• Title/Summary/Keyword: perceived risk

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Reexamination of Effect of Perceived Risk on Purchasing Intention (위험이 구매의도에 미치는 영향의 재조명 : 전자상거래 이용자 집단의 혁신성을 중심으로)

  • Kwon, Sun-Dong;Chun, Dal-Young;Kim, Yong-Young
    • Journal of Information Technology Applications and Management
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.233-247
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    • 2012
  • There are so many studies on perceived risk and purchasing intention. But the results of those studies were inconsistent; some studies showed the positive effect of perceived risk on purchasing intention; others showed the negative effect. This research supposed that the inconsistence of studies resulted from the difference of group innovativeness and set up research hypotheses : among users from the lower innovativeness group, perceived risk has a negative effect on purchasing intention, but from the higher group, perceived risk has a positive effect on purchasing intention. We compared Internet shopping mall users of South Korea representing low innovativeness with those of China representing high innovativeness. The results provided that among South Korean users, perceived risk had the statistically insignificant negative effect on purchasing intention, but among Chinese users, it had the statistically significant positive effect on purchasing intention. Additionally, this study found that perceived risk influenced users' fun which in turn influenced purchasing intention.

The Influence of Media, Consumer, and Product Characteristics on Perceived Risk and Purchasing Intention (매체, 소비자, 제품 특성이 지각된 위험과 구매의도에 미치는 영향)

  • 손경희;이현규
    • The Journal of Information Systems
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.117-144
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study is to be aware of the relationship between the perceived risk and purchasing intention after investing the impacts by 3 factors-consumer, media, and product characteristics on the perceived risk. The influence on perceived risk is categorized based on the 3 factors' combinations. The result of this study shows that the each characteristics of media, consumer, and product affect consumer's perceived risk and also this risk is affected by the relationship among these 3 independent variables. These results mean that the consumer's perceived risk about buying goods at the internet shopping mall or TV home shopping cannot be measured by a single dimension. Finally, it has a negative relationship between the perceived risk and purchasing intention. Implications for managers' use of shopping media are discussed in terms of the product and media characteristics fit.

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A Study on Perceived Risk and Consumers' Evaluation Based on the Nutritional Information of Bakery Products (베이커리 제품의 영양학적 정보가 지각된 위험과 소비자 평가에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Eun-A;Ha, Dong-Hyun;Jang, Byeong-Ju
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.98-109
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    • 2007
  • Consumers purchase bakery products and evaluate them with various wants and needs when they need them. It shows that there are changes and improvements in quality factors like nutritional consideration rather than simply eating for survival. The purpose of this study was to research how well the consumers perceive necessary nutritional information, how nutritional information on bakery products affects the consumers' perceived risk and evaluation, and how consumers' perceived risk on bakery products affects their evaluation on them. The research was done through surveys for the people in the Busan Metropolitan area. 200 out of 250 answers were used in analyzing frequency, factor, and simple regression through SPSS Win 10. The findings were as follows; first, the more nutritional information consumers have, the less perceived risk they feel, i.e., positive nutritional information affects reducing the consumers' perceived risk. Second, as perceived risk gets reduced, consumers' evaluation on bakery products has meaningful influence on their perceived risk level. Third, these consumers' perceived risk affects their evaluation on bakery products meaningfully. The results of this study can be the meaningful base of information sources in establishing marketing strategies in bakery industry.

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A Study on the Relationship between Perceived Risks and Return Behavior on Internet Clothing Shopping (인터넷 의류구매 시 소비자의 위험지각과 반품과의 관계)

  • Ji, Hye-Kyung
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.917-925
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to find out the relationship between consumer's perceived risks and return behavior on internet clothing shopping. Questionnaires were distributed to the consumers, total 517, males and females, aged from 20 to 39, who had experience of clothing purchasing through internet shopping malls. The results showed that consumer's return factors related to the perceived risks on internet shopping process. The results were as follows. First, factors of perceived risks in internet clothing shopping were categorized into product performance, account-related, delivery, economic, and social psychological risk. 5 consumer types of perceived risk were segmented by low-perceived risk group, product performance/delivery-perceived risk group, account related-perceived risk group, harmony with oneself/account related-perceived risk group, and harmony with others/economic-perceived risk group. Second, the consumer's perceived risks on internet shopping process affected one's return behavior. The factors of return was differentiated on the types of consumer's perceived risk. The relation between consumer's perceived risks and return behavior on internet clothing shopping was significant. Therefore company had better draw various strategies to manage consumer's perceived risk, in order to reduce the returns and improve consumer's satisfaction.

