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A Study on the infringement of privacy of unmanned aircraft : Focusing on the analysis of legislation and US policy (무인항공기의 사생활 침해에 대한 법적 대응 : 미국 정책.입법안 분석을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Sun-Ihee
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.135-161
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    • 2014
  • An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone and also referred to as an unpiloted aerial vehicle and a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard. ICAO classify unmanned aircraft into two types under Circular 328 AN/190. Unmanned aircraft, which is the core of the development of the aviation industry. However, there are also elements of the legal dispute. Unmanned aircraft are manufactured in small size, it is possible to shoot a record peripheral routes stored in high-performance cameras and sensors without the consent of the citizens, there is a risk of invasion of privacy. In addition, the occurrence of the people of invasion of privacy is expected to use of civilian unmanned aircraft. If the exposure of private life that people did not want for unmanned aircraft has occurred, may occur liability to the operator of unmanned aircraft, this is a factor to be taken into account for the development of unmanned aircraft industry. In the United States, which is currently led by the unmanned aircraft industry, policy related to unmanned aircraft, invasion of privacy is under development, is preparing an efficient measures making. Unmanned aircraft special law has not been enforced. So there is a need for legal measures based on infringement of privacy by the unmanned aircraft. US was presented Privacy Protection Act of unmanned aircraft (draft). However Korea has many laws have been enacted, to enact a new law, but will be able to harm the legal stability, there is a need for the enactment of laws for public safety of life. Although in force Personal Information Protection Law, unmanned aerospace, when the invasion of privacy occurs, it is difficult to apply the Personal Information Protection Law. So, it was presented a privacy protection bill with infringement of privacy of unmanned aircraft in the reference US legislation and the Personal Information Protection Act.

Assessment of Strategy and Achievements of Eco Industrial Park (EIP) Initiative in Korea (우리나라 생태산업단지 구축사업의 추진전략과 성과평가)

  • Park, Jun-Mo;Kim, Hyeong-Woo;Park, Hung-Suck
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.36 no.12
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    • pp.803-812
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    • 2014
  • This study assesses the strategy and performance of Eco-industrial Park (EIP) initiative implemented by Korea Industrial Complex Corporation (KICOX) with the support of Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE), Korea since 2005 to 2013 and recommends future directions. After the concept of EIP based on industrial symbiosis (IS) is introduced, the background and implementation procedure of the EIP initiative are described. Then, economic and environmental achievement was assessed. During the project periods (2005-2013), 449 industrial symbiosis project were explored, among which 296 projects have been implemented. Among (Of these 296 projects,) them, 244 projects have been completed in which 118 projects have been commercialized which shows 48% commercialization rate of the completed projects. Through these commercialized projects, around 311.1 billion won/year of economic benefits and reduction of waste by-products of 828,113 tons/year, wastewater of 215,517 tons/year, reduction in energy consumption of 250,475 toe/year and GHG emission reduction of 1,107,189 $tCO_2/year$ were achieved. This results confirmed that EIP initiative based on industrial symbiosis can enhance eco-efficiency of industrial parks and harmonize economy and environment. However, there are obstacles like absence of interagency coordination and cooperation, laws and institutional barriers, increased demand for local governments, funding for project investment. Thus, to utilize EIP initiative as a strategic tool for competiveness and environmental management of industrial parks, it needs intergovernmental collaboration and interdisciplinary approach to lower barrier in implementation.

Sampling Plan for Bemisia tabaci Adults by Using Yellow-color Sticky Traps in Tomato Greenhouses (시설토마토에서 황색트랩을 이용한 담배가루이 표본조사법)

