• Title/Summary/Keyword: penconazole

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Changes of pesticide residues in bagged pear and bagging paper during the field and storage (재배 및 저장기간 중 유대재배 배의 농약잔류량 변화)

  • Ihm, Yang-Bin;Kyung, Kee-Sung;Park, Young-Sup;Lee, Hee-Dong;Kim, Jin-Bae;Im, Gun-Jae;Ryu, Gab-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of fruit bagging on the amounts of pesticide residues on/in pears with two pesticides, chlorpyrifos 25% WP, and penconazole 5% WP, and two pear cultivars, Niitaka and Hwangeum-bae. Residues of chlorpyrifos and penconazole in bagged pears were only $0.4{\sim}27%$ of those in non-bagged one. Residues of both pesticides in bagged and non-bagged pears were steeply reduced in the field but slowly reduced during storage. Residues of chlorpyrifos were more in the peel than in the flesh, while penconazole in bagged pear was evenly distributed in the peel and flesh. Chlorpyrifos was evenly distributed in outer bag and inner bag irrespective of bag materials, while most of penconazole was found in outer bag rather than in inner bag. To produce safer pear from pesticide residues, removal of bag before storage is recommended.

Determination of fungicides in wines by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography with mass selective detection (고체상 추출법과 GC/MS를 이용한 포도주 중의 fungicides 정량)

  • Park, Gyo-Beom;Lee, Sueg-Geun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.438-442
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    • 2003
  • The fungicides, used for grape growth and remained in the wine products from domestic and foreign countries such as vinclozolin, dichlofluanid, penconazole, procymidone were quantitatively analyzed after solid-phase extraction using a GC/MS-SIM method. The results obtained were as follows: for all the samples, the content of procymidone was in the range from 2.2 to $76.1{\mu}g/L$, recoveries 81.3-93.1 %, and standard deviation 1.4-3.4 %.

Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Agricultural Products Collected from Wholesale and Traditional Markets in Cheongju (청주지역 유통 농산물 중 잔류농약 모니터링 및 안전성 평가)

  • Noh, Hyun-Ho;Kang, Kyung-Won;Park, Young-Soon;Park, Hyo-Kyung;Lee, Kwang-Hun;Lee, Jae-Yun;Yeop, Kyung-Won;Lee, Eun-Young;Jin, Yong-Duk;Kyung, Kee-Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2010
  • In order to survey residual characteristics of pesticides in the agricultural products selling at markets and to assess their safety, a total of 120 agricultural products were collected from the wholesale and traditional markets in Cheongju and analyzed the pesticide residues in them by multiresidue analysis method using GLC, HPLC and GC-MSD. Three pesticides, procymidone, penconazole, and tetraconazole, were detected from 4 samples such as onion, leek, tomato, and green pepper. Fungicide penconazole was detected from the onion collected from wholesale market. Fungicide procymidone was detected from leek and tomato and fungicide tetraconazole was detected from green pepper. Pesticide residues were detected from 3.3% of the total samples. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of the pesticides detected were less than 0.1% of their acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), representing that residue levels of the pesticides detected were evaluated as safe.

Etiology and Chemical Control of Skin Sooty Dapple Disease of Asian Pear (동양배 과피얼룩병의 발생생태와 화학적 방제)

  • Park, Young-Seob;Kim, Ki-Chung;Lee, Jang-Hoon;Kim, In-Seon;Choi, Yong-Soo;Cho, Song-Mi;Kim, Young-Cheol
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.375-381
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    • 2008
  • A new disease causing skin sooty dapple symptoms on fruits, leaves, and young shoot of Asian pear occurred in Korea. However, no chemical control approaches has been developed to control this disease. To investigate ecological aspects of this disease, we conducted field surveys in the high or low disease occurred orchards. The years with heavy rainfall caused severe occurrence of the skin sooty dapple disease than the years with lower rainfall during all growth stages of pear fruit. Different fruit-wrapping bags did not prevent occurrence of skin sooty dapple disease, and lesion numbers were higher in lower parts of fruit equatorial line inside of fruit-wrapping bags. There is a direct correlation between occurrence of the skin sooty dapple disease and frequency of fungicide application in the orchards. Among the tested commercial fungicides, thiophanate-methyl WP and penconazole WP completely inhibited the growth of the Cladosporium sp. in in vitro studies but little protection was observed in the field following fungicide applications. However, application of lime sulfur combined with the use of fruit-wrapping bags most effectively reduced incidence of the disease in the field. Our results suggest that skin sooty dapple disease could be a serious problem in sustainable organic pear farms and effective control methods for this disease urgently required.