A Study on the Structural Relationship between Quality of Medical Service, Perceived Risk, Reputation and Customer Satisfaction in Small and Medium Hospitals (중소병원의 의료서비스 품질, 지각된 위험, 평판, 고객만족의 구조적 관계 연구)

  • Park, Ae-Jun
    • The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.67-76
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    • 2019
  • Purpose - This study attempted to construct and validate a structural model of the relationship between the quality of medical services, perceived risk, reputation and customer satisfaction, which is the main concept of the relationship between large hospitals as well as small and medium hospitals and medical consumers. Through this verification, the small and medium hospitals are to find the way for wise coping in competitive situation with large hospitals. Research design, data, and methodology - This research developed a hypothesis by constructing a structural equation that reaches the satisfaction and the relationship between reputation of perceived risk and perceived risk of service quality perceptions of customers of small and medium hospitals. Research data were collected through a questionnaire survey of respondents who had medical service experience from small and medium hospital. A total data of 252 respondents were used as the sample for the final analysis and analyzed using SPSS 23.0 and AMOS 23. Results - As a result, the relationship of quality of medical service, reputation, and customer satisfaction among small and medium hospitals was consistent with the results of precedent studies, and the perceived risk has a significant impact on reputation, so the greater the perceived risk, the higher the preference for reputable medical institutions as large hospitals. In addition, it was found that the direct route from perceived risk to customer satisfaction was not significant, and reputation was found to have a full mediating effect on perceived risk and customer satisfaction. Customers who use small and medium hospitals prefer to use reputable medical institutions if their perceived risk is high, which is different from risk perception when specific targets are specified. Conclusions - In terms of the effect from customer satisfaction, not only the path of perceived risk → reputation → customer satisfaction, but also the quality of service quality → reputation → customer satisfaction. These findings suggest that small and medium hospitals are appropriately responding to competition with large hospitals, rather than focusing on the perceived risks and reputation of customers in establishing and utilizing competitive strategies to create new customers and preserve existing customers.

A Study on the Perceived Risk of E Commerce and the Pre-Purchase Intention of Internet Shopping Mall Users according to Gender (인터넷 쇼핑몰 이용자의 성별에 따른 구매 이전의 지각된 위험과 구매의도에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Young-Shin;Chung, Bhum-Suk
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.23
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    • pp.135-156
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    • 2007
  • The aims of this study are to determine if the perceived risk of e-commerce affect the Internet shopping mall users' decision to pre-purchase an item via e-commerce, to find out if there are differences among the induced perceived risk according to gender, and to verify if the perceived risk according to gender have a correlation to a person's decision to pre-purchase an item via e-commerce. It can thus be concluded that the pre-perceived risk of e-commerce affect the Internet shopping mall users' purchase intention. Different results were obtained, though, according to gender. Moreover, the perceived risk of e-commerce based on gender and the purchase intention of the Internet shopping mall users were shown not to have a correlation. This means that although slightly different study results were presented, e-commerce purchasers can use these results to recognize the risk of e-commerce.

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The Mediating Role of Perceived Risk in the Relationships Between Enduring Product Involvement and Trust Expectation (지속적 제품관여도와 소비자 요구신뢰수준 간의 영향관계: 인지된 위험의 매개 역할에 대한 실증분석을 중심으로)

  • Hong, Ilyoo B.;Kim, Taeha;Cha, Hoon S.
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.103-128
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    • 2013
  • When a consumer needs a product or service and multiple sellers are available online, the process of selecting a seller to buy online from is complex since the process involves many behavioral dimensions that have to be taken into account. As a part of this selection process, consumers may set minimum trust expectation that can be used to screen out less trustworthy sellers. In the previous research, the level of consumers' trust expectation has been anchored on two important factors: product involvement and perceived risk. Product involvement refers to the extent to which a consumer perceives a specific product important. Thus, the higher product involvement may result in the higher trust expectation in sellers. On the other hand, other related studies found that when consumers perceived a higher level of risk (e.g., credit card fraud risk), they set higher trust expectation as well. While abundant research exists addressing the relationship between product involvement and perceived risk, little attention has been paid to the integrative view of the link between the two constructs and their impacts on the trust expectation. The present paper is a step toward filling this research gap. The purpose of this paper is to understand the process by which a consumer chooses an online merchant by examining the relationships among product involvement, perceived risk, trust expectation, and intention to buy from an e-tailer. We specifically focus on the mediating role of perceived risk in the relationships between enduring product involvement and the trust expectation. That is, we question whether product involvement affects the trust expectation directly without mediation or indirectly mediated by perceived risk. The research model with four hypotheses was initially tested using data gathered from 635 respondents through an online survey method. The structural equation modeling technique with partial least square was used to validate the instrument and the proposed model. The results showed that three out of the four hypotheses formulated were supported. First, we found that the intention to buy from a digital storefront is positively and significantly influenced by the trust expectation, providing support for H4 (trust expectation ${\rightarrow}$ purchase intention). Second, perceived risk was found to be a strong predictor of trust expectation, supporting H2 as well (perceived risk ${\rightarrow}$ trust expectation). Third, we did not find any evidence of direct influence of product involvement, which caused H3 to be rejected (product involvement ${\rightarrow}$ trust expectation). Finally, we found significant positive relationship between product involvement and perceived risk (H1: product involvement ${\rightarrow}$ perceived risk), which suggests that the possibility of complete mediation of perceived risk in the relationship between enduring product involvement and the trust expectation. As a result, we conducted an additional test for the mediation effect by comparing the original model with the revised model without the mediator variable of perceived risk. Indeed, we found that there exists a strong influence of product involvement on the trust expectation (by intentionally eliminating the variable of perceived risk) that was suppressed (i.e., mediated) by the perceived risk in the original model. The Sobel test statistically confirmed the complete mediation effect. Results of this study offer the following key findings. First, enduring product involvement is positively related to perceived risk, implying that the higher a consumer is enduringly involved with a given product, the greater risk he or she is likely to perceive with regards to the online purchase of the product. Second, perceived risk is positively related to trust expectation. A consumer with great risk perceptions concerning the online purchase is likely to buy from a highly trustworthy online merchant, thereby mitigating potential risks. Finally, product involvement was found to have no direct influence on trust expectation, but the relationship between the two constructs was indirect and mediated by the perceived risk. This is perhaps an important theoretical integration of two separate streams of literature on product involvement and perceived risk. The present research also provides useful implications for practitioners as well as academicians. First, one implication for practicing managers in online retail stores is that they should invest in reducing the perceived risk of consumers in order to lower down the trust expectation and thus increasing the consumer's intention to purchase products or services. Second, an academic implication is that perceived risk mediates the relationship between enduring product involvement and trust expectation. Further research is needed to elaborate the theoretical relationships among the constructs under consideration.

