• Title, Summary, Keyword: pellicle

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Imaging Performance of the Dependence of EUV Pellicle Transmittance (EUV 펠리클 투과도에 따른 이미지 전사 특성 분석)

  • Woo, Dong Gon;Kim, Jung Hwan;Kim, Jung Sik;Hong, Seoungchul;Ahn, Jinho
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.35-39
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    • 2016
  • Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is the most promising technique in the field of Next Generation Lithography (NGL) expected to be used in the 1x-nm node for High Volume Manufacturing (HVM). But there exits remaining challenges for proper defect control of EUV mask. It was considered development of EUV pellicle for protecting the EUV mask has many obstacles due to high extinction coefficient of EUV wavelength. Recently researchers in the industry of semiconductor argue about the necessity of EUV pellicle and make effort to achieve it. In this paper, we investigated that the relationship between imaging performance and transmittance of EUV pellicle quantitatively. We made in-house EUV pellicle and analyzed its imaging performance of the dependence of pellicle transmittance using Coherent Scattering Microscopy(CSM). The imaging performance of EUV mask with pellicle is affected by its transmittance and we found that the performance of EUV mask improved with higher transmittance pellicle.

Manufacturing Large-scale SiNx EUV Pellicle with Water Bath (물중탕을 이용한 대면적 SiNx EUV 펠리클 제작)

  • Kim, Jung Hwan;Hong, Seongchul;Cho, Hanku;Ahn, Jinho
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.17-21
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    • 2016
  • EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) pellicle which protects a mask from contamination became a critical issue for the application of EUV lithography to high-volume manufacturing. However, researches of EUV pellicle are still delayed due to no typical manufacturing methods for large-scale EUV pellicle. In this study, EUV pellicle membrane manufacturing method using not only KOH (potassium hydroxide) wet etching process but also a water bath was suggested for uniform etchant temperature distribution. KOH wet etching rates according to KOH solution concentration and solution temperature were confirmed and proper etch condition was selected. After KOH wet etching condition was set, $5cm{\times}5cm$ SiNx (silicon nitride) pellicle membrane with 80% EUV transmittance was successfully manufactured. Transmittance results showed the feasibility of wet etching method with water bath as a large-scale EUV pellicle manufacturing method.

Evaluation on the Relationship between Mask Imaging Performance and Standoff Distance of EUV Pellicle (EUV pellicle의 standoff 거리에 따른 이미지 전사 특성 평가)

  • Woo, Dong Gon;Hong, Seongchul;Kim, Jung Sik;Cho, Hanku;Ahn, Jinho
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.22-26
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    • 2016
  • Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pellicle is one of the most concerned research in the field of EUV lithography (EUVL). Imaging performance of EUV mask with pellicle should be investigated prior to high volume manufacturing (HVM) of EUVL. In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between standoff distance and imaging performance of EUV mask to verify the influences of relative standoff distance on imaging performance. As a result, standoff distance of EUV pellicle has no effect on imaging performance of EUV mask such as critical dimension (CD), normalized image log slope (NILS) and image contrast. Therefore, pellicle support structure can be flexibly designed and modified in diverse ways to complement the thermal limitation of EUV pellicle membrane.

Mechanical Stability Evaluation of Thin Film with Spin-coater (스핀코터를 이용한 박막의 기계적 안정성 평가)

  • Kim, Ji Eun;Kim, Jung Hwan;Hong, Seongchul;Cho, HanKu;Ahn, Jinho
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.6-11
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    • 2016
  • For high volume manufacturing using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, mask protection from contamination during lithography process must be solved, and EUV pellicle is the strongest solution. Based on the technical requirements of EUV pellicle, EUV pellicle should have large membrane area ($110{\times}140mm^2$) with film transmittance over 90% and mechanical stability. Even though pellicle that satisfies size standard with high transmittance has been reported, its mechanical stability has not been confirmed, nor is there a standard to evaluate the mechanical stability. In this study, we suggest a rather simple method evaluating mechanical stability of pellicle membrane using spin-coater which can emulate the linear accelerated motion. The test conditions were designed by simulating the acceleration distribution inside pellicle membrane through correlating the linear acceleration and centripetal acceleration, which occurs during linear movement and rotation movement, respectively. By these simulation results, we confirmed the possibility of using spin-coater to evaluate the mechanical stability of EUV pellicle.