Influence of Fungicidal Spray on Powdery Mildew Epidemics and Major Yield-Attributing Characters of Mungbean

  • Saxen, Deep-Ratna;Moly Saxena
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.68-73
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    • 2002
  • The influence of fungicidal spray was assessed on powdery mildew epidemics caused by Erysiphe polygoni D.C. and on yield-attributing characters of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Mildew attack adversely affected the yield-attributing characters of mungbean and exhibited negative significant correlation with pod length (-0.57), pods/plant (-0.74), pod weight (-0.68), 100 seeds weight (-0.69), 100 seeds swell weight (-0.59), and seed germination (-0.71). These characters had direct or indirect effects on grain yield, which was also adversely affected due to mildew attack (-0.89). Powdery mildew was significantly retarded due to the single spray of carbendazim (0.05%) at 30-day-old crop, where the apparent rate of infection (r) was minimum at 0.0095/ unit/day and with low (11.44%) powdery mildew intensity. Other fungicides like tridemorph (0.075%) and penconazole (0.05%) were equally effective against the mildew disease where the disease intensity was less than 20% and the values of r were 0.0134 and 0.039/unit/day respectively, as compared with the control at 0.267/unit/day. Fungicide spray influenced the yield-attributing characters besides controlling the disease. Such effects were more pronounced in carbendazim (0.05%)-treated plots due to its phytotonic nature where pod length (7.59cm), pods/plant (29.75), pod weight (8.16 g), 100 grain weight (3.94 g), and swell weight of 100 seed (9.49 g) were maximum resulting to the highest yield (480 kg/ha) as compared with that of control (224 kg/ha). Spray of carbendazim also improved seed germination (74.5%). Spray of other fungicides like carbendazim with copper oxychloride in 1:1 ratio, tridemorph (0.075%), and penconazole (0.05%) was equally effective against powdery mildew of mungbean. These fungicides also exhibited positive effects on yield-attributing characters of the crop and finally increased yield. These systemic fungicides were more effective in controlling powdery mildew disease of V. radiata in the rainy season compared with wettable sulphur.

Control of Powdery Mildew (Uncinula necator) in Vineyards by Spraying and Vapor-Action Treatments of Triazole Fungicides (Triazole계 살균제의 살포 및 훈증처리에 의한 포도 흰가루병(Uncinula nectator)의 방제)

  • 오정행
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.316-323
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    • 1996
  • 비가림재배 포도원에서 발생하는 흰가루병에 대하여 triazole계 살균제 flusilazole, myclobutanil, difenoconazole, penconazole, triflumizole, triadimefon의 방제 효과를 검정한 결과는 다음과 같다. 살균제 처리구의 이병과방율과 이병엽율은 무처리구에 비해 현저히 감소하였고, 이들의 방제가는 과방에서 약제에 따라 94.7∼97.9%, 잎에서 85.5%∼90.9%였으며 대조약제인 polyoxin B의 방제가와 유사한 정도를 보였다. 공시살균제의 보호효과는 살균제를 병발생 1주일전에 살포하는 경우, 살포 3주 후에 방제가는 약제에 따라 72.2∼90.5%였으나 4주 후에는 21.2∼41.6%로 감소하여 대조약제 polyoxin B의 52.5%보다 감소시켰으나 myclobutanil의 발아억제 효과는 약제 농도증가에 크게 영향받지 않았다. 살균제에 침지한 cheesecloth를 포도원 선반에 매달아 조사한 공시살균제의 훈증효과는 살포농도의 2배로 처리했을 때 처리점으로부터 반경 30cm이내의 포도송이에서는 약제에 따라 57.2∼71.1%의 방제가를 보였으나 전체 식물체에서는 49.1∼65.8%로서 10일 간격으로 3회 살포한 것 보다 낮은 방제가를 보였다.