  • Song, Jeong Heub;Lee, Kwang Ju;Yang, Young Taek;Lee, Shin Chan
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.375-380
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    • 2014
  • The sweetpotato whitefly (SPW), Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, is a major pest in tomato greenhouses on Jeju Island because they transmit viral diseases. To develop practical sampling methods for adult SPWs, yellow-color sticky traps were used in commercial tomato greenhouses throughout the western part of Jeju Island in 2011 and 2012. On the basis of the size and growing conditions in the tomato greenhouses, 20 to 30 traps were installed in each greenhouse for developing a sampling plan. Adult SPWs were more attracted to horizontal traps placed 60 cm above the ground than to vertical trap placed 10 cm above the plant canopy. The spatial patterns of the adult SPWs were evaluated using Taylor's power law (TPL) and Iwao's patchiness regression (IPR). The results showed that adult SPWs were aggregated in each surveyed greenhouse. In this study, TPL showed better performance because of the coefficient of determination ($r^2$). On the basis of the fixed-precision level sampling plan using TPL parameters, more traps were required for higher precision in lower SPW densities per trap. A sequential sampling stop line was constructed using TPL parameters. If the treatment threshold was greater than 10 maximum adult SPWs on a trap, the required traps numbered 15 at a fixed-precision level of 0.25. In estimating the mean density per trap, the proportion of traps with two or more adult SPWs was more efficient than whole counting: ${\ln}(m)=1.19+0.90{\ln}(-{\ln}(1-p_T))$. The results of this study could be used to prevent the dissemination of SPW as a viral disease vector by using accurate control decision in SPW management programs.

한국인 좌심실 비대증 환자들에서 파브리병 선별검사의 의의

  • Park, Hyeong-Du;Jo, Seong-Yun;Lee, Su-Yeon;Jeon, Eun-Seok;Park, Seung-U;Lee, Sang-Hun;Lee, Sang-Cheol;Choe, Jin-O;Park, Seong-Ji;Jang, Seong-A;Kim, Hyeong-Gwan;Gi, Chang-Seok;Kim, Jong-Won;Jin, Dong-Gyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the inappropriate accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in tissues due to a deficiency in the enzyme ${\alpha}$-galactosidase A. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is one of the chronic complications of FD. We tried to evaluate the prevalence of Fabry disease in the Korean patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Methods: A total of 257 patients with LVH were recruited and they were 172 males (mean 56 years, range 30-81 years) and 84 females (mean 66 years, range 45-85 years). Urinary Gb3 was used to screen FD by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Confirmatory tests were done by alpha-galactosidaseA activity using fluorometric assay and by GLA mutation analysis using sequencing. Results: Four patients were screening positive by urinary Gb3 analysis (cutoff, 25 ug/mmol creatinine). But, one female patient was diagnosed with FD confirmed by enzyme analysis in leukocytes as well as by genetic analysis (1/257 patients, 0.4%). She showed 54.3 ug/mmoL creatinine of Gb3 and 15.5 nmole/hr/mg protein (reference range, $55.2{\pm}12.7nmole/hr/mg$ protein) of alphagalactosidase A activity. And she had a heterozygous GLA mutation of c.796G>A (p.D266N). Her daughter was found to be a carrier for FD confirmed by GLA mutation analysis. Asymptomatic carrier showed 25.5ug/mmol creatinine of Gb3 and 42.5 nmole/hr/mg protein (reference range, $55.2{\pm}12.7nmole/hr/mg$ protein) of alpha-galactosidase A activity. Conclusions: The prevalence of FD in Koran patients with LVH was detected as 0.4%. Although the prevalence seems to be low, screening studies are of great importance for detecting hidden cases as well as for identifying other effected family members.

Dehumidification and Temperature Control for Green Houses using Lithium Bromide Solution and Cooling Coil (리튬브로마이드(LiBr) 용액의 흡습성질과 냉각코일을 이용한 온실 습도 및 온도 제어)

