• Title, Summary, Keyword: pesticide residue

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Study for Residue Analysis of Pinoxaden in Agricultural Commodities

  • Kim, Ji Young;Yoon, Eun Kyung;Kim, Jong Soo;Seong, Nu Ri;Yun, Sang Soon;Jung, Yong Hyun;Oh, Jae Ho;Kim, Hyochin
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.321-331
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND: Pinoxaden is the phenylpyrazoline herbicide developed by Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. and marketed on 2006. The maximum residue levels for wheat and barley were set by import tolerance. Thus, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) official analytical method determining Pinoxaden residue was necessary in various food matrixes. Satisfaction of international guideline of CODEX (Codex Alimentarius Commission CAC/GL 40) and National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation-MFDS (2017) are additional pre-requirements for analytical method. In this study, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was investigated to analyze residue of Pinoxaden (M4), which is defined as pesticide residue in Korea, in foods. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pinoxaden (M4) was extracted followed by acid digestion (2hr reflux with 1N HCl) and pH adjusting (pH 4-5 with 3% ammonium solution). To remove oil, additional clean-up step with hexane saturated with acetonitrile was required to high oil contained sample before purification. HLB cartridge and nylon syringe filter were used for purification. Then, samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS using reserve phase column C18. Five agricultural group representative commodities (mandarin, potato, soybean, hulled rice, and red pepper) were used to verify the method in this study. The liner matrix-matched calibration curves were confirmed with coefficient of determination (r2) > 0.99 at calibration range 0.002-0.2 mg/kg. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.004 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively, which were suitable to apply Positive List System (PLS). Mean average accuracies of pinoxaden (M4) were shown to be 74.0-105.7%. The precision of pinoxaden and its metabolites were also shown less than 14.5% for all five samples. CONCLUSION: The method investigated in this study was suitable to CODEX (CAC/GL 40) and National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation-MFDS (2017) guideline for residue analysis. Thus, this method can be useful for determining the residue in various food matrixes in routine analysis.

Study for Residue Analysis of Fluxametamid in Agricultural Commodities

  • Kim, Ji Young;Choi, Yoon Ju;Kim, Jong Soo;Kim, Do Hoon;Do, Jung Ah;Jung, Yong Hyun;Lee, Kang Bong;Kim, Hyochin
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND: Accurate and simple analytical method determining Fluxametamid residue was necessary in various food matrices. Additionally, fulfilment of the international guideline of Codex (Codex Alimentarius Commission CAC/GL 40) was required for the analytical method. In this study, we developed Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to determine the Fluxametamid residue in foods. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fluxametamid was extracted with acetonitrile, partitioned and concentrated with dichloromethane. To remove the interferences, silica SPE cartridge was used before LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry) analysis with $C_{18}$ column. Five agricultural commodities (mandarin, potato, soybean, hulled rice, and red pepper) were used as a group representative to verify the method. The liner matrix-matched calibration curves were confirmed with coefficient of determination ($r^2$) greater than 0.99 at calibration range of 0.001-0.25 mg/kg. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.001 and 0.005 mg/kg, respectively. Mean average accuracies were shown to be 82.24-115.27%. The precision was also shown to be less than 10% for all five samples. CONCLUSION: The method investigated in this study was suitable to the Codex guideline for the residue analysis. Thus, this method can be useful for determining the residue in various food matrices as routine analysis.

Processing Factors and Removal Ratios of Select Pesticides in Hot Pepper Leaves by a Successive Process of Washing, Blanching, and Drying

  • Lee, Mi-Gyung;Jung, Da-I
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1076-1082
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    • 2009
  • Six pesticides were determined in hot pepper leaves after successive processing steps of washing, blanching, and drying. The tested pesticides included dichlofluanid, flusilazole, folpet, iprodione, ${\lambda}$-cyhalothrin, and lufenuron. Each pesticide was singly applied to the leaves of the pepper plants, which were being cultivated in a greenhouse. The processing factors were dependent on the type of pesticide, and were in the following ranges: 0.09-0.73 by washing, <0.00-0.48 after blanching, and <0.00-3.30 after drying. Only lufenuron showed a processing factor of more than 1, at 3.30 in dried leaves, while the processing factors of the other pesticides were less than 1. The removal ratios of the tested pesticides by washing ranged from 27 to 90%. The blanching step increased their removals by 10-25%. However, drying did not have an effect on residue reduction. Finally, after proceeding to the drying step, removal ratios ranged from 85 to 100%, with the exception of lufenuron at 47%.