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Antifungal activity of pesticides to control dry rot and blue mold during garlic storage (마늘 저장 중 마름썩음병과 푸른곰팡이병 억제를 위한 농약의 살균활성)

  • You, Oh-Jong;Lee, Yong-Hoon;Jin, Yong-Duk;Kim, Jin-Bae;Hwang, Se-Gu;Han, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.331-338
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    • 2007
  • The major fungal diseases which effecting garlic storage are blue mold and dry rot, caused by Penicillium hirsutum and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. In order to reduce the damage by the pathogenic fungi, here we report the effects of 11 fungicides tested to reduce spoilage during storage of garlics. In the in vitro antimicrobial activity test, the fungicides, diphenylamine, prochloraz and tebuconazole showed 0.3, 2.2, and 1.3 nun inhibition zone to F. oxysporium, and cyprodinil, diphenylamine, fenbuconazole, hexaconazole, penconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole, pyrimethanil and tebuconazole exhibited 0.2, 2.4, 0.8, 0.4, 1.2, 1.5, 1.2, 0.4 and 1.5 mm to P. hirsutum, respectively. To test the in vivo control effect, when the diphenylamine, prochloraz, and tebuconazole were treated by standard concentration, the fungal mycelium of F. oxysporium started to grow 5 days after inoculation, and 80, 63.3 and 83.3% of the inoculated cloves are infected 11 days after inoculation. When the tebuconazole were treated by standard concentration, the P. hirsutum was completely inhibited the growth of the fungi. In case of diphenylamine, penconazole and propiconazole treatment, the P. hirsutum was observed 7 days after inoculation and $20{\sim}23.3%$ of the cloves were infected 11 days after inoculation. When cyprodinil, prochloraz and pyrimethanil were treated, pathogens occurred 5 days after inoculation and $60{\sim}100%$ of the cloves infected 11 days after inoculation. Three fungicides such as diphenylamine, prochloraz and tebuconazole also suppressed remarkably the infection and growth of F. oxysporium and P. hirsutum on garlic when both of the pathogens are inoculated after the garlic cloves were dipped for 10 min in the suspension of each agrochemical. Overall, diphenylamine, prochloraz and tebuconazole showed effective control efficacy on dry rot and blue mold There was significant correlation between in vitro and in vivo assay in diphenylamine and prochloraz to F. oxysporum and cyprodinil, prochloraz and pyrimethanil to P. hirsutum.

Simultaneous Analysis of Conazole Fungicides in Garlic by Q-TOF Mass Spectrometer Coupled with a Modified QuEChERS Method

  • Bong, Min-Sun;Yang, Si-Young;Lee, Seung-Ho;Seo, Jung-Mi;Kim, In-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.323-329
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: The conazoles, difenoconazole, diniconazole, hexaconazole, penconazole and tetraconazole are a large class of synthetic fungicides used extensively for foliage and seed treatments in agricultural crops. The extensive use of conazoles has brought concerns on the potentiality of environmental contamination and toxicity. Thus studies on the development of methods for monitoring the conazoles are required. METHODS AND RESULTS: A modified quick, easy, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was involved in sample preparation. Quadrapole time of flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF MS) in electron spray ionization (ESI) mode was employed to determine conazoles in garlic samples. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of conazoles by Q-TOF-MS ranged from 0.001 to 0.002 mg/L and 0.002 to 0.005 mg/L, respectively. Q-TOF-MS analysis exhibited less than 2.6 ppm error of accurate mass measurements for the detection of conazoles spiked at 0.05 mg/L in garlic matrix. Recovery values of conazoles fortified in garlic samples at 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L were between 79.2 and 106.2% with a maximum 11.8% of standard deviation. No detectable conazoles were found in the domestic market samples by using the Q-TOF-MS method. CONCLUSION(s): High degree of confirmation for conazoles by accurate mass measurements demonstrated that Q-TOF-MS analysis combined with a QuEChERS method may be applicable to simultaneous determination of conazoles in garlic samples.