• Title, Summary, Keyword: pest control

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A Study on the Korean Rice Farmer's KAP of the Integrated Pest Management Project for Sustainable Agriculture in Korea (지속농업을 위한 벼 재배 농민의 병해충 종합관리사업에 관한 KAP 수준)

  • Kim, Sang-Nam;Cheong, Ji-Woong
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.245-255
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    • 1997
  • The objectives of this study were (1) to analyze the degree of rice farmers' knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM), (2) to determine the related variables for decisions on pest control, and (3) to indicate desirable direction for IPM farmers' field training. The study was carried out through a questionnaire method and sane interviewing survey of 300 rice farmers by the IPM trainers who participated in IPM training in 1994 or 1995. The data were collected from 268 respondents to the questionnaire consisted of KAP and related variables. The major findings of the study were as follows: 1. The KAP score of the farmers concerning IPM were 71 for knowledge, 76.2 for attitude and 74 for practice on average. 2. The KAP score was higher for farmers cultivating larger land size and for those with more participation in IPM training. Also the KAP was higher for the members of the Rural Leaders Association and Future Farmers Association than any other groups. 3. The IPM farmers had strong positive attitudes towards the resistant rice varieties. However, the practical pest control rate of the IPM farmers was low for conservation of natural enemies, timely control following occurrence and plant compensation what few pest were presence in the paddy field. 4. The KAP Score on the economic threshold level and safe pesticide use was relatively low for elder farmers and for those with lower educational background. Most farmers preferred calendar spraying methods for preventive pest control to any other method of pest control. Knowledge was relatively low on pesticide and environmental contamination. 5. Decision making on pest control depends on the extension officer and rural leader's opinion. The survey method for pest occurrence by directly counting pest in the field was only 22.9% among the farmers of this study. 6. Most farmers used pesticide for preventive pest occurrence even when pest didn't occur in their field. The average number of pesticide applications per cropping season in rice field was 3.7 times, and the number of mixed pesticides per application was 4.3 kinds of pesticides. Also 6 recommendations were made in this study for improvement of IPM farmer's training.

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An Integrated Approach in the Pest Management in Sericulture

  • Singh, R.N.;Saratchandra, Beera
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.141-151
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    • 2002
  • The success of sericulture industry in India is mainly attributed to the well-planned annual sericultural activity and the systematic implementation of pest preventive and control measures. The insect spectrum of silkworm and its food plants is complex and plays a major role in limiting the production of silk. Insects cause extensive damage to plant whereas predators and parasites either kill the silkworm larvae or force them to spin flimsy cocoons. Unilateral control measure against this pest is mainly based on the use of synthetic organic insecticides. Though these approaches initially paid rich dividends, the undesirable consequences soon surfaced. Insecticide induced resurgence of gall midges, leafhopper, leaf roller, secondary pest out breaks and development of pest biotypes has led to realization of Integrated Pest Management in sericulture. Various components of IPM, viz. Host plant resistance, cultural practices, biological control, chemical control and integrating them at various technological levels have been studied. Sources of host plant resistance have been identified for some of the major insect pests. High yielding mulberry variety has been propagated and their resistances towards major pests have been recorded. Cultural practices like pruning, pollarding, judicious use of nitrogen, optimum spacing and weed management have preyed to be the powerful tools in containing pests. Natural control over the pest population build- up exerted by the wide range of parasitoids, predators and pathogens has been well documented with identification of natural enemies and studies on their potential. Augmentation, through inoculation or inundative releases of parasitic arthropods, is the most direct way of increasing the numbers of these beneficials in sericulture.

Hybridization and Use Of Grapes as an Oviposition Substrate Improves the Adaptation of Olive Fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Artificial Rearing Conditions

  • Sohel, Ahmad;Viwat, Wornoayporn;Polychronis, Rempoulakis;Emily A., Fontenot;Ul Haq, Ihsan;Carlos, Caceres;Hannes F., Paulus;Marc J.B., Vreysen
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.198-206
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    • 2014
  • The olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) is the key pest for olive cultivation worldwide. Substantial effort has been invested in the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest. One of the limitations to develop SIT technology for olive fruit fly is the low ability of wild females to lay eggs in other medium than olive fruits, and their slow adaptation to oviposition in artificial substrates. In the present study, fruit grapes were used as an alternative egg collection medium to harvest eggs and young larvae from freshly colonized wild strains originating from France, Italy, Spain and Croatia. The larvae were allowed to develop into the fruits until the second instar, before they were extracted out and further reared on a standard artificial diet. Furthermore, F1 to F4 female flies were alternatively offered wax bottles to oviposit. Finally, the performance of hybrid strains created from crosses between wild and long colonised flies was assessed. The results showed that females of all 4 wild strains readily oviposited eggs in grapes and from the F2 generation onward, females from all strains were adapted to laying eggs in wax bottles. No difference was observed in eggs and pupae production among all strains tested. The findings are discussed for their implications on SIT application against olive fruit fly.