The study of the relationship among perceived risk of apparel purchase, control, and impulse buying - Focusing on internet shopping mall consumers - (의류구매위험지각, 통제, 충동구매 간의 관계 연구 - 인터넷쇼핑몰 소비자를 중심으로 -)

  • Chung, Mi Sil
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.873-890
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among consumer's perceived risk of apparel purchase in internet shopping mall, control, and impulse buying. The subjects were 319 female college students in Gyeongsang provinces. The obtained data were analyzed by reliability analysis, analysis of frequency, factor analysis, cluster analysis, one-way ANOVA, Duncan's multiple range test, correlation analysis, and t-test. The major results of this study were as follows: First, three factors of consumer's perceived risk of apparel purchase in internet shopping mall were identified: size risk, trust risk, and social/psychological risk. Second, the subjects were categorized into three different types of groups according to perceived risk: high perceived risk type, middle perceived risk type, and low perceived risk type. Third, three control(self-control, goal-control, and desire for control) and three impulse buying(impulsive buying for showing off, impulsive buying for excitement, and impulsive buying due to memory) were identified. Fourth, there was significant difference between strong control group and weak control group on three factors of impulse buying. Fifth, a significant positive correlation was found size risk and three factors of control and a significant negative correlation was found self-control and three factors of impulse buying.

Trust, Perceived Risk, and Trusting Behavior in Internet Banking

  • Kim, Kyung-Kyu;Prabhakar, Bipin;Park, Sung-Kook
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.1-23
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    • 2009
  • In information systems, "trust" and "risk" have been explored by a few trust-related research studies before, but as two separate issues. The way in which these studies have been designed, however, does not help clarify the relationship between trust and risk since they are studied as unconnected determinants of trusting behavior in electronic commerce. As such, this research attempts to examine and specify the relationships among the core constructs surrounding the issue of trust such as risk and trusting behavior. The context of Internet banking adoption is used to develop a conceptual model that incorporates the direct effects of trust and perceived risk on trusting behavior as well as the mediation of the relationship between trust and trusting behavior by perceived risk. The findings show that perceived risk mediates the relationship between trust and trusting behavior. Specifically, trust in the Internet as a banking medium significantly influences the adoption of Internet banking both directly and indirectly through perceived risk of Internet banking. Trust that the bank will not take advantage of consumers significantly influences the trusting behavior through perceived risk of Internet banking. This study, thus, extends research on trust in e-commerce by simultaneously examining the influence of trust and perceived risk on e-commerce adoption.

Determinants of Store Loyalty for the Internet Fashion Shopping Malls: Self-Image, Perceived Risk, and Conformity (인터넷 패션 쇼핑몰의 점포 충성 결정 요인: 자기 이미지, 위험 지각, 동조)

  • Park, Hye-Jung;Jung, So-Jin
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.979-991
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of store loyalty for the Internet fashion shopping malls. As determinants, this study included self-image, perceived risk, and conformity. This study hypothesized that positive self-image influences the Internet fashion shopping mall loyalty through perceived risk and conformity. Regarding the relationship between perceived risk and conformity, this study hypothesized that perceived risk positively influences conformity. Using convenience sampling method, data were gathered by surveying university students living in Seoul. Two hundred forty four questionnaires were used in the statistical analysis, and factor analysis and path analysis were conducted using structural equation modeling in analyzing data. The results showed that positive self-image significantly influenced the internet fashion shopping mall loyalty indirectly by influencing perceived risk. The results also showed that perceived risk positively influenced conformity which positively influenced the internet fashion shopping mall loyalty.

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