Manufacturing SiNx Extreme Ultraviolet Pellicle with HF Wet Etching Process (HF 습식 식각을 이용한 극자외선 노광 기술용 SiNx)

  • Kim, Ji Eun;Kim, Jung Hwan;Hong, Seongchul;Cho, HanKu;Ahn, Jinho
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 2015
  • In order to protect the patterned mask from contamination during lithography process, pellicle has become a critical component for Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography technology. According to EUV pellicle requirements, the pellicle should have high EUV transmittance and robust mechanical property. In this study, silicon nitride, which is well-known for its remarkable mechanical property, was used as a pellicle membrane material to achieve high EUV transmittance. Since long silicon wet etching process time aggravates notching effect causing stress concentration on the edge or corner of etched structure, the remaining membrane is prone to fracture at the end of etch process. To overcome this notching effect and attain high transmittance, we began preparing a rather thick (200 nm) $SiN_x$ membrane which can be stably manufactured and was thinned into 43 nm thickness with HF wet etching process. The measured EUV transmittance shows similar values to the simulated result. Therefore, the result shows possibilities of HF thinning processes for $SiN_x$ EUV pellicle fabrication.

Salivary Components Adsorbing to Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells (구강점막 상피세포에 부착하는 타액 성분)

  • Kho, Hong-Seop
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.261-267
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    • 1999
  • The present investigation was carried out to identify salivary components of mucosal pellicle and to explore the difference of mucosal pellicle components according to the location of oral mucosa. By using antisera and immunoblotting, high-(MG1) and low-(MG2) molecular-mass salivary mucins, amylase, IgA, proline-rich proteins(PRPs) were detected in mucosal pellicle in vivo. In addition, the data indicated that mucins, IgA and proline-rich proteins could be cleaved into lower-molecular-mass products, whereas the IgA, proline-rich proteins could also be cross-linked into higher-molecular-mass complexes. Mucosal pellicles from buccal, labial and palatal mucosa showed similar pattern in immunoblotting experiments using anti-MG2 and anti-PRPs antisera. The data from this study suggest that during mucosal pellicle formation multiple components of saliva adsorb to oral mucosal epithelial cell surfaces, and selected components can be proteolytically cleaved into smaller fragments and/or cross-linked into higher-molecular products.

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Production of Microbial Cellulose and Acids in Kombucha

  • Soh, Han-Sup;Lee, Sam-Pin
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2002
  • Factors affecting the production of bacterial cellulose and organic acids in Kombucha fermentation were investigated. Kombucha was obtained by the fermentation (for 12 days at 3$0^{\circ}C$) of the green/black tea extract, supplemented with 10% white sugar, using an Oriental tea fungus as starter. Hitgher initial pH increased acid production with decreased cellulose production. With a cellulose pellicle or tea fungus broth as a starter, a 1~3 mm thick cellulose layer developed as a top layer every four days, and was removed subsequently while continuing fermentation. Addition of 30 mL tea fungus broth (13%, v/v) in Kombucha fermentation resulted in maximum production of a cellulose pellicle, indicating weak acid production. Yield of cellulose production at an early stage of fermentation was also higher when Kombucha was inoculated with a cellulose pellicle. In fact, addition of 1% (v/v) alcoholic beverage in the Kombucha fermentation activated the cellulose production, coupled with four times higher acid production.