A Study on the Characteristic Analysis of the Pest Control Drones Using Smart Operating Mode (스마트운영모드를 활용한 방제드론 특성분석에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Jin-Taek
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.9 no.10
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    • pp.108-113
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    • 2019
  • In relation to $4^{th}$ industrial revolution, it is required to build a smart agricultural system using the pest control drones, which are emerging fast these days as a role to support pest control work of farmers and improve aging issues in farming. However, the absence of accurate criteria on management of the pest control drones and the effect of pesticide application is leading to damage to crops by pesticides. The extreme shortage of analysis of management of the pest control drones and relevant studies, and big differences in pest control efficiency depending on the operation skills of controllers are the biggest reasons for the damage. Therefore, this paper suggests a basic study on agricultural pest control drone operation system buildup to make out working schedules and calculate the dosage of pesticide by understanding the features of the pest control drones properly based on the control using smart operating mode.

Tolerance: An Ideal Co-Survival Crop Breeding System of Pest and Host in Nature with Reference to Maize

  • Kim, Soon-Kwon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.59-70
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    • 2000
  • In nature, plant diseases, insects and parasites (hereafter called as "pest") must be co-survived. The most common expression of co-survival of a host crop to the pest can be tolerance. With tolerance, chemical uses can be minimized and it protects environment and sustains host productivity and the minimum pest survival. Tolerance can be applicable in all living organisms including crop plants, lifestocks and even human beings. Tolerant system controls pest about 90 to 95% (this pest control system often be called as horizontal or partial resistance), while the use of chemicals or selection of high resistance controls pest 100% (the most expression of this control system is vertical resistance or true resistance). Controlling or eliminating the pests by either chemicals or vertical resistance create new problems in nature and destroy the co-survial balance of pest and host. Controlling pests through tolerance can only permit co-survive of pests and hosts. Tolerance is durable and environmentally-friend. Crop cultivars based on tolerance system are different from those developed by genetically modified organism (GMO) system. The former stabilizes genetic balance of a pest and a host crop in nature while the latter destabilizes the genetic balance due to 100% control. For three decades, the author has implemented the tolerance system in breeding maize cultivars against various pests in both tropical and temperate environments. Parasitic weed Striga species known as the greatest biological problem in agriculture has even been controlled through this system. The final effect of the tolerance can be an integrated genetic pest management (IGPM) without any chemical uses and it makes co-survival of pests in nature.in nature.

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Sampling, Surveillance and Forecasting of Insect Population for Integrated Pest Management in Sericulture

  • Singh, R.N.;Maheshwari, M.;Saratchandra, B.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2004
  • Pest monitoring through field surveys and surveillance helps in forecasting the population build up of pest. It reduces the load of pesticides application and forms the basis of Integrated Pest Management in sericulture. Common sampling techniques for quantifying pest populations and damage caused by them are reviewed emphasizing the need for quick and simple sampling methods. Various direct and indirect sampling methods for establishing pest populations are discussed and methods have been discussed to use indirect sampling method under IPM programme in sericulture. The use of pheromone lures and traps forms one of the important ingredients of integrated pest management, which calls for integration of all available methods in a cost effective and environmental friendly manner offering consistent efficacy. Silk-worms feed on the variety of silk host plants and spin cocoons. Each silk host plant is attacked in the field by number of insect pest species. Several pests are common to mulberry, tasar, oak tasar, muga and eri host plant but pest status and seasonal abundance differs from each crop. The key pests are serious perennially occurring persistent species which cause considerable yield loss every year on large areas and require control measure. Regular occurrence of minor pest is noticed but sudden increase in its population is not known. The occasional pests are sporadic but potential causing sufficient damage. Silk losses due to attack of all the pests have not been calculated. However, information on pest biology and ecology, and control practices being practiced is available but the period of outbreak of major pests and predators on silkworms and its host plant needs to be reinvestigated. Pest and predators forecasting based on surveillance information may provide an opportunity to minimize the losses, particularly to reduce expenditure involved in pest management.

Artificial rearing of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) for use in the Sterile Insect Technique: improvements of the egg collection system

  • Ahmad, Sohel;Haq, Ihsan ul;Rempoulakis, Polychronis;Orozco, Dina;Jessup, Andrew;Caceres, Carlos;Paulus, Hannes;Vreysen, Marc J.B.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2016
  • One major constraint in the development and implementation of a successful and cost-effective area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme with a SIT component for Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the ability to produce a large number of high quality mass-reared individuals. The aim of this study was to develop a more efficient and practical egg collection system in an attempt to improve the mass-rearing of this species. The following basic parameters were examined: egg production per female, egg hatch, pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergence and percentage of fliers. Three different strains (Israel wild-type, France wild-type, and Greece laboratory) were tested and each strain was evaluated for six generations. Female flies of the Israel strain produced significantly more eggs per female than the other two strains, but egg hatch was significantly lower. Egg hatch of the France wild type and the Greece laboratory strain was similar. For all other parameters, there was no significant difference between strains; however, there was a significant generational effect for all parameters observed. As a result of this study, a protocol was developed for the mass-rearing of this species that included the use of large adult holding cages that could house up to 96,000 flies per cage. The newly developed method of egg collection using a flat wax panel as one of the sides of an adult holding cage proved to be cost-effective, efficient, making colony growth easier for industrial mass-rearing.

