• Title, Summary, Keyword: pellet-coated

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Effect of Seed Priming and Pellet Coating Materials on Seedling Emergence of Aster koraiensis (프라이밍과 펠렛코팅 소재가 벌개미취 종자의 유묘 출현율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Won Sik;Kim, Min Geun;Kim, Soo Young;Han, Sim Hee;Kim, Du Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.109 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2020
  • In this study, the effect of seed pre-treatments and pellet coating materials to enhance the efficiency of large-scale propagation of Aster koraiensis seeds were investigated. Seeds were immersed in water for one day, and only those that sank were used for pre-treatment to use filled seeds. Pre-treatments were divided into hormone treatments, with gibberellic acid (GA3; 200 and 500 ppm) and 24-epibrassinolide (10-6, 10-7, and 10-8M), and priming with potassium nitrate (100 mM of KNO3). To produce pellet-coated seeds, pellet materials (DTCS or DTK) were applied to control (unprimed) and primed seeds with binders (PVA or CMC). The maximum germination percent (GP) of seeds before pellet coating was 65% (with the priming treatment), and there was no difference in the GP of seeds among hormone treatments. For seeds sown in a growth chamber on filter paper, GP was 41% for control (unprimed/uncoated) seeds, 65% for uncoated primed seeds, 71% for DTCS/PVA-pellet-coated seeds, and 42% for DTK/CMC-pellet-coated seeds. Seeds that were primed first and then pellet-coated showed greatly improved GP, mean germination time (MGT), and germination rate than seeds that were only pellet-coated. For seeds sown in commercial soil in a greenhouse, control seeds had a GP of 27%, whereas primed seeds had the highest GP (58%), and their MGT and GT were 9.4 days and 7.0%·day, respectively. In addition, DTK/PVA-pellet-coated seeds (40%) also had a GP higher than the control (27%), and their MGT was 15-27 days. For seeds sown in sandy-loam soil in a greenhouse, unprimed-pellet-coated seeds and primed-pellet-coated seeds both had GPs ranged of 39%, which were lower than that of control seeds. In general, the seeds that were pellet-coated with DTK had a higher GP than those pellet-coated with DTCS. Furthermore, the MGT of unprimed-pellet-coated seeds was 15.0-19.8 days, which was longer than the MGT of primed-pellet-coated seeds. These results suggest that priming enhances seedling emergence of Aster koraiensis seeds. Moreover, when priming is combined with pellet coating, DTK is a more suitable pellet material than DTCS, and PVA and CMC are equally suitable adhesives.

Formulation of Erythromycin Enteric-coated Pellets (에리스로마이신 장용성 펠렛의 제제 설계)

  • 이승우;박은석;지상철
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.593-599
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    • 1995
  • Erythromycin was formulated as enteric-coated pellets in order to reduce degradation in stomach and gastromtestmal irritation, and to maximize the absorption in intestine followmg its oral administration. Core pellets were prepared using fluid-bed granulator with two different methods (powder layering and solvent spraying) and enteric-coated with two different coating polymers (HPMCP and Eudragit E30D). Physical characteristics md dissolution rates of core pellets and enteric-coated pellets were evaluated to optimize the formulation. Powder layering method resulted in shorter initial dissolution time than solvent spraying method, but physicochmical properties of the product were worse than solvent spraying method with respect to hardness, ftiability and density. The dissolution rate of the drug was increased with the addition of surfactants, showing concentration-dependence. The scanning electron microscopic observation of pellets revealed significant differences on the surface appearances prepared with solvent spraying method. The core pellet made with powder layering method had crystals on the surface, which resulted in poor physical properties of the pellets. The dissolution profiles of erythromycin pellets coated with HPMCP or Eudragit L30D were close to that of commercially available erythromycin enteric-coated product.

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Physical properties, released patterns and bio-efficacy of granular mixtures with chlomethoxyfen and butachlor formulated by different methods (제조방식을 달리한 chlomethoxyfen과 butachlor 혼합입제의 물리성, 수중용출도와 생물효과 비교)

  • Chung, Bong-Jin;Yeon, Jae-Heum
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.36-44
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    • 1998
  • To develope cost-effective new granular formulation of mixture with 7.0% chlomethoxyfen and 3.5% butachlor, this study was conducted by investigation of floatability, dispersibility or collapsability and released concentration of active ingredients in water and bio-efficacies of the granules formulated by different formulation methods compared to commercial pellet-extruded granules. They were formulated by coating on or impregnation into extruded pellets, sands and zeolites with two active ingredients, binders, friction reducer, dispersing agents and bentonite. Pellet-coated method showed similar floatability, collapsability and bio-efficacy to the commercial pellet-extruded one or better than that but unstable patterns of released concentration of chlomethoxyfen because of easy isolation of coated technical particles from the surface of granules. Sand-coated methods showed similar physical properties, released pattern of two active ingredients, and bio-efficacy to the commercial one. Liquid binders and/or dispersing agents are more important than powdered ones to control released concentration of active ingredients from the granule mixtures, to improve the floatability and dispersibility, and to show good bio-efficacy. Sand-coated one might be a suitable method if types and amount of liquid binders and dispersing agents are selected.