Fate of Some Pesticides during Brining and Cooking of Chinese Cabbage and Spinach

  • Kang, Se-Mi;Lee, Mi-Gyung
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.77-81
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    • 2005
  • Chinese cabbage and spinach applied with eight pesticides at two different rates were subjected to brining, heat-cooking, and blanching to determine residue or transfer ratios of those pesticides. Residue ratio in discarded inedible portion varied significantly, 0-94%, depending on pesticides applied, vegetable type, and cooking processes. Average reduction ratios of residues during cooking process were 78, 46, 23, 12, 10, 9, 8, and 2% in dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, EPN, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and fenvalerate, respectively.

Effect of Water-and Oil-Repellent Finish on Barrier Properties of Nonwoven Fabrics (발수발유가공처리가 부직포의 차단성능에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Gilsoo;Choi, Jongmyoung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.577-586
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    • 1993
  • Pesticide protective clothing has not been frequently worn due to its lack of thermal comfort. It is important to develop fabrics which can allow the wearer to work in comfort. One of the possible way to achieve the goal is to produce fabrics with a water- and oil-repellent finish which would resist pesticide penetration but maintain some breathability. The purpose of this study were to evaluate the pesticide barrier properties of untreated and water- and oil-repellent finished nonwoven fabrics. Three types of nonwoven fabrics(Tyvek, Sontara and Kimlon) were used as test specimens. By pad-dry-cure method, each of the specimen was treated with fluorocarbon. The pesticide barrier properties (amount of pesticide penetration and residue) were measured by the gas chromatography. The performance properties of untreated and treated specimens were evaluated with respects to water pepellency(KS K 0590), oil repellency(AATCC 118), water resistance(KS K 0591, AATCC 42), water vapor transmission (KS A 1013) and air permeability(KS K 0570). The results of this study were as follows : 1) The untreated Sontara showed much more amount of pesticide penetration than untreated Tyvek and Kimlon, while the treated Sontara showed little amount of pesticide penetration. 2) After laundering, the amount of pesticide residue in the untreated and treated Sontara was less than that in Tyvek and in Kimlon. 3) Water- and oil-repellent finish improved water repellency, oil repellency, and water resistance of specimens. 4) The untreated Sontara and Kimlon showed higher water vapor transmission and air permeability than untreated Tyvek. Water vapor transmission and air permeability of treated specimen decreased compared to those of untreated.

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Residue Distribution of Chlorothalonil, Kresoxim-methyl and Procymidone among Different Parts of Hot Pepper Plants (고추 부위별 chlorothalonil, kresoxim-methyl 및 procymidone 농약성분의 잔류 분포)

  • Lee, Mi-Gyung;Hwang, Jae-Moon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.722-726
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    • 2009
  • The residue distribution ratio of pesticides among the flesh, stem and leaves of hot peppers were investigated to assure the safety of pepper powder and pepper leaves. Mixed solutions of chlorothalonil (wettable powder), kresoximmethyl (water dispersible granules) and procymidone (wettable powder) were applied once onto pepper plants in a plastic film house. After 7 days, the fruits and leaves were harvested and the fruits were divided into the flesh and stems. Pesticide residues in each pepper part were then analyzed by gas chromatography. The results showed that the concentration ratios of the chemicals in the flesh:stem and flesh:leaf ranged from 1:2-5 and 1:11-39, respectively, depending on the chemical evaluated. The observed flesh:stem ratio indicates that the pesticide content of the pepper powder product can increase by 20% if pepper stems are included in the powder product. The Korea Food and Drug Administration does not set a pesticide maximum residue level (MRL) for pepper leaves if a residue ratio in leaves over flesh is more than ten times. Results from this study support non-MRL status on the pepper leaves for the studied pesticides. Additionally, we recommend that the chlorothalonil product of a wettable powder type include the phrase "prohibition of distribution or sale for pepper leaves as food" because chlorothalonil highly resided in pepper leaves as more than twenty-four times that is a criterion level to determine an inclusion of the phrase in the label of pesticide product.

Residual Characteristics of a Systemic Insecticide Flonicamid and Its Metabolites in Sweet Pepper (착색단고추 중 침투성농약 플로니카미드 및 대사물질의 생성 및 잔류양상)

  • Seo, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Taek-Kyum;Hong, Su-Myeong;Kwon, Hye-Young;Gwon, Ji-Hyeong;Cho, Nam-Jun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.228-235
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    • 2014
  • The residue levels of flonicamid and its metabolites, 4-(trifluoromethyl)nicotinic acid (TFNA) and N-4-(trifluoromethyl)nicotinoyl glycine (TFNG) in sweer pepper were investigated to examine the residual characteristics of analytes for 87 days after pesticide application. The pesticide was applied once at recommended dosage and double dosage by foliar sprays and the samples of fruits and leaves of sweet pepper were collected for each treatment. The residues of flonicamid in all of fruits and leaves decreased gradually over time, while the residue levels of TFNG metabolite exhibited tendency that increased for long periods and thereafter decreased. Total flonicamid residual concentrations containing metabolites residues in fruit samples increased consistently until 30 days post-application and higher residue levels than residues at 1 day post-application were detected from 30 day to 87 day after treatment. The residue pattern observed in fruit could be explained by the movement of TFNG from leaves to fruits of plant. Such residual characteristic was similarly found in samples treated both recommended dosage and double dosage.