  • Lee, Sang Yeol;Lee, Chung Geon;Euh, Seung Hee;Oh, Kwang Cheol;Oh, Jae Heun;Kim, Dea Hyun
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.337-341
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    • 2014
  • Due to the nature of the ambient air temperature in summer in korea, the growth of crops in greenhouse normally requires cooling and dehumidification. Even though various cooling and dehumidification methods have been presented, there are many obstacles to figure out in practical application such as excessive energy use, cost, and performance. To overcome this problem, the lab scale experiments using lithium bromide(LiBr) solution and cooling coil for dehumidification and cooling in greenhouses were performed. In this study, preliminary experiment of dehumidification and cooling for the greenhouse was done using LiBr solution as the dehumidifying materials, and cooling coil separately and then combined system was tested as well. Hot and humid air was dehumidified from 85% to 70% by passing through a pad soaked with LiBr, and cooled from 308K to 299K through the cooling coil. computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) analysis and analytical solution were done for the change of air temperature by heat transfer. Simulation results showed that the final air temperature was calculated 299.7K and 299.9K respectively with the deviation of 0.7K comparing the experimental value having good agreement. From this result, LiBr solution with cooling coil system could be applicable in the greenhouse.

Comparison Analysis of Environmental Performance between Reconstruction and Remodeling Alternatives for Aged - Focused on CO2 Emissions Analysis - (공동주택 재건축과 리모델링의 친환경성 비교분석 - CO2 배출량 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Chibaek;Shin, Dongwoo;Han, Juyeon;Hwang, Youngkyu
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.87-100
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    • 2014
  • Environmental problems and the shortage of natural resources are currently gathering more attention in Korea and international countries. With these problems, it is reported that most current domestic buildings are emitting approximately 138 million tons of greenhouse gas. According to a recent report from the investigation of Korean housing population, the total number of households is approximately 12.9 millions, and the apartments that were built more than 15 years ago amounted to 3.1 millions. This shows that the rates of old apartment housings are increasing. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the deteriorated facilities and environmental improvement. Also, the construction industry is benefited by improving these housings which may need either remodeling or reconstruction. Environmental friendly buildings are a rising consideration for remodeling and reconstruction projects; it helps to determine many business matters in construction. The main purpose of this research is to improve environmental condition in apartments with comparison analysis between remodeling and reconstruction alternatives. This research is focused on characteristics of remodeling and reconstruction and it sets up the same condition with each level in order to evaluate the value of environmental friendliness and analyze its definition. The result of this research provides a unique emitting rate at a novel framework and this will cause the reduction of $CO_2$. It is analyzed that the remodeling construction can reduce the great amount of $CO_2$. Therefore, it will be a good decision guideline in selecting the most eco-friendly alternative to improve environment for building construction. Although reconstruction is a popular alternative nowadays in Korea, this research can provide a reason why decision makers should put more emphasis on remodeling as an environment-friendly alternative.

Differences on Growth, Photosynthesis and Pigment Contents of Open-pollinated Pinus densiflora Families Under Elevated Temperature and Drought (온도 증가와 건조 스트레스에 따른 소나무 풍매차대묘의 가계간 생장, 광합성 및 광색소 함량 차이)

  • Kim, Gil Nam;Han, Sim-Hee;Park, Gwan Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.285-296
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    • 2014
  • The impacts of high temperature and drought were studied on the seedlings of three families (superiorgangwon74, intermediate-gangwon77 and inferior-gangwon132) of P. densiflora which had been selected by the based on the growth indexes of 32-year-old. The seedlings were grown in controlled-environment growth chambers with combinations of four temperatures ($-3^{\circ}C$, $0^{\circ}C$, $+3^{\circ}C$ $+6^{\circ}C$; based on the monthly average for 30 years in Korea) and two water conditions (control, drought). The growth performance, photosynthetic parameters and photosynthetic pigment contents were measured at every 30 days under four temperatures and drought condition, and the end of each treatment. The superior family showed higher relative diameter at root collar growth rate and the dry weight than intermediate and inferior family in all treatments. Under elevated temperature and drought condition, growth rate was decreased, and seedlings showed lower growth rate than that of control in three families under low temperature. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of three families decreased with the increase of temperature and drought condition, and that of seedlings under low temperature was lower than control. But under elevated temperature and drought condition, water use efficiency increased in three families. Photosynthetic pigment contents of leaves decreased under the increase of temperature and drought condition, but chlorophyll a/b ratio increased with the increase of temperature and drought condition in three families. The superior family showed higher total chlorophyll content than intermediate and inferior family in all treatments. In conclusion, P. densiflora is under changed temperature and drought condition, growth was decreased, seedlings more affected in elevated temperature than that of decreased temperature. The increase in monthly average temperature in Korea of more than $6^{\circ}C$, P. densiflora seedling growth in depending on region may decrease. In this study, the superior family(gangwon74) showed more excellent growth and physiological responses than intermediate (gangwon77) and inferior(gangwon132) family under changes temperature and drought.