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Study on PVC Mixed Silver Iodide Membrane Electrode (PVC 를 섞은 요오드화은 막전극에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon Young-Soon;Kim Jung-Hee;Park Kee-Chae
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.486-493
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    • 1976
  • The PVC mixed silver iodide pellet was prepared by means of the Infrared Pellet presser and the pellet was used as an indicating membrane electrode, to measure the potentials for various silver ion activities, ranging from $10^{-1}$ to $10^{-6}$ M. The potential responses to silver ion activities were linear and the slope was much close to Nernstian relation as compared with that of the pure silver iodide pellet membrane electrode and the PVC coated silver iodide pellet membrane electrode. The mechanical property and chemical durability of this electrode were found much better than the others. This electrode did not show significant response to the other except silver ion, but had good response to halide ions, i.e., iodide, chloride, bromide and cyanide ions, in the concentration range $10^{-1}$ to $10^{-6}$ M. This electrode could be used as an indicating electrode in potentiometric titrations of single halide ion and also halide mixture with standard solution of silver nitrate.

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The Formulation and Dissolution Properties of Oral Sustained Release Sulindac Delivery System (설린닥의 경구용 지속성 제제설계 및 용출특성)

  • Rhee, Gye-Ju;Park, Sun-Hee;Suh, Sung-Su;Whang, Sung-Joo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.48-59
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    • 1997
  • Sustained release matrix tablets, pellets, and coated pellets for the delivery of sulindac were prepared using cellulose derivatives at various ratios, and evaluated for the dis solution pattern. The release of sulindac, from matrix tablets prepared with low viscosity HPMC was relatively fast, and especially the tablets made of Metolose SM released all of sulindac within 1 hr. The release of drug from tablets made of other HPMC derivatives were retarded in the order of the following: Pharmacoat 645>Pharmacoat 606>Pharrnacoat 606+HPC-L>HPC-L. The most sustained release pattern was observed with the preparation of high viscous polymer. Metolose 90 SH. While release of sulindac, from matrix type pellet containing 10mg/cap of Metolose 90 SH or 60 SH was completed within 1 hr, a prolonged release formulation (30% in 1 hr) was obtained by the inclusion of EC. Pellets coated with HPMC showed a fast release pattern (${\geq}$ 80% within 2 hrs), whereas pellets coated with HPMC and EC (molar ratio 1 : 1) showed a sustained release pattern (${\geq}$ 80% in 12 hrs), vath the release from EC pellets being the most sustained. Fast (naked) and slow release pellets coated with EC, Metolose 60SH 50cps and propylene glycol. and enteric pellets coated with HPMCP 55 and Myvacet$^{\circledR}$ were prepared, and combined at various ratios for the assessment of dissolution pattern. The result indicates the possibility that the development of 24 hr sustained release delivery systems containing sulindac for oral administration could be achieved by means of combining sustained and fast release pellets at a proper portion.

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Formulation and Preparation of Sustained Release Pellet for Alfuzosin HCI Using Fluid-bed coater (유동층 코팅기를 이용한 염산알푸조신의 서방형 과립 설계 및 제조)

  • Na, Jin-Sang;Yoon, Yang-No;Seo, Hui;Jeong, Sang-Young;Park, Eun-Seok;Hwan, Sung-Joo;Shin, Byung-Cheol;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Cho, Sun-Hang
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.387-392
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    • 2008
  • Alfuzosin, an Alphal-adrenoceptor antagonist is used for the treatment of patients with voiding and in a lesser extent storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The objective of this study was to formulate sustained release alfuzosin HCl granules and assess their formulation variables. The $Eudragit^{(R)}$ as a polymer, sustained release membrane, and dibutyl sebacate (DBS) as a plasticizer were used. Multi-coated alfuzosin HCl delivery systems composed of sugar sphere, various excipients, $Eudragit^{(R)}$ and HPMC (hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose), Cellulose Acetate were prepared by fluid-bed coater. Membrane layer were used $Eudragit^{(R)}$ RS PO and NE 30D. And the alfuzosin HCl coated beads were coated immediate release drug layer for initial burst. Its dissolution test was carried out compared to conventional products ($XATRAL^{(R)}$ XL). The release rate of drug from coated beads was higher than that from $XATRAL^{(R)}$ XL in pH 6.8.