Monitoring of Neonicotinoid Pesticide Residues in Fruit Vegetable and Human Exposure Assessment (과채류 중 Neonicotinoid계 농약의 모니터링 및 인체노출평가)

  • Park, Byung-Jun;Son, Kyung-Ae;Paik, Min-Kyoung;Kim, Jin-Bae;Kwon, Hye-Young;Hong, Su-Myeong;Im, Geon-Jae;Hong, Moo-Ki
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.104-109
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    • 2010
  • We investigated five neonicotinoid pesticide residues (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam) in fruit vegetables and estimated the exposure of neonicotinoid pesticide residue through fruit vegetable consumption using a deterministic approach. Two hundred forty samples of eight fruit vegetables cultivated in Korea were analyzed for their pesticide residue contents. Acetamiprid had the highest detection frequency and the highest residue level in pepper. However, all pesticide levels detected didn't exceed national MRLs. The results using a deterministic approach showed that for chronic and acute study of all neonicotinoid pesticide residues, the exposure was about 50 times lower than toxicological endpoint values. It is necessary to understand that the exposure assessment in this study using a probabilistic approach should be regarded as a important knowledge in the decision-making process.

Pesticides Residue Monitoring and Impact Evaluation of Golf Course and Neighbouring Area in Korea (국내 골프장농약 사용에 따른 골프장 및 인근 지역의 잔류농약 모니터링 조사를 통한 영향평가)

  • Lee, Jun-Bae;Cho, Hoon-Je;Kwak, Eun-Jie;Park, Kyoung-Hoon;Lee, Min-Keong;Kim, Hyun-Koo;Jeoung, Hyeon-Mi;Chang, Hee-Ra
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.277-282
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: At these days, the human health and environmental concerns of pesticide used for turf grass management at golf courses in Korea have increased. The objectives of the study were to determine the pesticide residues for golf course and neighboring area and evaluate the impact moved into neighboring area of pesticides treated at golf courses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three golf courses and neighboring areas in Korea were monitored from July to October, 2017. The soil sample collection was divided the golf course into its logical parts (such as a greens, fairways, and rough) and neighboring area soil samples were collected at three different points. The water samples of the golf course and neighboring area were collected at three different points, respectively. The pesticide residues for soil and water sample were monitored by the multi-residue screening method of 98 pesticide with HPLC-MS-MS. The concentrations of detected pesticide in soil and water samples of the golf course were in the range of 0.01~1.26 mg/kg and 0.0001~0.0089 mg/kg, respectively. The residue levels for detected pesticides in neighboring area were at 0.01~0.04 mg/kg and 0.0001~0.0029 mg/kg, respectively, well below those level in golf course. CONCLUSION: This study indicate that the pesticide residue levels of golf course and neighboring area in Korea may not a possible risk of exposure on soil and aquatic environment. For future work, more monitoring should be performed so that the evaluation data becomes more valid.

Establishment of the Korean total diet study (TDS) model in consideration to pesticide intake (한국형 총식이섭취조사(Total Diet Study, TDS) 모델 확립을 위한 농약섭취수준에 대한 접근)

  • Yang, An-Gel;Shim, Ki-Hoon;Choi, Ok-Ja;Park, Jong-Hyouk;Do, Jung-Ah;Oh, Jae-Ho;Hwang, In Gyun;Shim, Jae-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.151-162
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to establish Korean total diet study (TDS) model for estimating pesticide residue in food samples. In addition, pesticide residues of food samples were monitored by setting the standards of established Korean total diet study model. For monitoring, first step were selection of total 102 species food samples, second step were selection of total 70 species food samples, and third step were selection of total 12 representative diet and 109 species food samples. Ninety-eight pesticides were analyzed using $GC-{\mu}ECD$, GC-MS, and LC-MS/MS after QuEChERS sample preparation method. The residue levels in detected food samples were below the maximum residue limit (MRL). Establishment of the Korean total diet study model means providing safe food for consumers, secure the safety of food samples and provide ongoing information to agricultural producers about use of pesticides.