A Survey on the Workplace Environment and Personal Protective Equipment of Poultry Farmers (양계 농업인의 작업장 환경 및 개인보호구 착용 실태조사)

  • Kim, Insoo;Kim, Kyung-Ran;Lee, Kyung-Suk;Chae, Hye-Seon;Kim, Sungwoo
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.454-468
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the actual condition of the farm work environment and personal protective equipment as part of the effort to improve livestock work for the safety and health of poultry farmers and provide basic data for establishing plans to improve and develop personal protective equipment. Methods: For this purpose, a questionnaire survey on general information about stables, the poultry work environment, accidents, the wearing of work clothes and personal protective equipment, and the level of awareness related to personal protective equipment was conducted among 148 poultry farmers. Results: As a result, it was found that poultry workplace environment was exposed to such risks as fine dusts; organic dusts; poisonous gases; odorous substances; chicken excrement; contact with chickens, bacteria or viruses; and accidents related to machine operation. Thirteen percent of respondents suffered severe respiratory diseases, and the most frequently injured sites due to accidents were the hands (25.7%), knees (23.8%), arms (17.3%), and head (10.9%). The most frequent type of accident was collisions between the body and obstacles or machinery during movement (36.4%), followed by erroneous machine operation such as feeders and electric shocks (8.5%). Regarding the wearing of work clothes and personal protective equipment, 51.7% of the respondents wore worn-out clothing or everyday clothes, whereas only 32.0% wore work clothes. The percentage of farmers who wore proper protective equipment for the work environment during poultry work was 48.4%. The most frequently used type of protective equipment was boots (38.9%), followed by mask (36.7%), gloves (36.3%), appropriate work clothes (22.6%), quarantine clothes (17.6%), helmets (13.4%), and goggles (12.6%). The rate of wearing goggles was low because they were considered inconvenient and lowered work efficiency. Furthermore, they purchased everyday products available on the market for their personal protective equipment which were not appropriate for maintaining safety in an actual harmful environment and its consequent risks. As a result of the survey of the awareness level related to personal protective equipment, their levels of awareness of accidents and attitude proved to be average or higher, but the practice of wearing protective equipment and the level of knowledge and management of personal protective equipment were lower. Conclusion: This survey found that the wearing status of personal protective equipment among poultry farmers was insufficient even though they were exposed to risks. Most respondents were aware of the necessity of wearing personal protective equipment and of the potential for accidents, but they did not wear proper protective equipment. Their wearing rate was low due to a lack of knowledge about protective equipment, as well as the inconvenience of wearing it. Therefore there is a need to improve and develop specialized personal protective equipment for respiration, hands, and eyes, as well as work clothes that can protect farmers from major harmful matter that is generated in the poultry workplace. Based on the results of this investigation, we will conduct further studies on the required performance and design directions of personal protective equipment while collecting more objective data through field-oriented assessments.