The research on the situation and problem of domestic pest control company (국내방역회사 현황 및 문제점조사)

  • 손종렬;유성덕;김영환;이용성
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this research was to get an alternative idea about the situation and problems of domestic pest control company We performed a questionnaire survey of 105 companies to find the situation and problems of pest control companies with and with out lincensed sanitarians. The investigation revealed the following issues and the conclusions summarized. 1. Companies with lincensed sanitarians have shown to put forth hygenic safety(62%) as first priority as to companies without sanitarians neglect hygenic safety and rank financial benefit(40%) as their priority. 2. Companies with lincensed sanitarians have directions on its use of pesticides but the companies without inspectors rely only on field experiences. 3. Companies with lincensed sanitarians are known to use the safety equipment. To the contrary, companies without sanitarians worked without the proper safety equipment safety gear. 4. Companies with sanitarians been regularly received educational Programs on chemicals used in the pest control. And then companies without did not have my other educational programs for chemicals they used.

Towards Integrated Pest Management of Rice in Korea

  • Lee, Seung-Chan
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.205-240
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    • 1992
  • In reality, it is a green revolution of the entire agricultural matrix in Korea that integrated pest control plays an important role in the possible breakthrough in rice self-sufficiency. In paddy agroecosystem as man-modified environment, rice is newly established every year by transplantation under diverse water regimes which affect a microclimate. Standing water benefits rice by regulating the microclimate, but it favors the multiplication of certain pets through the amelioration of the microclimate. Further, the introduction of high yielding varieties with the changing of cultural practices results in changing occurrence pattern of certain pests. In general, japonica type varieties lack genes resistant to most of the important pests and insect-borne virus diseases, whereas indica type possesses more genes conferring varietal resistance. Thus, this differences among indica type, form the background of different approaches to pest management. The changes in rice cultivation such as double cropping, growing high-yielding varieties requiring heavy fertilization, earlier transplanting, intensvie-spacing transplanting, and intensive pesticide use as a consequence of the adoption of improves rice production technology, have intensified the pest problems rather than reduced them. The cultivation of resistant varieties are highly effective to the pest, their long term stability is threathened because of the development of new biotypes which can detroy these varieties. So far, three biotypes of N. lugens are reported in Korea. Since each resistant variety is expected to maintain several years the sequential release of another new variety with a different gene at intervals is practised as a gene rotation program. Another approach, breeding multilines that have more than two genes for resistance in a variety are successfully demonstrated. The average annual rice losses during the last 15 years of 1977-’91 are 9.3% due to insect pests without chemical control undertaken, wehreas there is a average 2.4% despite farmers’insecticide application at the same period. In other words, the average annual losses are prvented by 6.9% when chemical control is properly employed. However, the continuous use of a same group of insecticides is followed by the development of pest resistance. Resistant development of C. suppressalis, L. striatellus and N. cincticeps is observed to organophosphorous insecticides by the mid-1960s, and to carbamates by the early 1970s in various parts of the country. Thus, it is apparent that a scheduled chemical control for rice production systems becomes uneconomical and that a reduction in energy input without impairing the rice yield, is necessarily improved through the implementation of integrated pest management systems. Nationwide pest forecasting system conducted by the government organization is a unique network of investigation for purpose of making pest control timely in terms of economic thresholds. A wise plant protection is expected to establish pest management systems in appropriate integration of resistant varieties, biological agents, cultural practices and other measures in harmony with minimizing use of chemical applications as a last weapon relying on economic thresholds.

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A Case Study on Improvement of Pest Control Research in Rural Development Institutions and its Implications (농업인의 병해충 방제연구 관련 의식실태 분석과 시사점)

  • Park, Bueyong;Lee, Sang-Bum;Lee, Sang-Guei;Park, Se-Keun;Jeong, In-hong;Jun, Iksu
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.609-625
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to suggest implications of pest management system for agrarian improvement institute. We analyzed the informations about the pest management by listening to opinion of farmers and researchers including Rural Development Administration (RDA) and it's affliated organization. In result, They evaluated that the agriculture development institutes very well progressed pest management researches in principle. However, some chronic bottleneck problems still existed such as pesticides resistant pests, lack of effective control methods. For designing proper direction, these problems should be considerated preferently.