capacity of pectins is depending on the following factors: degree of esterification, content of non-methylated anhydrogalacturonic acid, and pH of solution. There was found that the maximum copper uptake capacity increases correspondingly to reduction of the degree of esterification of pectin, rise of the non-methylated anhydrogalacturnic acid content and the solution pH. It is proposed to use for standardization of pectin samples such parameters as the degree of esterification, content of anhydrogalacturonic acid, and intrinsic viscosity.

Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides as Potential Resources for the Development of Novel Prebiotics

  • Yoo, Hye-Dong;Kim, Do-Jung;Paek, Seung-Ho;Oh, Seung-Eun
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.371-379
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    • 2012
  • Prebiotic oligosaccharides, with a degree of polymerization (DP) of mostly less than 10, exhibit diverse biological activities that contribute to human health. Currently available prebiotics are mostly derived from disaccharides and simple polysaccharides found in plants. Subtle differences in the structures of oligosaccharides can cause significant differences in their prebiotic properties. Therefore, alternative substances supplying polysaccharides that have more diverse and complex structures are necessary for the development of novel oligosaccharides that have actions not present in existing prebiotics. In this review, we show that structural polysaccharides found in plant cell walls, such as xylans and pectins, are particularly potential resources supplying broadly diverse polysaccharides to produce new prebiotics.

Comparison of Changes in Cell Wall Characteristics during Storage in 'Niitaka' and 'Pingguoli' Pear Fruits (동양배 '신고'와 '사과배' 과실의 저장 중 세포벽 특성의 변화 비교)

  • Kim, Jin-Gook;Piao, Yilong;Chun, Jong-Pil;Kataoka, Ikuo;Hwang, Yong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2009
  • The characteristics of fruit ripening and cell wall modifications of two oriental pear fruits were compared during storage. The loss of fresh weight was lower in 'Pingguoli' than 'Niitaka', probably due to the difference in wax accumulation and skin structure. 'Pingguoli' produced much higher amount of ethylene and showed climacteric ripening pattern, but this response was not found in 'Niitaka'. A significant difference in soluble pectin contents was found, thus, the amount of water soluble pectins were much higher in 'Niitaka' at harvest but this difference was not significant at later stage of storage. A severe loss of water soluble pectins in 'Niitaka' was confirmed whereas a similar tendency was not found in CDTA soluble ones. Even the amount of $Na_2CO_3$ soluble pectins was relatively low, 'Pingguoli' contained approximately 2 times higher than 'Niitaka' and both cultivars showed an increasing tendency in $Na_2CO_3$ soluble polymers at later stage of storage. No significant difference in alkali soluble polysaccharides (hemicelluloses fraction) was found between both cultivars. There was a significant change in gel filtration profiles regardless of cultivars, especially in water soluble pectins resulting from severe depolymerization probably due to degradation of higher molecular weight pectins and loss of their side chains. In gel filtration profiles of $Na_2CO_3$ soluble pectins, neutral sugars were evenly distributed regardless of molecular size of pectic polymers but the decrease of high molecular weight fraction was found. In comparison of alkali soluble polymers, a similar trend was found, that is, there was no difference in gel filtration profiles but 'Niitaka' seemed to have longer side chains in alkali soluble polysaccharides in both 4% and 24% of KOH soluble fractions.

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Effect of 1-MCP and High $pCO_2$ Treatment on the Firmness and Pectin Changes in Peach(Prunus persica) Fruit During Shelf-life (1-Methylcyclopropene(1-MCP) 및 $CO_2$ 처리가 복숭아(Prunus persica) 과실의 경도와 세포벽 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Myun-Surn;Min, Jeong-Ho;Chun, Jong-Pil;Kim, Jin-Guk;Lee, Eun-Mo;Lee, Ji-Yong;Hwang, Yong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 2010
  • In order to understand the effects of a single or combined treatments of 1-MCP($1{\mu}L/L$) and $CO_2$(100%) on the firmness of melting type peach fruit(cv. Chunjungdo), fruit were harvested at commercial maturity and examined physiological changes including flesh firmness during 10 days of shelf-life. Firmness loss of fruit was delayed by both single and combined treatments of 1-MCP and $CO_2$. The treatment of 1-MCP was more effective than $CO_2$ treatment but no additive effective on firmness retention was found in the combined treatment. The upsurge of ethylene evolution occurred 5 days of shelf-life in air treated control but ethylene evolution gradually increased in fruit treated by 1-MCP and 1-MCP+$CO_2$. The suppression of ethylene evolution seemed stronger in $CO_2$ treatment. The respiration of fruit significantly inhibited up to 10 days except control where climacteric increase of respiration was found at 10 days of shelf-life. A molecular shift of pectic polymers(an increase of chelator soluble pectins and decrease of water soluble pectins) was induced by both 1-MCP and $CO_2$ treatments. An increase of water soluble pectins was coincident with firmness loss. The delay of firmness loss seemed to be associated with the migration of calcium to wall matrix, especially pectins, resulting in the increase of wall bound calcium. The polygalacturonase activity was significantly reduced by 1-MCP alone 1 day after treatment and increased to similar level of activity 5 days after treatment compared to other treatment except air treated control whereas pectin methylesterase activity seemed not to be affected by both 1-MCP and $CO_2$ treatments. Thus, the molecular shift of pectic polymers appeared not to be related with pectin methylesterase. Further study is required to clarify the softening mechanism associated with molecular shift of pectic polymers and the inter- or intra-cellular movement of calcium ions induced by postharvest treatments of 1-MCP and $CO_2$.