A study on the use of a Business Intelligence system : the role of explanations (비즈니스 인텔리전스 시스템의 활용 방안에 관한 연구: 설명 기능을 중심으로)

  • Kwon, YoungOk
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.155-169
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    • 2014
  • With the rapid advances in technologies, organizations are more likely to depend on information systems in their decision-making processes. Business Intelligence (BI) systems, in particular, have become a mainstay in dealing with complex problems in an organization, partly because a variety of advanced computational methods from statistics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence can be applied to solve business problems such as demand forecasting. In addition to the ability to analyze past and present trends, these predictive analytics capabilities provide huge value to an organization's ability to respond to change in markets, business risks, and customer trends. While the performance effects of BI system use in organization settings have been studied, it has been little discussed on the use of predictive analytics technologies embedded in BI systems for forecasting tasks. Thus, this study aims to find important factors that can help to take advantage of the benefits of advanced technologies of a BI system. More generally, a BI system can be viewed as an advisor, defined as the one that formulates judgments or recommends alternatives and communicates these to the person in the role of the judge, and the information generated by the BI system as advice that a decision maker (judge) can follow. Thus, we refer to the findings from the advice-giving and advice-taking literature, focusing on the role of explanations of the system in users' advice taking. It has been shown that advice discounting could occur when an advisor's reasoning or evidence justifying the advisor's decision is not available. However, the majority of current BI systems merely provide a number, which may influence decision makers in accepting the advice and inferring the quality of advice. We in this study explore the following key factors that can influence users' advice taking within the setting of a BI system: explanations on how the box-office grosses are predicted, types of advisor, i.e., system (data mining technique) or human-based business advice mechanisms such as prediction markets (aggregated human advice) and human advisors (individual human expert advice), users' evaluations of the provided advice, and individual differences in decision-makers. Each subject performs the following four tasks, by going through a series of display screens on the computer. First, given the information of the given movie such as director and genre, the subjects are asked to predict the opening weekend box office of the movie. Second, in light of the information generated by an advisor, the subjects are asked to adjust their original predictions, if they desire to do so. Third, they are asked to evaluate the value of the given information (e.g., perceived usefulness, trust, satisfaction). Lastly, a short survey is conducted to identify individual differences that may affect advice-taking. The results from the experiment show that subjects are more likely to follow system-generated advice than human advice when the advice is provided with an explanation. When the subjects as system users think the information provided by the system is useful, they are also more likely to take the advice. In addition, individual differences affect advice-taking. The subjects with more expertise on advisors or that tend to agree with others adjust their predictions, following the advice. On the other hand, the subjects with more knowledge on movies are less affected by the advice and their final decisions are close to their original predictions. The advances in predictive analytics of a BI system demonstrate a great potential to support increasingly complex business decisions. This study shows how the designs of a BI system can play a role in influencing users' acceptance of the system-generated advice, and the findings provide valuable insights on how to leverage the advanced predictive analytics of the BI system in an organization's forecasting practices.

Vitamin D Deficiency and Related Factors in Patients at a Hospice (일개 호스피스 병동에서 비타민 D 결핍 현황 및 관련인자)

  • Moon, Kyoung Hwan;Ahn, Hee Kyung;Ahn, Hong Yup;Choi, Sun Young;Hwang, In Cheol;Choi, Youn Seon;Yeom, Chang Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Although vitamin D deficiency is more commonly found in cancer patient than in non-cancer patients, there have been little data regarding the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in cancer patients at the very end of life. We examined vitamin D deficiency in terminally ill cancer patients and related factors. Methods: This study was based on a retrospective chart review of 133 patients in a hospice ward. We collected data regarding age, sex, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, cancer type, physical performance, current medications and various laboratory findings. We investigated factors related to serum vitamin D levels after multivariate adjustment for potential confounders. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<20 ng/mL was considered deficient and <10 ng/mL severely deficient. Results: Ninety-five percent of the patients were serum vitamin D deficient. Severe vitamin D deficiency was more common in male patients, non-lung cancer patients, $H_2$ blocker users and non-anticonvulsant users. Elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also associated with low serum vitamin D levels. Multiple regression analysis showed that severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with male gender (aOR 3.82, 95% CI: 1.50~9.72, P=0.005), $H_2$ blocker users (aOR 3.94, 95% CI: 1.61~9.65, P=0.003) and elevated serum ALT levels (aOR 4.52, 95% CI: 1.35~15.19, P=0.015). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent among terminally ill cancer patients. Severe vitamin D deficiency was more common in male patients, $H_2$ blocker users, and patients with elevated ALT levels.