Development of Precision Drilling Machine for the Instrumentation of Nuclear Fuels (핵연료계장을 위한 정밀 드릴링장치 개발)

  • Hong, Jintae;Jeong, Hwang-Young;Ahn, Sung-Ho;Joung, Chang-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.223-230
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    • 2013
  • When a new nuclear fuel is developed, an irradiation test needs to be carried out in the research reactor to analyze the performance of the new nuclear fuel. In order to check the performance of a nuclear fuel during the irradiation test in the test loop of a research reactor, sensors need to be attached in and out of the fuel rod and connect them with instrumentation cables to the measuring device located outside of the reactor pool. In particular, to check the temporary temperature change at the center of a nuclear fuel during the irradiation test, a thermocouple should be instrumented at the center of the fuel rod. Therefore, a hole needs to be made at the center of fuel pellet to put in the thermocouple. However, because the hardness and the density of a sintered $UO_2$ pellet are very high, it is difficult to make a small fine hole on a sintered $UO_2$ pellet using a simple drilling machine even though we use a diamond drill bit made by electro deposition. In this study, an automated drilling machine using a CVD diamond drill has been developed to make a fine hole in a fuel pellet without changing tools or breakage of workpiece. A sintered alumina ($Al_2O_3$) block which has a higher hardness than a sintered $UO_2$ pellet is used as a test specimen. Then, it is verified that a precise hole can be drilled off without breakage of the drill bit in a short time.

Preparation and Dissolution Characteristics of Sustained Release Pellets Containing Isosorbide Dinitrate (질산 이소소르비드가 함유된 서방형 펠렛의 제조 및 용출 특성)

  • Lee, Gye-Won;Kim, Hak-Hyung;Ryu, Sung-Kyun
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.381-385
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    • 2008
  • Isosorbide dinitrate is an oral assiatant therapy agent of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. The objective of this study was to formulate sustained release containing isosorbide dinitrate and assess their formulation variables. Pellets were prepared by fluid bed process and consist of drug layer and membrane layer. The pellets were coated with ethylcellulose along with $5{\sim}15%$ of plasticizer such as triacetin and diethyl butylrate. In vitro evaluation study was performed by comparative dissolution test between test and reference isosorbide dinitrate preparation. We could prepare sustained pellets of isosorbide dinitrate by fluid bed process which were reduced process time and had high content. The pellet coated with 1% ethylcellulose and triacetin(l5%) had a similar dissolution behavior compare to reference isosorbide dinitrate preparation controlling initial dissolution and those of dissolution at 30 min were 17.25 and 17.09%, respectively. Difference factor and similarity factor were $0{\sim}15$ and $50{\sim}100$ and there was no significant difference in bioequivalence between formulations. It might be concluded that our sustained release pellet of isosorbide dinitrate could be an alternatively delivery system to reference drug preparation.

Development and sustained release effect of implantable formula of somatotropin (Somatotropin 이식 제형 개발과 지속적 방출 효과)

  • Kim, Nam-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2008
  • The present study was carried out to develop a sustained release implantable formula of bovine somatotropin (SRIF-BST) and to examine its sustained release effect. The SRIF-BST was produced by coating a solid pellet, which was comprised of BST and an excipient, made of a biodegradable polymer and poloxamer, which are capable of regulating the rate of BST release. The coated membrane of SRIFBST was observed with a field emission scanning electron microscope. The thickness of the coated membrane was approximately $1{\mu}m$, and the pore sizes of the coated membrane surface were below $10{\mu}m$. In dissolution test, the release duration of the SRIF-BST maintained for 10 days, whereas the release duration of the control BST formula maintained for 3 days. In weight gain assay and tibia test of hypophysectomized rats, the release duration of the SRIF-BST treated group was 12 days and the net weight gain was 53.16 g, also the tibia length and strength of the SRIF-BST treated group was increased 10.5% and 23.1% compared with those of the control group, respectively.

Effect of Surfactant-Coated Charcoal Amendment on the Composting Process and Nutrient Retention

  • Pinwisat, Phetrada;Phoolphundh, Sivawan;Buddhawong, Sasidhorn;Vinitnantharat, Soydoa
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.37-40
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    • 2014
  • This research investigates the quality changes during composting of bagasse and pig manure amended with 30% of surfactant-coated charcoal (SC). Two treatments, 30% uncoated charcoal (UC) amendment and no charcoal (NC) amendment, were done as control. Charcoal was coated with 0.37 mM tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDMA), a cationic surfactant, at the dosage of 10 g/L. At the end of the composting period, the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of SC amendment was 9.7; whereas, the C/N ratios of UC and NC amendment were 12.6 and 21.4, respectively. Plant nutrients contents of the compost produced from SC amendment were 20.7 mg $NH_4{^+}-N/g$, 42.8 mg $NO_3{^-}-N/g$, and 41.7 mg P/g. High nitrate and phosphate concentrations in SC amendment were due to the adsorption of these anions on the positive charge of TDMA. Desorption of plant nutrients retained in the compost pellets was also investigated. It was predicted that nitrate was fully desorbed from a pellet at 23 days for SC amendment, which was later than UC (14 days) and NC (10 days) amendment. A slow release of nitrate from the compost pellet will reduce the nitrate leaching into the environment. Thus, the adding of SC in the compost pile is one of the alternative methods to improve the quality of compost and plant nutrient retention.