Relationship between Hydrophobicity and Pellicle Formation in a Film Strain of Hansenula beijerinckii FY-5 Isolated from Apple Wine (사과주(酒) 산막효묘(産膜酵母) Hansenula beijerinckii FY-5 의 소수성(疏水性)과 산막성(産膜性)과의 관련성(關聯性))

  • Song, Hyung-Ik;Chung, Ki-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.203-207
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    • 1985
  • Relationship between cell surface hydrophobicity and pellicle formation was studied in a film strain isolated from stored apple wine and identified as Hansenula beijerinckii FY-5. In the media containing non-ionic surface-active agents the pellicle formation of strain FY-5 was efficiently repressed, whereas growth of the yeast was possible, and also cell surface hydrophobicity was greatly decreased by the addition of these agents. These results indicate that a pellicle formation factor, which keeps yeast cells floating on the medium surface, is necessary for the pellicle formation, and surely this factor is the hydrophobicity of the cell surface. The pellicle formation in the film strains was abundant with the increase of the cell surface hydrophobicity, whereas the non-film strains had less hydrophobicity as compared with the film strains. Ethanol, as a sole carbon source, efficiently increased hydrophobicity more than glucose, and the hydrophobicity was lowered with the rise of pH. In the experiments of time course, the hydrophobicity was increased in proportion to cell growth, and was maximum during the stationary phase.

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Study on Aluminum Frame Surface Cleaning Process for Photomask Pellicle Fabrication (포토마스크 펠리클 제조를 위한 Aluminum Frame 표면 세정공정 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun-Tae;Kim, Hyang-Ran;Kim, Min-Su;Lee, Jun;Jang, Sung-Hae;Choi, In-Chan;Park, Jin-Goo
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.25 no.9
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    • pp.462-467
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    • 2015
  • Pellicle is defined as a thin transparent film stretched over an aluminum (Al) frame that is glued on one side of a photomask. As semiconductor devices are pursuing higher levels of integration and higher resolution patterns, the cleaning of the Al flame surface is becoming a critical step because the contaminants on the Al flame can cause lithography exposure defects on the wafers. In order to remove these contaminants from the Al frame, a highly concentrated nitric acid ($HNO_3$) solution is used. However, it is difficult to fully remove them, which results in an increase in the Al surface roughness. In this paper, the pellicle frame cleaning is investigated using various cleaning solutions. When the mixture of sulfuric acid ($H_2SO_4$), hydrofluoric acid (HF), hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$), and deionized water with ultrasonic is used, a high cleaning efficiency is achieved without $HNO_3$. Thus, this cleaning process is suitable for Al frame cleaning and it can also reduce the use of chemicals.

Three Freshwater Lembadion Ciliates (Peniculida, Lembadionidae) Newly Reported from Korea

  • Kim, Sung Hoon;Yoon, Jae Sool;Yoon, Seong Myeong;Shin, Mann Kyoon
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.246-255
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    • 2017
  • Three freshwater ciliates, Lembadion lucens (Maskell, 1887) Kahl, 1931, L. bullinum ($M{\ddot{u}}ller$, 1786) Perty, 1849, and L. magnum (Stokes, 1887) Kahl, 1931, belonging to the genus Lembadion Perty, 1849 are newly reported from Korea with detailed descriptions and illustrations based on live observation and protargol impregnation. Lembadion lucens is characterized by following characteristics: $52-91{\times}33-64{\mu}m$ body size in vivo; ovoid and slightly asymmetric body shape; 27-49 somatic kineties; and 55-80% of whole pellicle covered with meridional lines with rectangular meshes in posterior portion. Lembadion bullinum is distinguishable from its congeners by its body size of $110-130{\times}60-73{\mu}m$ in vivo; ovoid body shape; oral aperture occupying about four-fifths of ventral side; 48-55 somatic ciliary rows; meridional lines with rectangular meshes except anterior portion (about 16% of body) on pellicle. Lembadion magnum is also characterized by its body size of $70-90{\times}37-50{\mu}m$ in vivo; obliquely asymmetric anterior end of body; oral aperture occupying about more than four-fifths of ventral surface, and opened longitudinally entire ventral surface; 45-61 somatic ciliary rows; meridional lines without rectangular meshes on whole pellicle of body. The present study is the first description of the genus Lembadion from Korea.